International Science Index
Impact of Climate Change on Sea Level Rise along the Coastline of Mumbai City, India
Sea-level rise being one of the most important impacts of anthropogenic induced climate change resulting from global warming and melting of icebergs at Arctic and Antarctic, the investigations done by various researchers both on Indian Coast and elsewhere during the last decade has been reviewed in this paper. The paper aims to ascertain the propensity of consistency of different suggested methods to predict the near-accurate future sea level rise along the coast of Mumbai. Case studies at East Coast, Southern Tip and West and South West coast of India have been reviewed. Coastal Vulnerability Index of several important international places has been compared, which matched with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts. The application of Geographic Information System mapping, use of remote sensing technology, both Multi Spectral Scanner and Thematic Mapping data from Landsat classified through Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique for arriving at high, moderate and low Coastal Vulnerability Index at various important coastal cities have been observed. Instead of data driven, hindcast based forecast for Significant Wave Height, additional impact of sea level rise has been suggested. Efficacy and limitations of numerical methods vis-à-vis Artificial Neural Network has been assessed, importance of Root Mean Square error on numerical results is mentioned. Comparing between various computerized methods on forecast results obtained from MIKE 21 has been opined to be more reliable than Delft 3D model.
Loss Function Optimization for CNN-Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing
As biometric systems become widely deployed, the security of identification systems can be easily attacked by various spoof materials. This paper contributes to finding a reliable and practical anti-spoofing method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) based on the types of loss functions and optimizers. The types of CNNs used in this paper include AlexNet, VGGNet, and ResNet. By using various loss functions including Cross-Entropy, Center Loss, Cosine Proximity, and Hinge Loss, and various loss optimizers which include Adam, SGD, RMSProp, Adadelta, Adagrad, and Nadam, we obtained significant performance changes. We realize that choosing the correct loss function for each model is crucial since different loss functions lead to different errors on the same evaluation. By using a subset of the Livdet 2017 database, we validate our approach to compare the generalization power. It is important to note that we use a subset of LiveDet and the database is the same across all training and testing for each model. This way, we can compare the performance, in terms of generalization, for the unseen data across all different models. The best CNN (AlexNet) with the appropriate loss function and optimizers result in more than 3% of performance gain over the other CNN models with the default loss function and optimizer. In addition to the highest generalization performance, this paper also contains the models with high accuracy associated with parameters and mean average error rates to find the model that consumes the least memory and computation time for training and testing. Although AlexNet has less complexity over other CNN models, it is proven to be very efficient. For practical anti-spoofing systems, the deployed version should use a small amount of memory and should run very fast with high anti-spoofing performance. For our deployed version on smartphones, additional processing steps, such as quantization and pruning algorithms, have been applied in our final model.
Early Depression Detection for Young Adults with a Psychiatric and AI Interdisciplinary Multimodal Framework
During COVID-19, the depression rate has increased dramatically. Young adults are most vulnerable to the mental health effects of the pandemic. Lower-income families have a higher ratio to be diagnosed with depression than the general population, but less access to clinics. This research aims to achieve early depression detection at low cost, large scale, and high accuracy with an interdisciplinary approach by incorporating clinical practices defined by American Psychiatric Association (APA) as well as multimodal AI framework. The proposed approach detected the nine depression symptoms with Natural Language Processing sentiment analysis and a symptom-based Lexicon uniquely designed for young adults. The experiments were conducted on the multimedia survey results from adolescents and young adults and unbiased Twitter communications. The result was further aggregated with the facial emotional cues analyzed by the Convolutional Neural Network on the multimedia survey videos. Five experiments each conducted on 10k data entries reached consistent results with an average accuracy of 88.31%, higher than the existing natural language analysis models. This approach can reach 300+ million daily active Twitter users and is highly accessible by low-income populations to promote early depression detection to raise awareness in adolescents and young adults and reveal complementary cues to assist clinical depression diagnosis.
Neural Network Models for Actual Cost and Actual Duration Estimation in Construction Projects: Findings from Greece
Predicting the actual cost and duration in construction projects concern a continuous and existing problem for the construction sector. This paper addresses this problem with modern methods and data available from past public construction projects. 39 bridge projects, constructed in Greece, with a similar type of available data were examined. Considering each project’s attributes with the actual cost and the actual duration, correlation analysis is performed and the most appropriate predictive project variables are defined. Additionally, the most efficient subgroup of variables is selected with the use of the WEKA application, through its attribute selection function. The selected variables are used as input neurons for neural network models through correlation analysis. For constructing neural network models, the application FANN Tool is used. The optimum neural network model, for predicting the actual cost, produced a mean squared error with a value of 3.84886e-05 and it was based on the budgeted cost and the quantity of deck concrete. The optimum neural network model, for predicting the actual duration, produced a mean squared error with a value of 5.89463e-05 and it also was based on the budgeted cost and the amount of deck concrete.
Improving the Performance of Deep Learning in Facial Emotion Recognition with Image Sharpening
We as humans use words with accompanying visual and facial cues to communicate effectively. Classifying facial emotion using computer vision methodologies has been an active research area in the computer vision field. In this paper, we propose a simple method for facial expression recognition that enhances accuracy. We tested our method on the FER-2013 dataset that contains static images. Instead of using Histogram equalization to preprocess the dataset, we used Unsharp Mask to emphasize texture and details and sharpened the edges. We also used ImageDataGenerator from Keras library for data augmentation. Then we used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) model to classify the images into 7 different facial expressions, yielding an accuracy of 69.46% on the test set. Our results show that using image preprocessing such as the sharpening technique for a CNN model can improve the performance, even when the CNN model is relatively simple.
End-to-End Spanish-English Sequence Learning Translation Model
The low availability of well-trained, unlimited, dynamic-access models for specific languages makes it hard for corporate users to adopt quick translation techniques and incorporate them into product solutions. As translation tasks increasingly require a dynamic sequence learning curve; stable, cost-free opensource models are scarce. We survey and compare current translation techniques and propose a modified sequence to sequence model repurposed with attention techniques. Sequence learning using an encoder-decoder model is now paving the path for higher precision levels in translation. Using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) encoder and a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) decoder background, we use Fairseq tools to produce an end-to-end bilingually trained Spanish-English machine translation model including source language detection. We acquire competitive results using a duo-lingo-corpus trained model to provide for prospective, ready-made plug-in use for compound sentences and document translations. Our model serves a decent system for large, organizational data translation needs. While acknowledging its shortcomings and future scope, it also identifies itself as a well-optimized deep neural network model and solution.
A Structural Support Vector Machine Approach for Biometric Recognition
Face is a non-intrusive strong biometrics for
identification of original and dummy facial by different artificial
means. Face recognition is extremely important in the contexts of
computer vision, psychology, surveillance, pattern recognition,
neural network, content based video processing. The availability of a
widespread face database is crucial to test the performance of these
face recognition algorithms. The openly available face databases
include face images with a wide range of poses, illumination, gestures
and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database accessible in
public domain. This paper presents a face detection algorithm based on
the image segmentation in terms of distance from a fixed point and
template matching methods. This proposed work is having the most
appropriate number of nodal points resulting in most appropriate
outcomes in terms of face recognition and detection. The time taken to
identify and extract distinctive facial features is improved in the range
of 90 to 110 sec. with the increment of efficiency by 3%.
Artificial Neural Network-Based Short-Term Load Forecasting for Mymensingh Area of Bangladesh
Electrical load forecasting is considered to be one of the most indispensable parts of a modern-day electrical power system. To ensure a reliable and efficient supply of electric energy, special emphasis should have been put on the predictive feature of electricity supply. Artificial Neural Network-based approaches have emerged to be a significant area of interest for electric load forecasting research. This paper proposed an Artificial Neural Network model based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm for improved electric load forecasting for Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The forecasting model is developed and simulated on the MATLAB environment with a large number of training datasets. The model is trained based on eight input parameters including historical load and weather data. The predicted load data are then compared with an available dataset for validation. The proposed neural network model is proved to be more reliable in terms of day-wise load forecasting for Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
MarginDistillation: Distillation for Face Recognition Neural Networks with Margin-Based Softmax
The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in
conjunction with the margin-based softmax approach demonstrates
the state-of-the-art performance for the face recognition problem.
Recently, lightweight neural network models trained with the
margin-based softmax have been introduced for the face identification
task for edge devices. In this paper, we propose a distillation method
for lightweight neural network architectures that outperforms other
known methods for the face recognition task on LFW, AgeDB-30
and Megaface datasets. The idea of the proposed method is to use
class centers from the teacher network for the student network. Then
the student network is trained to get the same angles between the
class centers and face embeddings predicted by the teacher network.
Lineup Optimization Model of Basketball Players Based on the Prediction of Recursive Neural Networks
In recent years, in the field of sports, decision making
such as member in the game and strategy of the game based on then
analysis of the accumulated sports data are widely attempted. In fact,
in the NBA basketball league where the world's highest level players
gather, to win the games, teams analyze the data using various
statistical techniques. However, it is difficult to analyze the game data
for each play such as the ball tracking or motion of the players in the
game, because the situation of the game changes rapidly, and the
structure of the data should be complicated. Therefore, it is considered
that the analysis method for real time game play data is proposed. In
this research, we propose an analytical model for "determining the
optimal lineup composition" using the real time play data, which is
considered to be difficult for all coaches. In this study, because
replacing the entire lineup is too complicated, and the actual question
for the replacement of players is "whether or not the lineup should be
changed", and “whether or not Small Ball lineup is adopted”.
Therefore, we propose an analytical model for the optimal player
selection problem based on Small Ball lineups. In basketball, we can
accumulate scoring data for each play, which indicates a player's
contribution to the game, and the scoring data can be considered as a
time series data. In order to compare the importance of players in
different situations and lineups, we combine RNN (Recurrent Neural
Network) model, which can analyze time series data, and NN (Neural
Network) model, which can analyze the situation on the field, to build
the prediction model of score. This model is capable to identify the
current optimal lineup for different situations. In this research, we
collected all the data of accumulated data of NBA from 2019-2020.
Then we apply the method to the actual basketball play data to verify
the reliability of the proposed model.
Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in
determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer
may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle.
The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction
by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and
chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented,
it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the
construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning
approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles
specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such
as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines
and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate
the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR),
K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in
predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of
the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both
simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the
algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical
hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that
ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN
in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational
data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on
simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.
An Artificial Neural Network Model Based Study of Seismic Wave
A study based on ANN structure gives us the information to predict the size of the future in realizing a past event. ANN, IMD (Indian meteorological department) data and remote sensing were used to enable a number of parameters for calculating the size that may occur in the future. A threshold selected specifically above the high-frequency harvest reached the area during the selected seismic activity. In the field of human and local biodiversity it remains to obtain the right parameter compared to the frequency of impact. But during the study the assumption is that predicting seismic activity is a difficult process, not because of the parameters involved here, which can be analyzed and funded in research activity.
Bayesian Deep Learning Algorithms for Classifying COVID-19 Images
The study investigates the accuracy and loss of deep learning algorithms with the set of coronavirus (COVID-19) images dataset by comparing Bayesian convolutional neural network and traditional convolutional neural network in low dimensional dataset. 50 sets of X-ray images out of which 25 were COVID-19 and the remaining 20 were normal, twenty images were set as training while five were set as validation that were used to ascertained the accuracy of the model. The study found out that Bayesian convolution neural network outperformed conventional neural network at low dimensional dataset that could have exhibited under fitting. The study therefore recommended Bayesian Convolutional neural network (BCNN) for android apps in computer vision for image detection.
A Context-Centric Chatbot for Cryptocurrency Using the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Neural Networks
Inspired by the recent movement of digital currency,
we are building a question answering system concerning the subject
of cryptocurrency using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from
Transformers (BERT). The motivation behind this work is to
properly assist digital currency investors by directing them to
the corresponding knowledge bases that can offer them help and
increase the querying speed. BERT, one of newest language models
in natural language processing, was investigated to improve the
quality of generated responses. We studied different combinations of
hyperparameters of the BERT model to obtain the best fit responses.
Further, we created an intelligent chatbot for cryptocurrency using
BERT. A chatbot using BERT shows great potential for the further
advancement of a cryptocurrency market tool. We show that the
BERT neural networks generalize well to other tasks by applying
it successfully to cryptocurrency.
Optimization Modeling of the Hybrid Antenna Array for the DoA Estimation
The direction of arrival (DoA) estimation is the crucial aspect of the radar technologies for detecting and dividing several signal sources. In this scenario, the antenna array output modeling involves numerous parameters including noise samples, signal waveform, signal directions, signal number, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), and thereby the methods of the DoA estimation rely heavily on the generalization characteristic for establishing a large number of the training data sets. Hence, we have analogously represented the two different optimization models of the DoA estimation; (1) the implementation of the decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) for the multiclass least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and (2) the optimization method of the deep neural network (DNN) radial basis function (RBF). We have rigorously verified that the LS-SVM DDAG algorithm is capable of accurately classifying DoAs for the three classes. However, the accuracy and robustness of the DoA estimation are still highly sensitive to technological imperfections of the antenna arrays such as non-ideal array design and manufacture, array implementation, mutual coupling effect, and background radiation and thereby the method may fail in representing high precision for the DoA estimation. Therefore, this work has a further contribution on developing the DNN-RBF model for the DoA estimation for overcoming the limitations of the non-parametric and data-driven methods in terms of array imperfection and generalization. The numerical results of implementing the DNN-RBF model have confirmed the better performance of the DoA estimation compared with the LS-SVM algorithm. Consequently, we have analogously evaluated the performance of utilizing the two aforementioned optimization methods for the DoA estimation using the concept of the mean squared error (MSE).
Application of GA Optimization in Analysis of Variable Stiffness Composites
Variable angle tow describes the fibres which are
curvilinearly steered in a composite lamina. Significantly, stiffness
tailoring freedom of VAT composite laminate can be enlarged and
enabled. Composite structures with curvilinear fibres have been
shown to improve the buckling load carrying capability in contrast
with the straight laminate composites. However, the optimal design
and analysis of VAT are faced with high computational efforts
due to the increasing number of variables. In this article, an
efficient optimum solution has been used in combination with 1D
Carrera’s Unified Formulation (CUF) to investigate the optimum fibre
orientation angles for buckling analysis. The particular emphasis is
on the LE-based CUF models, which provide a Lagrange Expansions
to address a layerwise description of the problem unknowns.
The first critical buckling load has been considered under simply
supported boundary conditions. Special attention is lead to the
sensitivity of buckling load corresponding to the fibre orientation
angle in comparison with the results which obtain through the
Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization frame and then Artificial
Neural Network (ANN) is applied to investigate the accuracy of
the optimized model. As a result, numerical CUF approach with
an optimal solution demonstrates the robustness and computational
efficiency of proposed optimum methodology.
An Application for Risk of Crime Prediction Using Machine Learning
The increase of the world population, especially in
large urban centers, has resulted in new challenges particularly
with the control and optimization of public safety. Thus, in the
present work, a solution is proposed for the prediction of criminal
occurrences in a city based on historical data of incidents and
demographic information. The entire research and implementation
will be presented start with the data collection from its original
source, the treatment and transformations applied to them, choice and
the evaluation and implementation of the Machine Learning model up
to the application layer. Classification models will be implemented to
predict criminal risk for a given time interval and location. Machine
Learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks,
K-Nearest Neighbors and Logistic Regression will be used to predict
occurrences, and their performance will be compared according
to the data processing and transformation used. The results show
that the use of Machine Learning techniques helps to anticipate
criminal occurrences, which contributed to the reinforcement of
public security. Finally, the models were implemented on a platform
that will provide an API to enable other entities to make requests for
predictions in real-time. An application will also be presented where
it is possible to show criminal predictions visually.
Improved Rare Species Identification Using Focal Loss Based Deep Learning Models
The use of deep learning for species identification in camera trap images has revolutionised our ability to study, conserve and monitor species in a highly efficient and unobtrusive manner, with state-of-the-art models achieving accuracies surpassing the accuracy of manual human classification. The high imbalance of camera trap datasets, however, results in poor accuracies for minority (rare or endangered) species due to their relative insignificance to the overall model accuracy. This paper investigates the use of Focal Loss, in comparison to the traditional Cross Entropy Loss function, to improve the identification of minority species in the “255 Bird Species” dataset from Kaggle. The results show that, although Focal Loss slightly decreased the accuracy of the majority species, it was able to increase the F1-score by 0.06 and improve the identification of the bottom two, five and ten (minority) species by 37.5%, 15.7% and 10.8%, respectively, as well as resulting in an improved overall accuracy of 2.96%.
Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture
Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.
A Survey of Sentiment Analysis Based on Deep Learning
Sentiment analysis is a very active research topic.
Every day, Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, and other social media,
as well as significant e-commerce websites, generate a massive
amount of comments, which can be used to analyse peoples
opinions or emotions. The existing methods for sentiment analysis
are based mainly on sentiment dictionaries, machine learning, and
deep learning. The first two kinds of methods rely on heavily
sentiment dictionaries or large amounts of labelled data. The third
one overcomes these two problems. So, in this paper, we focus
on the third one. Specifically, we survey various sentiment analysis
methods based on convolutional neural network, recurrent neural
network, long short-term memory, deep neural network, deep belief
network, and memory network. We compare their futures, advantages,
and disadvantages. Also, we point out the main problems of
these methods, which may be worthy of careful studies in the
future. Finally, we also examine the application of deep learning in
multimodal sentiment analysis and aspect-level sentiment analysis.
On Dialogue Systems Based on Deep Learning
Nowadays, dialogue systems increasingly become the
way for humans to access many computer systems. So, humans
can interact with computers in natural language. A dialogue
system consists of three parts: understanding what humans say in
natural language, managing dialogue, and generating responses in
natural language. In this paper, we survey deep learning based
methods for dialogue management, response generation and dialogue
evaluation. Specifically, these methods are based on neural network,
long short-term memory network, deep reinforcement learning,
pre-training and generative adversarial network. We compare these
methods and point out the further research directions.
A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators
With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially have become a research hot spot in the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article aimed to survey the recent advance in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are compared to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of the FPGA-based accelerator.
A Deep-Learning Based Prediction of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma with Electronic Health Records from the State of Maine
Predicting the risk of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PA) in advance can benefit the quality of care and potentially reduce population mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to develop and prospectively validate a risk prediction model to identify patients at risk of new incident PA as early as 3 months before the onset of PA in a statewide, general population in Maine. The PA prediction model was developed using Deep Neural Networks, a deep learning algorithm, with a 2-year electronic-health-record (EHR) cohort. Prospective results showed that our model identified 54.35% of all inpatient episodes of PA, and 91.20% of all PA that required subsequent chemoradiotherapy, with a lead-time of up to 3 months and a true alert of 67.62%. The risk assessment tool has attained an improved discriminative ability. It can be immediately deployed to the health system to provide automatic early warnings to adults at risk of PA. It has potential to identify personalized risk factors to facilitate customized PA interventions.
Churn Prediction for Telecommunication Industry Using Artificial Neural Networks
Telecommunication service providers demand accurate
and precise prediction of customer churn probabilities to increase the
effectiveness of their customer relation services. The large amount of
customer data owned by the service providers is suitable for analysis
by machine learning methods. In this study, expenditure data of
customers are analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN).
The ANN model is applied to the data of customers with different
billing duration. The proposed model successfully predicts the churn
probabilities at 83% accuracy for only three months expenditure data
and the prediction accuracy increases up to 89% when the nine month
data is used. The experiments also show that the accuracy of ANN
model increases on an extended feature set with information of the
changes on the bill amounts.
Personal Information Classification Based on Deep Learning in Automatic Form Filling System
Recently, the rapid development of deep learning makes
artificial intelligence (AI) penetrate into many fields, replacing
manual work there. In particular, AI systems also become a research
focus in the field of automatic office. To meet real needs in automatic
officiating, in this paper we develop an automatic form filling system.
Specifically, it uses two classical neural network models and several
word embedding models to classify various relevant information
elicited from the Internet. When training the neural network models,
we use less noisy and balanced data for training. We conduct a series
of experiments to test my systems and the results show that our
system can achieve better classification results.
Developing an Advanced Algorithm Capable of Classifying News, Articles and Other Textual Documents Using Text Mining Techniques
The reason for conducting this research is to develop an algorithm that is capable of classifying news articles from the automobile industry, according to the competitive actions that they entail, with the use of Text Mining (TM) methods. It is needed to test how to properly preprocess the data for this research by preparing pipelines which fits each algorithm the best. The pipelines are tested along with nine different classification algorithms in the realm of regression, support vector machines, and neural networks. Preliminary testing for identifying the optimal pipelines and algorithms resulted in the selection of two algorithms with two different pipelines. The two algorithms are Logistic Regression (LR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). These algorithms are optimized further, where several parameters of each algorithm are tested. The best result is achieved with the ANN. The final model yields an accuracy of 0.79, a precision of 0.80, a recall of 0.78, and an F1 score of 0.76. By removing three of the classes that created noise, the final algorithm is capable of reaching an accuracy of 94%.
Intelligent Transport System: Classification of Traffic Signs Using Deep Neural Networks in Real Time
Traffic control has been one of the most common and irritating problems since the time automobiles have hit the roads. Problems like traffic congestion have led to a significant time burden around the world and one significant solution to these problems can be the proper implementation of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). It involves the integration of various tools like smart sensors, artificial intelligence, position technologies and mobile data services to manage traffic flow, reduce congestion and enhance driver's ability to avoid accidents during adverse weather. Road and traffic signs’ recognition is an emerging field of research in ITS. Classification problem of traffic signs needs to be solved as it is a major step in our journey towards building semi-autonomous/autonomous driving systems. The purpose of this work focuses on implementing an approach to solve the problem of traffic sign classification by developing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier using the GTSRB (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark) dataset. Rather than using hand-crafted features, our model addresses the concern of exploding huge parameters and data method augmentations. Our model achieved an accuracy of around 97.6% which is comparable to various state-of-the-art architectures.
Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines
This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.
Automatic Product Identification Based on Deep-Learning Theory in an Assembly Line
Automated object recognition and identification systems
are widely used throughout the world, particularly in assembly lines,
where they perform quality control and automatic part selection tasks.
This article presents the design and implementation of an object
recognition system in an assembly line. The proposed shapes-color
recognition system is based on deep learning theory in a specially
designed convolutional network architecture. The used methodology
involve stages such as: image capturing, color filtering, location
of object mass centers, horizontal and vertical object boundaries,
and object clipping. Once the objects are cut out, they are sent to
a convolutional neural network, which automatically identifies the
type of figure. The identification system works in real-time. The
implementation was done on a Raspberry Pi 3 system and on a
Jetson-Nano device. The proposal is used in an assembly course
of bachelor’s degree in industrial engineering. The results presented
include studying the efficiency of the recognition and processing time.
Analysis of Residents’ Travel Characteristics and Policy Improving Strategies
To improve the satisfaction of residents' travel, this paper analyzes the characteristics and influencing factors of urban residents' travel behavior. First, a Multinominal Logit Model (MNL) model is built to analyze the characteristics of residents' travel behavior, reveal the influence of individual attributes, family attributes and travel characteristics on the choice of travel mode, and identify the significant factors. Then put forward suggestions for policy improvement. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) models are introduced to evaluate the policy effect. This paper selects Futian Street in Futian District, Shenzhen City for investigation and research. The results show that gender, age, education, income, number of cars owned, travel purpose, departure time, journey time, travel distance and times all have a significant influence on residents' choice of travel mode. Based on the above results, two policy improvement suggestions are put forward from reducing public transportation and non-motor vehicle travel time, and the policy effect is evaluated. Before the evaluation, the prediction effect of MNL, SVM and MLP models was evaluated. After parameter optimization, it was found that the prediction accuracy of the three models was 72.80%, 71.42%, and 76.42%, respectively. The MLP model with the highest prediction accuracy was selected to evaluate the effect of policy improvement. The results showed that after the implementation of the policy, the proportion of public transportation in plan 1 and plan 2 increased by 14.04% and 9.86%, respectively, while the proportion of private cars decreased by 3.47% and 2.54%, respectively. The proportion of car trips decreased obviously, while the proportion of public transport trips increased. It can be considered that the measures have a positive effect on promoting green trips and improving the satisfaction of urban residents, and can provide a reference for relevant departments to formulate transportation policies.