International Science Index
Performance Prediction Methodology of Slow Aging Assets
Asset management of urban infrastructures faces a multitude of challenges that need to be overcome to obtain a reliable measurement of performances. Predicting the performance of slowly aging systems is one of those challenges, which helps the asset manager to investigate specific failure modes and to undertake the appropriate maintenance and rehabilitation interventions to avoid catastrophic failures as well as to optimize the maintenance costs. This article presents a methodology for modeling the deterioration of slowly degrading assets based on an operating history. It consists of extracting degradation profiles by grouping together assets that exhibit similar degradation sequences using an unsupervised classification technique derived from artificial intelligence. The obtained clusters are used to build the performance prediction models. This methodology is applied to a sample of a stormwater drainage culvert dataset.
Deorbiting Performance of Electrodynamic Tethers to Mitigate Space Debris
International guidelines recommend removing any
artificial body in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 25 years from
mission completion. Among disposal strategies, electrodynamic
tethers appear to be a promising option for LEO, thanks to the
limited storage mass and the minimum interface requirements to the
host spacecraft. In particular, recent technological advances make it
feasible to deorbit large objects with tether lengths of a few kilometers
or less. To further investigate such an innovative passive system,
the European Union is currently funding the project E.T.PACK
– Electrodynamic Tether Technology for Passive Consumable-less
Deorbit Kit in the framework of the H2020 Future Emerging
Technologies (FET) Open program. The project focuses on the design
of an end of life disposal kit for LEO satellites. This kit aims to
deploy a taped tether that can be activated at the spacecraft end of life
to perform autonomous deorbit within the international guidelines.
In this paper, the orbital performance of the E.T.PACK deorbiting
kit is compared to other disposal methods. Besides, the orbital decay
prediction is parametrized as a function of spacecraft mass and tether
system performance. Different values of length, width, and thickness
of the tether will be evaluated for various scenarios (i.e., different
initial orbital parameters). The results will be compared to other
end-of-life disposal methods with similar allocated resources. The
analysis of the more innovative system’s performance with the tape
coated with a thermionic material, which has a low work-function
(LWT), for which no active component for the cathode is required,
will also be briefly discussed. The results show that the electrodynamic tether option can be a
competitive and performant solution for satellite disposal compared
to other deorbit technologies.
Machine Learning Development Audit Framework: Assessment and Inspection of Risk and Quality of Data, Model and Development Process
The usage of machine learning models for prediction
is growing rapidly and proof that the intended requirements
are met is essential. Audits are a proven method to determine
whether requirements or guidelines are met. However, machine
learning models have intrinsic characteristics, such as the quality
of training data, that make it difficult to demonstrate the required
behavior and make audits more challenging. This paper describes
an ML audit framework that evaluates and reviews the risks of
machine learning applications, the quality of the training data,
and the machine learning model. We evaluate and demonstrate
the functionality of the proposed framework by auditing an steel
plate fault prediction model.
Numerical Investigation of Developing Mixed Convection in Isothermal Circular and Annular Sector Ducts
Developing mixed convection in circular and annular sector ducts is investigated numerically for steady laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid with Pr = 0.7 and a wide range of Grashof number (0 £ Gr £ 107). Investigation is limited to the case of heating in circular and annular sector ducts with apex angle of 2ϕ = π/4 for the thermal boundary condition of uniform wall temperature axially and peripherally. A numerical, finite control volume approach based on the SIMPLER algorithm is employed to solve the 3D governing equations. Numerical analysis is conducted using marching technique in the axial direction with axial conduction, axial mass diffusion, and viscous dissipation within the fluid are assumed negligible. The results include developing secondary flow patterns, developing temperature and axial velocity fields, local Nusselt number, local friction factor, and local apparent friction factor. Comparisons are made with the literature and satisfactory agreement is obtained. It is found that free convection enhances the local heat transfer in some cases by up to 2.5 times from predictions which account for forced convection only and the enhancement increases as Grashof number increases. Duct geometry and Grashof number strongly influence the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics.
Lineup Optimization Model of Basketball Players Based on the Prediction of Recursive Neural Networks
In recent years, in the field of sports, decision making
such as member in the game and strategy of the game based on then
analysis of the accumulated sports data are widely attempted. In fact,
in the NBA basketball league where the world's highest level players
gather, to win the games, teams analyze the data using various
statistical techniques. However, it is difficult to analyze the game data
for each play such as the ball tracking or motion of the players in the
game, because the situation of the game changes rapidly, and the
structure of the data should be complicated. Therefore, it is considered
that the analysis method for real time game play data is proposed. In
this research, we propose an analytical model for "determining the
optimal lineup composition" using the real time play data, which is
considered to be difficult for all coaches. In this study, because
replacing the entire lineup is too complicated, and the actual question
for the replacement of players is "whether or not the lineup should be
changed", and “whether or not Small Ball lineup is adopted”.
Therefore, we propose an analytical model for the optimal player
selection problem based on Small Ball lineups. In basketball, we can
accumulate scoring data for each play, which indicates a player's
contribution to the game, and the scoring data can be considered as a
time series data. In order to compare the importance of players in
different situations and lineups, we combine RNN (Recurrent Neural
Network) model, which can analyze time series data, and NN (Neural
Network) model, which can analyze the situation on the field, to build
the prediction model of score. This model is capable to identify the
current optimal lineup for different situations. In this research, we
collected all the data of accumulated data of NBA from 2019-2020.
Then we apply the method to the actual basketball play data to verify
the reliability of the proposed model.
Variational Explanation Generator: Generating Explanation for Natural Language Inference Using Variational Auto-Encoder
Recently, explanatory natural language inference has
attracted much attention for the interpretability of logic relationship
prediction, which is also known as explanation generation for
Natural Language Inference (NLI). Existing explanation generators
based on discriminative Encoder-Decoder architecture have achieved
noticeable results. However, we find that these discriminative
generators usually generate explanations with correct evidence but
incorrect logic semantic. It is due to that logic information is
implicitly encoded in the premise-hypothesis pairs and difficult
to model. Actually, logic information identically exists between
premise-hypothesis pair and explanation. And it is easy to extract
logic information that is explicitly contained in the target explanation.
Hence we assume that there exists a latent space of logic information
while generating explanations. Specifically, we propose a generative
model called Variational Explanation Generator (VariationalEG) with
a latent variable to model this space. Training with the guide
of explicit logic information in target explanations, latent variable
in VariationalEG could capture the implicit logic information in
premise-hypothesis pairs effectively. Additionally, to tackle the
problem of posterior collapse while training VariaztionalEG, we
propose a simple yet effective approach called Logic Supervision on
the latent variable to force it to encode logic information. Experiments
on explanation generation benchmark—explanation-Stanford Natural
Language Inference (e-SNLI) demonstrate that the proposed
VariationalEG achieves significant improvement compared to
previous studies and yields a state-of-the-art result. Furthermore, we
perform the analysis of generated explanations to demonstrate the
effect of the latent variable.
Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in
determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer
may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle.
The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction
by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and
chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented,
it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the
construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning
approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles
specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such
as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines
and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate
the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR),
K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in
predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of
the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both
simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the
algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical
hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that
ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN
in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational
data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on
simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.
Integration of Educational Data Mining Models to a Web-Based Support System for Predicting High School Student Performance
The challenging task in educational institutions is to maximize the high performance of students and minimize the failure rate of poor-performing students. An effective method to leverage this task is to know student learning patterns with highly influencing factors and get an early prediction of student learning outcomes at the timely stage for setting up policies for improvement. Educational data mining (EDM) is an emerging disciplinary field of data mining, statistics, and machine learning concerned with extracting useful knowledge and information for the sake of improvement and development in the education environment. The study is of this work is to propose techniques in EDM and integrate it into a web-based system for predicting poor-performing students. A comparative study of prediction models is conducted. Subsequently, high performing models are developed to get higher performance. The hybrid random forest (Hybrid RF) produces the most successful classification. For the context of intervention and improving the learning outcomes, a feature selection method MICHI, which is the combination of mutual information (MI) and chi-square (CHI) algorithms based on the ranked feature scores, is introduced to select a dominant feature set that improves the performance of prediction and uses the obtained dominant set as information for intervention. By using the proposed techniques of EDM, an academic performance prediction system (APPS) is subsequently developed for educational stockholders to get an early prediction of student learning outcomes for timely intervention. Experimental outcomes and evaluation surveys report the effectiveness and usefulness of the developed system. The system is used to help educational stakeholders and related individuals for intervening and improving student performance.
Adaptive Educational Hypermedia System for High School Students Based on Learning Styles
Information seekers get “lost in hyperspace” due to the voluminous documents updated daily on the internet. Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHS) are used to direct learners to their target goals. One of the most common AHS designed to help information seekers to overcome the problem of information overload is the Adaptive Education Hypermedia System (AEHS). However, this paper focuses on AEHS that adopts the learning preference of high school students and deliver learning content according to this preference throughout their learning experience. The research developed a prototype system for predicting students’ learning preference from the Visual, Aural, Read-Write and Kinesthetic (VARK) learning style model and adopting the learning content suitable to their preference. The predicting strength of several classifiers was compared and we found Support Vector Machine (SVM) to be more accurate in predicting learning style based on users’ preferences.
An Application for Risk of Crime Prediction Using Machine Learning
The increase of the world population, especially in
large urban centers, has resulted in new challenges particularly
with the control and optimization of public safety. Thus, in the
present work, a solution is proposed for the prediction of criminal
occurrences in a city based on historical data of incidents and
demographic information. The entire research and implementation
will be presented start with the data collection from its original
source, the treatment and transformations applied to them, choice and
the evaluation and implementation of the Machine Learning model up
to the application layer. Classification models will be implemented to
predict criminal risk for a given time interval and location. Machine
Learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks,
K-Nearest Neighbors and Logistic Regression will be used to predict
occurrences, and their performance will be compared according
to the data processing and transformation used. The results show
that the use of Machine Learning techniques helps to anticipate
criminal occurrences, which contributed to the reinforcement of
public security. Finally, the models were implemented on a platform
that will provide an API to enable other entities to make requests for
predictions in real-time. An application will also be presented where
it is possible to show criminal predictions visually.
The Origin, Diffusion and a Comparison of Ordinary Differential Equations Numerical Solutions Used by SIR Model in Order to Predict SARS-CoV-2 in Nordic Countries
SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently one of the most
infectious pathogens for humans. It started in China at the end of
2019 and now it is spread in all over the world. The origin and
diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, is analysed based on the
discussion of viral phylogeny theory. With the aim of understanding
the spread of infection in the affected countries, it is crucial to
modelize the spread of the virus and simulate its activity. In this
paper, the prediction of coronavirus outbreak is done by using SIR
model without vital dynamics, applying different numerical technique
solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We find out that ABM
and MRT methods perform better than other techniques and that the
activity of the virus will decrease in April but it never cease (for
some time the activity will remain low) and the next cycle will start
in the middle July 2020 for Norway and Denmark, and October 2020
for Sweden, and September for Finland.
Feature Analysis of Predictive Maintenance Models
Research in predictive maintenance modeling has improved in the recent years to predict failures and needed maintenance with high accuracy, saving cost and improving manufacturing efficiency. However, classic prediction models provide little valuable insight towards the most important features contributing to the failure. By analyzing and quantifying feature importance in predictive maintenance models, cost saving can be optimized based on business goals. First, multiple classifiers are evaluated with cross-validation to predict the multi-class of failures. Second, predictive performance with features provided by different feature selection algorithms are further analyzed. Third, features selected by different algorithms are ranked and combined based on their predictive power. Finally, linear explainer SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) is applied to interpret classifier behavior and provide further insight towards the specific roles of features in both local predictions and global model behavior. The results of the experiments suggest that certain features play dominant roles in predictive models while others have significantly less impact on the overall performance. Moreover, for multi-class prediction of machine failures, the most important features vary with type of machine failures. The results may lead to improved productivity and cost saving by prioritizing sensor deployment, data collection, and data processing of more important features over less importance features.
Lexicon-Based Sentiment Analysis for Stock Movement Prediction
Sentiment analysis is a broad and expanding field that aims to extract and classify opinions from textual data. Lexicon-based approaches are based on the use of a sentiment lexicon, i.e., a list of words each mapped to a sentiment score, to rate the sentiment of a text chunk. Our work focuses on predicting stock price change using a sentiment lexicon built from financial conference call logs. We present a method to generate a sentiment lexicon based upon an existing probabilistic approach. By using a domain-specific lexicon, we outperform traditional techniques and demonstrate that domain-specific sentiment lexicons provide higher accuracy than generic sentiment lexicons when predicting stock price change.
Computer Countenanced Diagnosis of Skin Nodule Detection and Histogram Augmentation: Extracting System for Skin Cancer
Background: Skin cancer is now is the buzzing button in the field of medical science. The cyst's pandemic is drastically calibrating the body and well-being of the global village. Methods: The extracted image of the skin tumor cannot be used in one way for diagnosis. The stored image contains anarchies like the center. This approach will locate the forepart of an extracted appearance of skin. Partitioning image models has been presented to sort out the disturbance in the picture. Results: After completing partitioning, feature extraction has been formed by using genetic algorithm and finally, classification can be performed between the trained and test data to evaluate a large scale of an image that helps the doctors for the right prediction. To bring the improvisation of the existing system, we have set our objectives with an analysis. The efficiency of the natural selection process and the enriching histogram is essential in that respect. To reduce the false-positive rate or output, GA is performed with its accuracy. Conclusions: The objective of this task is to bring improvisation of effectiveness. GA is accomplishing its task with perfection to bring down the invalid-positive rate or outcome. The paper's mergeable portion conflicts with the composition of deep learning and medical image processing, which provides superior accuracy. Proportional types of handling create the reusability without any errors.
Enhancing Temporal Extrapolation of Wind Speed Using a Hybrid Technique: A Case Study in West Coast of Denmark
The demand for renewable energy is significantly increasing, major investments are being supplied to the wind power generation industry as a leading source of clean energy. The wind energy sector is entirely dependable and driven by the prediction of wind speed, which by the nature of wind is very stochastic and widely random. This s0tudy employs deep multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression, used to predict wind speeds for medium term time horizons. Data of the RUNE experiment in the west coast of Denmark were provided by the Technical University of Denmark, which represent the wind speed across the study area from the period between December 2015 and March 2016. The study aims to investigate the effect of pre-processing the data by denoising the signal using empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and engaging the vector components of wind speed to increase the number of input data layers for data fusion using deep multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression (GPR). The outcomes were compared using root mean square error (RMSE) and the results demonstrated a significant increase in the accuracy of predictions which demonstrated that using vector components of the wind speed as additional predictors exhibits more accurate predictions than strategies that ignore them, reflecting the importance of the inclusion of all sub data and pre-processing signals for wind speed forecasting models.
Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube
Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.
SNR Classification Using Multiple CNNs
Noise estimation is essential in today wireless systems
for power control, adaptive modulation, interference suppression and
quality of service. Deep learning (DL) has already been applied in the
physical layer for modulation and signal classifications. Unacceptably
low accuracy of less than 50% is found to undermine traditional
application of DL classification for SNR prediction. In this paper,
we use divide-and-conquer algorithm and classifier fusion method
to simplify SNR classification and therefore enhances DL learning
and prediction. Specifically, multiple CNNs are used for classification
rather than a single CNN. Each CNN performs a binary classification
of a single SNR with two labels: less than, greater than or equal.
Together, multiple CNNs are combined to effectively classify over a
range of SNR values from −20 ≤ SNR ≤ 32 dB.We use pre-trained
CNNs to predict SNR over a wide range of joint channel parameters
including multiple Doppler shifts (0, 60, 120 Hz), power-delay
profiles, and signal-modulation types (QPSK,16QAM,64-QAM). The
approach achieves individual SNR prediction accuracy of 92%,
composite accuracy of 70% and prediction convergence one order
of magnitude faster than that of traditional estimation.
A Deep-Learning Based Prediction of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma with Electronic Health Records from the State of Maine
Predicting the risk of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PA) in advance can benefit the quality of care and potentially reduce population mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop and prospectively validate a risk prediction model to identify patients at risk of new incident PA as early as 3 months before the onset of PA in a statewide, general population in Maine. The PA prediction model was developed using Deep Neural Networks, a deep learning algorithm, with a 2-year electronic-health-record (EHR) cohort. Prospective results showed that our model identified 54.35% of all inpatient episodes of PA, and 91.20% of all PA that required subsequent chemoradiotherapy, with a lead-time of up to 3 months and a true alert of 67.62%. The risk assessment tool has attained an improved discriminative ability. It can be immediately deployed to the health system to provide automatic early warnings to adults at risk of PA. It has potential to identify personalized risk factors to facilitate customized PA interventions.
Probabilistic Approach of Dealing with Uncertainties in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems and Situation Awareness for Multi-agent Systems
In this paper, we describe how Bayesian inferential reasoning will contributes in obtaining a well-satisfied prediction for Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOPs) with uncertainties. We also demonstrate how DCOPs could be merged to multi-agent knowledge understand and prediction (i.e. Situation Awareness). The DCOPs functions were merged with Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) in the form of situation, awareness, and utility nodes. We describe how the uncertainties can be represented to the BBN and make an effective prediction using the expectation-maximization algorithm or conjugate gradient descent algorithm. The idea of variable prediction using Bayesian inference may reduce the number of variables in agents’ sampling domain and also allow missing variables estimations. Experiment results proved that the BBN perform compelling predictions with samples containing uncertainties than the perfect samples. That is, Bayesian inference can help in handling uncertainties and dynamism of DCOPs, which is the current issue in the DCOPs community. We show how Bayesian inference could be formalized with Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) using uncertain and missing agents’ data. The whole framework was tested on multi-UAV mission for forest fire searching. Future work focuses on augmenting existing architecture to deal with dynamic DCOPs algorithms and multi-agent information merging.
Churn Prediction for Telecommunication Industry Using Artificial Neural Networks
Telecommunication service providers demand accurate
and precise prediction of customer churn probabilities to increase the
effectiveness of their customer relation services. The large amount of
customer data owned by the service providers is suitable for analysis
by machine learning methods. In this study, expenditure data of
customers are analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN).
The ANN model is applied to the data of customers with different
billing duration. The proposed model successfully predicts the churn
probabilities at 83% accuracy for only three months expenditure data
and the prediction accuracy increases up to 89% when the nine month
data is used. The experiments also show that the accuracy of ANN
model increases on an extended feature set with information of the
changes on the bill amounts.
A Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Internet of Things Platform
In the present paper, a low cost, compact and modular Internet of Things (IoT) platform for air quality monitoring in urban areas is presented. This platform comprises of dedicated low cost, low power hardware and the associated embedded software that enable measurement of particles (PM2.5 and PM10), NO, CO, CO2 and O3 concentration in the air, along with relative temperature and humidity. This integrated platform acts as part of a greater air pollution data collecting wireless network that is able to monitor the air quality in various regions and neighborhoods of an urban area, by providing sensor measurements at a high rate that reaches up to one sample per second. It is therefore suitable for Big Data analysis applications such as air quality forecasts, weather forecasts and traffic prediction. The first real world test for the developed platform took place in Thessaloniki, Greece, where 16 devices were installed in various buildings in the city. In the near future, many more of these devices are going to be installed in the greater Thessaloniki area, giving a detailed air quality map of the city.
Semi-Analytic Method in Fast Evaluation of Thermal Management Solution in Energy Storage System
This article presents the application of the semi-analytic method (SAM) in the thermal management solution (TMS) of the energy storage system (ESS). The TMS studied in this work is fluid cooling. In fluid cooling, both effective heat conduction and heat convection are indispensable due to the heat transfer from solid to fluid. Correspondingly, an efficient TMS requires a design investigation of the following parameters: fluid inlet temperature, ESS initial temperature, fluid flow rate, working c rate, continuous working time, and materials properties. Their variation induces a change of thermal performance in the battery module, which is usually evaluated by numerical simulation. Compared to complicated computation resources and long computation time in simulation, the SAM is developed in this article to predict the thermal influence within a few seconds. In SAM, a fast prediction model is reckoned by combining numerical simulation with theoretical/empirical equations. The SAM can explore the thermal effect of boundary parameters in both steady-state and transient heat transfer scenarios within a short time. Therefore, the SAM developed in this work can simplify the design cycle of TMS and inspire more possibilities in TMS design.
A Continuous Real-Time Analytic for Predicting Instability in Acute Care Rapid Response Team Activations
A reliable, real-time, and non-invasive system that can identify patients at risk for hemodynamic instability is needed to aid clinicians in their efforts to anticipate patient deterioration and initiate early interventions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the clinical capabilities of a real-time analytic from a single lead of an electrocardiograph to correctly distinguish between rapid response team (RRT) activations due to hemodynamic (H-RRT) and non-hemodynamic (NH-RRT) causes, as well as predict H-RRT cases with actionable lead times. The study consisted of a single center, retrospective cohort of 21 patients with RRT activations from step-down and telemetry units. Through electronic health record review and blinded to the analytic’s output, each patient was categorized by clinicians into H-RRT and NH-RRT cases. The analytic output and the categorization were compared. The prediction lead time prior to the RRT call was calculated. The analytic correctly distinguished between H-RRT and NH-RRT cases with 100% accuracy, demonstrating 100% positive and negative predictive values, and 100% sensitivity and specificity. In H-RRT cases, the analytic detected hemodynamic deterioration with a median lead time of 9.5 hours prior to the RRT call (range 14 minutes to 52 hours). The study demonstrates that an electrocardiogram (ECG) based analytic has the potential for providing clinical decision and monitoring support for caregivers to identify at risk patients within a clinically relevant timeframe allowing for increased vigilance and early interventional support to reduce the chances of continued patient deterioration.
Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-Fuzzy Surface Roughness Prediction Systems Coupled with Cutting Current in Milling Operation
Development of two real-time surface roughness (Ra) prediction systems for milling operations was attempted. The systems used not only cutting parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed, but also the cutting current generated and corrected by a clamp type energy sensor. Two different approaches were developed. First, a fuzzy inference system (FIS), in which the fuzzy logic rules are generated by experts in the milling processes, was used to conduct prediction modeling using current cutting data. Second, a neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS) was explored. Neuro-fuzzy systems are adaptive techniques in which data are collected on the network, processed, and rules are generated by the system. The inference system then uses these rules to predict Ra as the output. Experimental results showed that the parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and input current variation could predict Ra. These two systems enable the prediction of Ra during the milling operation with an average of 91.83% and 94.48% accuracy by FIS and ANFIS systems, respectively. Statistically, the ANFIS system provided better prediction accuracy than that of the FIS system.
Estimation of the Drought Index Based on the Climatic Projections of Precipitation of the Uruguay River Basin
The impact the climate change is not recent, the main variable in the hydrological cycle is the sequence and shortage of a drought, which has a significant impact on the socioeconomic, agricultural and environmental spheres. This study aims to characterize and quantify, based on precipitation climatic projections, the rainy and dry events in the region of the Uruguay River Basin, through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The database is the image that is part of the Intercomparison of Model Models, Phase 5 (CMIP5), which provides condition prediction models, organized according to the Representative Routes of Concentration (CPR). Compared to the normal set of climates in the Uruguay River Watershed through precipitation projections, seasonal precipitation increases for all proposed scenarios, with a low climate trend. From the data of this research, the idea is that this article can be used to support research and the responsible bodies can use it as a subsidy for mitigation measures in other hydrographic basins.
Air Handling Units Power Consumption Using Generalized Additive Model for Anomaly Detection: A Case Study in a Singapore Campus
The emergence of digital twin technology, a digital replica of physical world, has improved the real-time access to data from sensors about the performance of buildings. This digital transformation has opened up many opportunities to improve the management of the building by using the data collected to help monitor consumption patterns and energy leakages. One example is the integration of predictive models for anomaly detection. In this paper, we use the GAM (Generalised Additive Model) for the anomaly detection of Air Handling Units (AHU) power consumption pattern. There is ample research work on the use of GAM for the prediction of power consumption at the office building and nation-wide level. However, there is limited illustration of its anomaly detection capabilities, prescriptive analytics case study, and its integration with the latest development of digital twin technology. In this paper, we applied the general GAM modelling framework on the historical data of the AHU power consumption and cooling load of the building between Jan 2018 to Aug 2019 from an education campus in Singapore to train prediction models that, in turn, yield predicted values and ranges. The historical data are seamlessly extracted from the digital twin for modelling purposes. We enhanced the utility of the GAM model by using it to power a real-time anomaly detection system based on the forward predicted ranges. The magnitude of deviation from the upper and lower bounds of the uncertainty intervals is used to inform and identify anomalous data points, all based on historical data, without explicit intervention from domain experts. Notwithstanding, the domain expert fits in through an optional feedback loop through which iterative data cleansing is performed. After an anomalously high or low level of power consumption detected, a set of rule-based conditions are evaluated in real-time to help determine the next course of action for the facilities manager. The performance of GAM is then compared with other approaches to evaluate its effectiveness. Lastly, we discuss the successfully deployment of this approach for the detection of anomalous power consumption pattern and illustrated with real-world use cases.
Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model
Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.
Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission
We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous (different sensors carrying agents) multi-agent missions such as belief conflict, situation reasoning, etc. We applied Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning to solve the outlined issues with the heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation and situational-base reasoning. Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was used in modeling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases from agents’ missions were used in training the BBN using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-trained BBN for making inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness and solve agents’ sensor conflicts.
Multi-Agent Searching Adaptation Using Levy Flight and Inferential Reasoning
In this paper, we describe how to achieve knowledge understanding and prediction (Situation Awareness (SA)) for multiple-agents conducting searching activity using Bayesian inferential reasoning and learning. Bayesian Belief Network was used to monitor agents' knowledge about their environment, and cases are recorded for the network training using expectation-maximisation or gradient descent algorithm. The well trained network will be used for decision making and environmental situation prediction. Forest fire searching by multiple UAVs was the use case. UAVs are tasked to explore a forest and find a fire for urgent actions by the fire wardens. The paper focused on two problems: (i) effective agents’ path planning strategy and (ii) knowledge understanding and prediction (SA). The path planning problem by inspiring animal mode of foraging using Lévy distribution augmented with Bayesian reasoning was fully described in this paper. Results proof that the Lévy flight strategy performs better than the previous fixed-pattern (e.g., parallel sweeps) approaches in terms of energy and time utilisation. We also introduced a waypoint assessment strategy called k-previous waypoints assessment. It improves the performance of the ordinary levy flight by saving agent’s resources and mission time through redundant search avoidance. The agents (UAVs) are to report their mission knowledge at the central server for interpretation and prediction purposes. Bayesian reasoning and learning were used for the SA and results proof effectiveness in different environments scenario in terms of prediction and effective knowledge representation. The prediction accuracy was measured using learning error rate, logarithm loss, and Brier score and the result proves that little agents mission that can be used for prediction within the same or different environment. Finally, we described a situation-based knowledge visualization and prediction technique for heterogeneous multi-UAV mission. While this paper proves linkage of Bayesian reasoning and learning with SA and effective searching strategy, future works is focusing on simplifying the architecture.
Analysis of Residents’ Travel Characteristics and Policy Improving Strategies
To improve the satisfaction of residents' travel, this paper analyzes the characteristics and influencing factors of urban residents' travel behavior. First, a Multinominal Logit Model (MNL) model is built to analyze the characteristics of residents' travel behavior, reveal the influence of individual attributes, family attributes and travel characteristics on the choice of travel mode, and identify the significant factors. Then put forward suggestions for policy improvement. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) models are introduced to evaluate the policy effect. This paper selects Futian Street in Futian District, Shenzhen City for investigation and research. The results show that gender, age, education, income, number of cars owned, travel purpose, departure time, journey time, travel distance and times all have a significant influence on residents' choice of travel mode. Based on the above results, two policy improvement suggestions are put forward from reducing public transportation and non-motor vehicle travel time, and the policy effect is evaluated. Before the evaluation, the prediction effect of MNL, SVM and MLP models was evaluated. After parameter optimization, it was found that the prediction accuracy of the three models was 72.80%, 71.42%, and 76.42%, respectively. The MLP model with the highest prediction accuracy was selected to evaluate the effect of policy improvement. The results showed that after the implementation of the policy, the proportion of public transportation in plan 1 and plan 2 increased by 14.04% and 9.86%, respectively, while the proportion of private cars decreased by 3.47% and 2.54%, respectively. The proportion of car trips decreased obviously, while the proportion of public transport trips increased. It can be considered that the measures have a positive effect on promoting green trips and improving the satisfaction of urban residents, and can provide a reference for relevant departments to formulate transportation policies.