International Science Index

22
10011388
Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Functionally Graded Thermoelastic Materials with Power Law
Abstract:

This paper presents an iteration method for the numerical solutions of a one-dimensional problem of generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time under given initial and boundary conditions. The thermoelastic material with variable properties as a power functional graded has been considered. Adomian’s decomposition techniques have been applied to the governing equations. The numerical results have been calculated by using the iterations method with a certain algorithm. The numerical results have been represented in figures, and the figures affirm that Adomian’s decomposition method is a successful method for modeling thermoelastic problems. Moreover, the empirical parameter of the functional graded, and the lattice design parameter have significant effects on the temperature increment, the strain, the stress, the displacement.

Paper Detail
156
downloads
21
10011039
Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency
Abstract:

The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Paper Detail
160
downloads
20
10010341
Three-Dimensional Generalized Thermoelasticity with Variable Thermal Conductivity
Abstract:

In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the generalized thermoelasticity with one relaxation time and variable thermal conductivity has been constructed. The resulting non-dimensional governing equations together with the Laplace and double Fourier transforms techniques have been applied to a three-dimensional half-space subjected to thermal loading with rectangular pulse and traction free in the directions of the principle co-ordinates. The inverses of double Fourier transforms, and Laplace transforms have been obtained numerically. Numerical results for the temperature increment, the invariant stress, the invariant strain, and the displacement are represented graphically. The variability of the thermal conductivity has significant effects on the thermal and the mechanical waves.

Paper Detail
356
downloads
19
10010403
Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hb Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions
Abstract:

Irradiation deposits energy through ionisation changing the bio-system’s net dipole, allowing the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of Moringa leaves extract, natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Having Hb molecule as a representative to the biosystem to be least invasive to the biosystem, dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. The results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of Moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule. This influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.

Paper Detail
312
downloads
18
10009858
Adomian’s Decomposition Method to Generalized Magneto-Thermoelasticity
Abstract:

Due to many applications and problems in the fields of plasma physics, geophysics, and other many topics, the interaction between the strain field and the magnetic field has to be considered. Adomian introduced the decomposition method for solving linear and nonlinear functional equations. This method leads to accurate, computable, approximately convergent solutions of linear and nonlinear partial and ordinary differential equations even the equations with variable coefficients. This paper is dealing with a mathematical model of generalized thermoelasticity of a half-space conducting medium. A magnetic field with constant intensity acts normal to the bounding plane has been assumed. Adomian’s decomposition method has been used to solve the model when the bounding plane is taken to be traction free and thermally loaded by harmonic heating. The numerical results for the temperature increment, the stress, the strain, the displacement, the induced magnetic, and the electric fields have been represented in figures. The magnetic field, the relaxation time, and the angular thermal load have significant effects on all the studied fields.

Paper Detail
442
downloads
17
10009501
Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique
Abstract:

The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε0), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε∞) and relaxation time (τ).

Paper Detail
350
downloads
16
10007077
A Structural Constitutive Model for Viscoelastic Rheological Behavior of Human Saphenous Vein Using Experimental Assays
Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of mortality in developed countries. Coronary artery abnormalities and carotid artery stenosis, also known as silent death, are among these diseases. One of the treatment methods for these diseases is to create a deviatory pathway to conduct blood into the heart through a bypass surgery. The saphenous vein is usually used in this surgery to create the deviatory pathway. Unfortunately, a re-surgery will be necessary after some years due to ignoring the disagreement of mechanical properties of graft tissue and/or applied prostheses with those of host tissue. The objective of the present study is to clarify the viscoelastic behavior of human saphenous tissue. The stress relaxation tests in circumferential and longitudinal direction were done in this vein by exerting 20% and 50% strains. Considering the stress relaxation curves obtained from stress relaxation tests and the coefficients of the standard solid model, it was demonstrated that the saphenous vein has a non-linear viscoelastic behavior. Thereafter, the fitting with Fung’s quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model was performed based on stress relaxation time curves. Finally, the coefficients of Fung’s QLV model, which models the behavior of saphenous tissue very well, were presented.

Paper Detail
472
downloads
15
10003403
Enhancement Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based MRI Contrast Agent at Different Concentrations and Magnetic Field Strengths
Abstract:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents (MRI-CM) are significant in the clinical and biological imaging as they have the ability to alter the normal tissue contrast, thereby affecting the signal intensity to enhance the visibility and detectability of images. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, coated with dextran or carboxydextran are currently available for clinical MR imaging of the liver. Most SPIO contrast agents are T2 shortening agents and Resovist (Ferucarbotran) is one of a clinically tested, organ-specific, SPIO agent which has a low molecular carboxydextran coating. The enhancement effect of Resovist depends on its relaxivity which in turn depends on factors like magnetic field strength, concentrations, nanoparticle properties, pH and temperature. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of field strength and different contrast concentrations on enhancement effects of Resovist. The study explored the MRI signal intensity of Resovist in the physiological range of plasma from T2-weighted spin echo sequence at three magnetic field strengths: 0.47 T (r1=15, r2=101), 1.5 T (r1=7.4, r2=95), and 3 T (r1=3.3, r2=160) and the range of contrast concentrations by a mathematical simulation. Relaxivities of r1 and r2 (L mmol-1 Sec-1) were obtained from a previous study and the selected concentrations were 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mmol/L. T2-weighted images were simulated using TR/TE ratio as 2000 ms /100 ms. According to the reference literature, with increasing magnetic field strengths, the r1 relaxivity tends to decrease while the r2 did not show any systematic relationship with the selected field strengths. In parallel, this study results revealed that the signal intensity of Resovist at lower concentrations tends to increase than the higher concentrations. The highest reported signal intensity was observed in the low field strength of 0.47 T. The maximum signal intensities for 0.47 T, 1.5 T and 3 T were found at the concentration levels of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.05 mmol/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that, the concentrations higher than the above, the signal intensity was decreased exponentially. An inverse relationship can be found between the field strength and T2 relaxation time, whereas, the field strength was increased, T2 relaxation time was decreased accordingly. However, resulted T2 relaxation time was not significantly different between 0.47 T and 1.5 T in this study. Moreover, a linear correlation of transverse relaxation rates (1/T2, s–1) with the concentrations of Resovist can be observed. According to these results, it can conclude that the concentration of SPIO nanoparticle contrast agents and the field strengths of MRI are two important parameters which can affect the signal intensity of T2-weighted SE sequence. Therefore, when MR imaging those two parameters should be considered prudently.
Paper Detail
1673
downloads
14
10002960
Measurements of MRI R2* Relaxation Rate in Liver and Muscle: Animal Model
Abstract:
This study was aimed to measure effective transverse relaxation rates (R2*) in the liver and muscle of normal New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the constituents of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterwards, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) to acquire images for R2* measurements. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(sı) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8 ± 10.9 s-1 and 37.4 ± 9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, the more the iron contents in tissue, the higher the R2*. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbits might be valuable for further exploration.
Paper Detail
1870
downloads
13
10002814
Application of Residual Correction Method on Hyperbolic Thermoelastic Response of Hollow Spherical Medium in Rapid Transient Heat Conduction
Abstract:
In this article, we used the residual correction method to deal with transient thermoelastic problems with a hollow spherical region when the continuum medium possesses spherically isotropic thermoelastic properties. Based on linear thermoelastic theory, the equations of hyperbolic heat conduction and thermoelastic motion were combined to establish the thermoelastic dynamic model with consideration of the deformation acceleration effect and non-Fourier effect under the condition of transient thermal shock. The approximate solutions of temperature and displacement distributions are obtained using the residual correction method based on the maximum principle in combination with the finite difference method, making it easier and faster to obtain upper and lower approximations of exact solutions. The proposed method is found to be an effective numerical method with satisfactory accuracy. Moreover, the result shows that the effect of transient thermal shock induced by deformation acceleration is enhanced by non-Fourier heat conduction with increased peak stress. The influence on the stress increases with the thermal relaxation time.
Paper Detail
1075
downloads
12
10001247
Relaxation Dynamics of Quantum Emitters Resonantly Coupled to a Localized Surface Plasmon
Abstract:

We investigate relaxation dynamics of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE), e.g., a molecule or quantum dot, located near a metal nanoparticle (MNP) exhibiting a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition. It is shown that under the condition of the QDE-MNP characteristic relaxation time being much shorter than that of the QDE in free-space but much longer than the LSP lifetime. It is also shown that energy dissipation in the QDE-MNP system is relatively weak with the probability of the photon emission being about 0.75, a number which, rather surprisingly, does not explicitly depend on the metal absorption characteristics. The degree of entanglement measured by the concurrency takes the maximum value, while the distances between the QDEs and metal ball approximately are equal.

Paper Detail
1554
downloads
11
10000928
Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity
Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.

Paper Detail
1884
downloads
10
9997798
Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan
Authors:
Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behavior of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Paper Detail
3542
downloads
9
9998122
Ultrasonic Investigation of Molecular Interaction in Binary Liquid Mixture of Polyethylene Glycol with Ethanol
Abstract:

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a condensation polymer of ethylene oxide and water. It is soluble in water and in many organic solvents. PEG is used to make emulsifying agents, detergents, soaps, plasticizers, ointments etc. Ethanol (C2H5OH) also known as ethyl alcohol is a well-known organic compound and has wide applications in chemical industry as it is used as a solvent for paint, varnish, in preserving biological specimens, used as a fuel mixed with petrol etc. Though their chemical and physical properties are already studied, still because of their uses in day to day life the authors thought it is better to study some more of their physical properties like ultrasonic velocity and hence adiabatic compressibility, free length, etc. A detailed study of such properties and some excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility, excess free volume and few more in the liquid mixtures of these two compounds with PEG as a solute and Ethanol as a solvent at various mole fractions may throw some light on deeper understanding of molecular interaction between the solute and the solvent supported by NMR, IR etc. Hence the present research work is on ultrasonics/allied studies on these two liquid mixtures. Ultrasonic velocity (U), density (ρ) and viscosity (η) at room temperature and at different mole fraction from 0 to 0.055 of ethanol in PEG have been experimentally carried out by the authors. Acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β), free volume (Vf), acoustic impedance (Z), internal pressure (πi), intermolecular free length (Lf) and relaxation time (τ) were calculated from the experimental data. We have calculated excess parameters like excess adiabatic compressibility (βE), excess internal pressure (πiE) free length (LfE) and excess acoustic impedance (ZE) etc for these two chosen liquid mixtures. The excess compressibility is positive and maximum around a mole fraction 0.007 and excess internal pressure is negative and maximum at the same mole fraction and longer free length. The results are analyzed and it may be concluded that the molecular interactions between the solute and the solvent is not strong and it may be weak. Appropriate graphs are drawn.

Paper Detail
2465
downloads
8
11591
Influences of Thermal Relaxation Times on Generalized Thermoelastic Longitudinal Waves in Circular Cylinder
Abstract:

This paper is concerned with propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations of an infinite circular cylinder, in the context of the linear theory of generalized thermoelasticity with two relaxation time parameters (Green and Lindsay theory). Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equation, by using the traction free boundary conditions, is given in the form of a determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the frequency equation give the value of the characteristic circular frequency as function of the wave number. These roots, which correspond to various modes, are numerically computed and presented graphically for different values of the thermal relaxation times. It is found that the influences of the thermal relaxation times on the amplitudes of the elastic and thermal waves are remarkable. Also, it is shown in this study that the propagation of thermoelastic longitudinal vibrations based on the generalized thermoelasticity can differ significantly compared with the results under the classical formulation. A comparison of the results for the case with no thermal effects shows well agreement with some of the corresponding earlier results.

Paper Detail
1877
downloads
7
4478
Kinetics of Aggregation in Media with Memory
Abstract:
In the paper we submit the non-local modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to dispersed media having memory. Our supposition consists in that that intensity of evolution of clusters is supposed to be a function of the product of concentrations of the lowest orders clusters at different moments. The new form of kinetic equation for aggregation is derived on the base of the transfer kernels approach. This approach allows considering the influence of relaxation times hierarchy on kinetics of aggregation process in media with memory.
Paper Detail
1096
downloads
6
3433
Transient Hydrodynamic and Thermal Behaviors of Fluid Flow in a Vertical Porous Microchannel under the Effect of Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model
Abstract:
The transient hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors of fluid flow in open-ended vertical parallel-plate porous microchannel are investigated semi-analytically under the effect of the hyperbolic heat conduction model. The model that combines both the continuum approach and the possibility of slip at the boundary is adopted in the study. The Effects of Knudsen number , Darcy number , and thermal relaxation time  on the microchannel hydrodynamics and thermal behaviors are investigated using the hyperbolic heat conduction models. It is found that as  increases the slip in the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary condition increases. This slip in the hydrodynamic boundary condition increases as  increases. Also, the slip in the thermal boundary condition increases as  decreases especially the early stage of time.
Paper Detail
1594
downloads
5
10451
On Thermal Instabilities in a Viscoelastic Fluid Subject to Internal Heat Generation
Abstract:
The B'enard-Marangoni thermal instability problem for a viscoelastic Jeffreys- fluid layer with internal heat generation is investigated. The fluid layer is bounded above by a realistic free deformable surface and by a plane surface below. Our analysis shows that while the internal heat generation and the relaxation time both destabilize the fluid layer, its stability may be enhanced by an increased retardation time.
Paper Detail
1334
downloads
4
15685
Optimizing Electrospinning Parameters for Finest Diameter of Nano Fibers
Abstract:

Nano fibers produced by electrospinning are of industrial and scientific attention due to their special characteristics such as long length, small diameter and high surface area. Applications of electrospun structures in nanotechnology are included tissue scaffolds, fibers for drug delivery, composite reinforcement, chemical sensing, enzyme immobilization, membrane-based filtration, protective clothing, catalysis, solar cells, electronic devices and others. Many polymer and ceramic precursor nano fibers have been successfully electrospun with diameters in the range from 1 nm to several microns. The process is complex so that fiber diameter is influenced by various material, design and operating parameters. The objective of this work is to apply genetic algorithm on the parameters of electrospinning which have the most significant effect on the nano fiber diameter to determine the optimum parameter values before doing experimental set up. Effective factors including initial polymer concentration, initial jet radius, electrical potential, relaxation time, initial elongation, viscosity and distance between nozzle and collector are considered to determine finest diameter which is selected by user.

Paper Detail
1780
downloads
3
14037
The Contraction Point for Phan-Thien/Tanner Model of Tube-Tooling Wire-Coating Flow
Abstract:
The simulation of extrusion process is studied widely in order to both increase products and improve quality, with broad application in wire coating. The annular tube-tooling extrusion was set up by a model that is termed as Navier-Stokes equation in addition to a rheological model of differential form based on singlemode exponential Phan-Thien/Tanner constitutive equation in a twodimensional cylindrical coordinate system for predicting the contraction point of the polymer melt beyond the die. Numerical solutions are sought through semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin pressurecorrection finite element scheme. The investigation was focused on incompressible creeping flow with long relaxation time in terms of Weissenberg numbers up to 200. The isothermal case was considered with surface tension effect on free surface in extrudate flow and no slip at die wall. The Stream Line Upwind Petrov-Galerkin has been proposed to stabilize solution. The structure of mesh after die exit was adjusted following prediction of both top and bottom free surfaces so as to keep the location of contraction point around one unit length which is close to experimental results. The simulation of extrusion process is studied widely in order to both increase products and improve quality, with broad application in wire coating. The annular tube-tooling extrusion was set up by a model that is termed as Navier-Stokes equation in addition to a rheological model of differential form based on single-mode exponential Phan- Thien/Tanner constitutive equation in a two-dimensional cylindrical coordinate system for predicting the contraction point of the polymer melt beyond the die. Numerical solutions are sought through semiimplicit Taylor-Galerkin pressure-correction finite element scheme. The investigation was focused on incompressible creeping flow with long relaxation time in terms of Weissenberg numbers up to 200. The isothermal case was considered with surface tension effect on free surface in extrudate flow and no slip at die wall. The Stream Line Upwind Petrov-Galerkin has been proposed to stabilize solution. The structure of mesh after die exit was adjusted following prediction of both top and bottom free surfaces so as to keep the location of contraction point around one unit length which is close to experimental results.
Paper Detail
1734
downloads
2
7592
Free Convection in an Infinite Porous Dusty Medium Induced by Pulsating Point Heat Source
Abstract:

Free convection effects and heat transfer due to a pulsating point heat source embedded in an infinite, fluid saturated, porous dusty medium are studied analytically. Both velocity and temperature fields are discussed in the form of series expansions in the Rayleigh number, for both the fluid and particle phases based on the mean heat generation rate from source and on the permeability of the porous dusty medium. This study is carried out by assuming the Rayleigh number small and the validity of Darcy-s law. Analytical expressions for both phases are obtained for second order mean in both velocity and temperature fields and evolution of different wave patterns are observed in the fluctuating part. It has been observed that, at the vicinity of the origin, the second order mean flow is influenced only by relaxation time of dust particles and not by dust concentration.

Paper Detail
1103
downloads
1
3226
Thermoelastic Waves in Anisotropic Platesusing Normal Mode Expansion Method with Thermal Relaxation Time
Authors:
Abstract:
Analysis for the generalized thermoelastic Lamb waves, which propagates in anisotropic thin plates in generalized thermoelasticity, is presented employing normal mode expansion method. The displacement and temperature fields are expressed by a summation of the symmetric and antisymmetric thermoelastic modes in the surface thermal stresses and thermal gradient free orthotropic plate, therefore the theory is particularly appropriate for waveform analyses of Lamb waves in thin anisotropic plates. The transient waveforms excited by the thermoelastic expansion are analyzed for an orthotropic thin plate. The obtained results show that the theory provides a quantitative analysis to characterize anisotropic thermoelastic stiffness properties of plates by wave detection. Finally numerical calculations have been presented for a NaF crystal, and the dispersion curves for the lowest modes of the symmetric and antisymmetric vibrations are represented graphically at different values of thermal relaxation time. However, the methods can be used for other materials as well
Paper Detail
1525
downloads