International Science Index
Loss Function Optimization for CNN-Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing
As biometric systems become widely deployed, the security of identification systems can be easily attacked by various spoof materials. This paper contributes to finding a reliable and practical anti-spoofing method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) based on the types of loss functions and optimizers. The types of CNNs used in this paper include AlexNet, VGGNet, and ResNet. By using various loss functions including Cross-Entropy, Center Loss, Cosine Proximity, and Hinge Loss, and various loss optimizers which include Adam, SGD, RMSProp, Adadelta, Adagrad, and Nadam, we obtained significant performance changes. We realize that choosing the correct loss function for each model is crucial since different loss functions lead to different errors on the same evaluation. By using a subset of the Livdet 2017 database, we validate our approach to compare the generalization power. It is important to note that we use a subset of LiveDet and the database is the same across all training and testing for each model. This way, we can compare the performance, in terms of generalization, for the unseen data across all different models. The best CNN (AlexNet) with the appropriate loss function and optimizers result in more than 3% of performance gain over the other CNN models with the default loss function and optimizer. In addition to the highest generalization performance, this paper also contains the models with high accuracy associated with parameters and mean average error rates to find the model that consumes the least memory and computation time for training and testing. Although AlexNet has less complexity over other CNN models, it is proven to be very efficient. For practical anti-spoofing systems, the deployed version should use a small amount of memory and should run very fast with high anti-spoofing performance. For our deployed version on smartphones, additional processing steps, such as quantization and pruning algorithms, have been applied in our final model.
Generative Adversarial Network Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing Limitations
Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing approaches have been actively developed and applied in real-world applications. One of the main problems for Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing is not robust to unseen samples, especially in real-world scenarios. A possible solution will be to generate artificial, but realistic fingerprint samples and use them for training in order to achieve good generalization. This paper contains experimental and comparative results with currently popular GAN based methods and uses realistic synthesis of fingerprints in training in order to increase the performance. Among various GAN models, the most popular StyleGAN is used for the experiments. The CNN models were first trained with the dataset that did not contain generated fake images and the accuracy along with the mean average error rate were recorded. Then, the fake generated images (fake images of live fingerprints and fake images of spoof fingerprints) were each combined with the original images (real images of live fingerprints and real images of spoof fingerprints), and various CNN models were trained. The best performances for each CNN model, trained with the dataset of generated fake images and each time the accuracy and the mean average error rate, were recorded. We observe that current GAN based approaches need significant improvements for the Anti-Spoofing performance, although the overall quality of the synthesized fingerprints seems to be reasonable. We include the analysis of this performance degradation, especially with a small number of samples. In addition, we suggest several approaches towards improved generalization with a small number of samples, by focusing on what GAN based approaches should learn and should not learn.
Improving the Performance of Deep Learning in Facial Emotion Recognition with Image Sharpening
We as humans use words with accompanying visual and facial cues to communicate effectively. Classifying facial emotion using computer vision methodologies has been an active research area in the computer vision field. In this paper, we propose a simple method for facial expression recognition that enhances accuracy. We tested our method on the FER-2013 dataset that contains static images. Instead of using Histogram equalization to preprocess the dataset, we used Unsharp Mask to emphasize texture and details and sharpened the edges. We also used ImageDataGenerator from Keras library for data augmentation. Then we used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) model to classify the images into 7 different facial expressions, yielding an accuracy of 69.46% on the test set. Our results show that using image preprocessing such as the sharpening technique for a CNN model can improve the performance, even when the CNN model is relatively simple.
End-to-End Spanish-English Sequence Learning Translation Model
The low availability of well-trained, unlimited, dynamic-access models for specific languages makes it hard for corporate users to adopt quick translation techniques and incorporate them into product solutions. As translation tasks increasingly require a dynamic sequence learning curve; stable, cost-free opensource models are scarce. We survey and compare current translation techniques and propose a modified sequence to sequence model repurposed with attention techniques. Sequence learning using an encoder-decoder model is now paving the path for higher precision levels in translation. Using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) encoder and a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) decoder background, we use Fairseq tools to produce an end-to-end bilingually trained Spanish-English machine translation model including source language detection. We acquire competitive results using a duo-lingo-corpus trained model to provide for prospective, ready-made plug-in use for compound sentences and document translations. Our model serves a decent system for large, organizational data translation needs. While acknowledging its shortcomings and future scope, it also identifies itself as a well-optimized deep neural network model and solution.
MarginDistillation: Distillation for Face Recognition Neural Networks with Margin-Based Softmax
The usage of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in
conjunction with the margin-based softmax approach demonstrates
the state-of-the-art performance for the face recognition problem.
Recently, lightweight neural network models trained with the
margin-based softmax have been introduced for the face identification
task for edge devices. In this paper, we propose a distillation method
for lightweight neural network architectures that outperforms other
known methods for the face recognition task on LFW, AgeDB-30
and Megaface datasets. The idea of the proposed method is to use
class centers from the teacher network for the student network. Then
the student network is trained to get the same angles between the
class centers and face embeddings predicted by the teacher network.
Bayesian Deep Learning Algorithms for Classifying COVID-19 Images
The study investigates the accuracy and loss of deep learning algorithms with the set of coronavirus (COVID-19) images dataset by comparing Bayesian convolutional neural network and traditional convolutional neural network in low dimensional dataset. 50 sets of X-ray images out of which 25 were COVID-19 and the remaining 20 were normal, twenty images were set as training while five were set as validation that were used to ascertained the accuracy of the model. The study found out that Bayesian convolution neural network outperformed conventional neural network at low dimensional dataset that could have exhibited under fitting. The study therefore recommended Bayesian Convolutional neural network (BCNN) for android apps in computer vision for image detection.
Malaria Parasite Detection Using Deep Learning Methods
Malaria is a serious disease which affects hundreds of
millions of people around the world, each year. If not treated in time,
it can be fatal. Despite recent developments in malaria diagnostics,
the microscopy method to detect malaria remains the most common.
Unfortunately, the accuracy of microscopic diagnostics is dependent
on the skill of the microscopist and limits the throughput of malaria
diagnosis. With the development of Artificial Intelligence tools and
Deep Learning techniques in particular, it is possible to lower the cost,
while achieving an overall higher accuracy. In this paper, we present a
VGG-based model and compare it with previously developed models
for identifying infected cells. Our model surpasses most previously
developed models in a range of the accuracy metrics. The model has
an advantage of being constructed from a relatively small number of
layers. This reduces the computer resources and computational time.
Moreover, we test our model on two types of datasets and argue
that the currently developed deep-learning-based methods cannot
efficiently distinguish between infected and contaminated cells. A
more precise study of suspicious regions is required.
Facial Emotion Recognition with Convolutional Neural Network Based Architecture
Neural networks are appealing for many applications since they are able to learn complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. As the number of neurons and layers in a neural network increase, it is possible to represent more complex relationships with automatically extracted features. Nowadays Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in Computer Vision problems such as; classification, object detection, segmentation image editing etc. In this work, Facial Emotion Recognition task is performed by proposed Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based DNN architecture using FER2013 Dataset. Moreover, the effects of different hyperparameters (activation function, kernel size, initializer, batch size and network size) are investigated and ablation study results for Pooling Layer, Dropout and Batch Normalization are presented.
A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators
With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially have become a research hot spot in the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article aimed to survey the recent advance in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are compared to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of the FPGA-based accelerator.
SNR Classification Using Multiple CNNs
Noise estimation is essential in today wireless systems
for power control, adaptive modulation, interference suppression and
quality of service. Deep learning (DL) has already been applied in the
physical layer for modulation and signal classifications. Unacceptably
low accuracy of less than 50% is found to undermine traditional
application of DL classification for SNR prediction. In this paper,
we use divide-and-conquer algorithm and classifier fusion method
to simplify SNR classification and therefore enhances DL learning
and prediction. Specifically, multiple CNNs are used for classification
rather than a single CNN. Each CNN performs a binary classification
of a single SNR with two labels: less than, greater than or equal.
Together, multiple CNNs are combined to effectively classify over a
range of SNR values from −20 ≤ SNR ≤ 32 dB.We use pre-trained
CNNs to predict SNR over a wide range of joint channel parameters
including multiple Doppler shifts (0, 60, 120 Hz), power-delay
profiles, and signal-modulation types (QPSK,16QAM,64-QAM). The
approach achieves individual SNR prediction accuracy of 92%,
composite accuracy of 70% and prediction convergence one order
of magnitude faster than that of traditional estimation.
Intelligent Transport System: Classification of Traffic Signs Using Deep Neural Networks in Real Time
Traffic control has been one of the most common and irritating problems since the time automobiles have hit the roads. Problems like traffic congestion have led to a significant time burden around the world and one significant solution to these problems can be the proper implementation of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). It involves the integration of various tools like smart sensors, artificial intelligence, position technologies and mobile data services to manage traffic flow, reduce congestion and enhance driver's ability to avoid accidents during adverse weather. Road and traffic signs’ recognition is an emerging field of research in ITS. Classification problem of traffic signs needs to be solved as it is a major step in our journey towards building semi-autonomous/autonomous driving systems. The purpose of this work focuses on implementing an approach to solve the problem of traffic sign classification by developing a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier using the GTSRB (German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark) dataset. Rather than using hand-crafted features, our model addresses the concern of exploding huge parameters and data method augmentations. Our model achieved an accuracy of around 97.6% which is comparable to various state-of-the-art architectures.
Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks
This paper presents and benchmarks a number of
end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in
Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent
Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor
detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented
achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the
previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy
0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or
linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented
achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional
Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory
networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91
F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units
(GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The
models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples,
the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art
collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled
resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar
Deep Learning Application for Object Image Recognition and Robot Automatic Grasping
Since the vision system application in industrial environment for autonomous purposes is required intensely, the image recognition technique becomes an important research topic. Here, deep learning algorithm is employed in image system to recognize the industrial object and integrate with a 7A6 Series Manipulator for object automatic gripping task. PC and Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) are chosen to construct the 3D Vision Recognition System. Depth Camera (Intel RealSense SR300) is employed to extract the image for object recognition and coordinate derivation. The YOLOv2 scheme is adopted in Convolution neural network (CNN) structure for object classification and center point prediction. Additionally, image processing strategy is used to find the object contour for calculating the object orientation angle. Then, the specified object location and orientation information are sent to robotic controller. Finally, a six-axis manipulator can grasp the specific object in a random environment based on the user command and the extracted image information. The experimental results show that YOLOv2 has been successfully employed to detect the object location and category with confidence near 0.9 and 3D position error less than 0.4 mm. It is useful for future intelligent robotic application in industrial 4.0 environment.
Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Networks TC*CNN Model for Face Recognition Using Edge
In this paper we develop a model that couples Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Network with different filters (TC*CNN) for face recognition and compare its performance to an existing sequential CNN (base model). We also test and compare the quality and performance of the models on three datasets with various levels of complexity (easy, moderate, and difficult) and show that for the most complex datasets, edges will produce the most accurate and efficient results. We further show that in such cases while Support Vector Machine (SVM) models are fast, they do not produce accurate results.
Normal and Peaberry Coffee Beans Classification from Green Coffee Bean Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine
The aim of this study is to develop a system which can identify and sort peaberries automatically at low cost for coffee producers in developing countries. In this paper, the focus is on the classification of peaberries and normal coffee beans using image processing and machine learning techniques. The peaberry is not bad and not a normal bean. The peaberry is born in an only single seed, relatively round seed from a coffee cherry instead of the usual flat-sided pair of beans. It has another value and flavor. To make the taste of the coffee better, it is necessary to separate the peaberry and normal bean before green coffee beans roasting. Otherwise, the taste of total beans will be mixed, and it will be bad. In roaster procedure time, all the beans shape, size, and weight must be unique; otherwise, the larger bean will take more time for roasting inside. The peaberry has a different size and different shape even though they have the same weight as normal beans. The peaberry roasts slower than other normal beans. Therefore, neither technique provides a good option to select the peaberries. Defect beans, e.g., sour, broken, black, and fade bean, are easy to check and pick up manually by hand. On the other hand, the peaberry pick up is very difficult even for trained specialists because the shape and color of the peaberry are similar to normal beans. In this study, we use image processing and machine learning techniques to discriminate the normal and peaberry bean as a part of the sorting system. As the first step, we applied Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as machine learning techniques to discriminate the peaberry and normal bean. As a result, better performance was obtained with CNN than with SVM for the discrimination of the peaberry. The trained artificial neural network with high performance CPU and GPU in this work will be simply installed into the inexpensive and low in calculation Raspberry Pi system. We assume that this system will be used in under developed countries. The study evaluates and compares the feasibility of the methods in terms of accuracy of classification and processing speed.
GRCNN: Graph Recognition Convolutional Neural Network for Synthesizing Programs from Flow Charts
Program synthesis is the task to automatically generate
programs based on user specification. In this paper, we present a
framework that synthesizes programs from flow charts that serve as
accurate and intuitive specification. In order doing so, we propose a
deep neural network called GRCNN that recognizes graph structure
from its image. GRCNN is trained end-to-end, which can predict edge
and node information of the flow chart simultaneously. Experiments
show that the accuracy rate to synthesize a program is 66.4%, and
the accuracy rates to recognize edge and node are 94.1% and 67.9%,
respectively. On average, it takes about 60 milliseconds to synthesize
Automatic Number Plate Recognition System Based on Deep Learning
In the last few years, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) systems have become widely used in the safety, the security, and the commercial aspects. Forethought, several methods and techniques are computing to achieve the better levels in terms of accuracy and real time execution. This paper proposed a computer vision algorithm of Number Plate Localization (NPL) and Characters Segmentation (CS). In addition, it proposed an improved method in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) based on Deep Learning (DL) techniques. In order to identify the number of detected plate after NPL and CS steps, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithm is proposed. A DL model is developed using four convolution layers, two layers of Maxpooling, and six layers of fully connected. The model was trained by number image database on the Jetson TX2 NVIDIA target. The accuracy result has achieved 95.84%.
A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification
Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.
A Recognition Method of Ancient Yi Script Based on Deep Learning
Yi is an ethnic group mainly living in mainland China, with its own spoken and written language systems, after development of thousands of years. Ancient Yi is one of the six ancient languages in the world, which keeps a record of the history of the Yi people and offers documents valuable for research into human civilization. Recognition of the characters in ancient Yi helps to transform the documents into an electronic form, making their storage and spreading convenient. Due to historical and regional limitations, research on recognition of ancient characters is still inadequate. Thus, deep learning technology was applied to the recognition of such characters. Five models were developed on the basis of the four-layer convolutional neural network (CNN). Alpha-Beta divergence was taken as a penalty term to re-encode output neurons of the five models. Two fully connected layers fulfilled the compression of the features. Finally, at the softmax layer, the orthographic features of ancient Yi characters were re-evaluated, their probability distributions were obtained, and characters with features of the highest probability were recognized. Tests conducted show that the method has achieved higher precision compared with the traditional CNN model for handwriting recognition of the ancient Yi.
Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation
The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.
Detection of Keypoint in Press-Fit Curve Based on Convolutional Neural Network
The quality of press-fit assembly is closely related to
reliability and safety of product. The paper proposed a keypoint
detection method based on convolutional neural network to improve
the accuracy of keypoint detection in press-fit curve. It would
provide an auxiliary basis for judging quality of press-fit assembly.
The press-fit curve is a curve of press-fit force and displacement.
Both force data and distance data are time-series data. Therefore,
one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to process
the press-fit curve. After the obtained press-fit data is filtered, the
multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to
perform the automatic learning of press-fit curve features, and then
sent to the multi-layer perceptron to finally output keypoint of the
curve. We used the data of press-fit assembly equipment in the actual
production process to train CNN model, and we used different data
from the same equipment to evaluate the performance of detection.
Compared with the existing research result, the performance of
detection was significantly improved. This method can provide a
reliable basis for the judgment of press-fit quality.
Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.
Optimizing the Capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network for Image Segmentation and Pattern Recognition
In this paper, we study the factors which determine the capacity of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and propose the ways to evaluate and adjust the capacity of a CNN model for best matching to a specific pattern recognition task. Firstly, a scheme is proposed to adjust the number of independent functional units within a CNN model to make it be better fitted to a task. Secondly, the number of independent functional units in the capsule network is adjusted to fit it to the training dataset. Thirdly, a method based on Bayesian GAN is proposed to enrich the variances in the current dataset to increase its complexity. Experimental results on the PASCAL VOC 2010 Person Part dataset and the MNIST dataset show that, in both conventional CNN models and capsule networks, the number of independent functional units is an important factor that determines the capacity of a network model. By adjusting the number of functional units, the capacity of a model can better match the complexity of a dataset.
MITOS-RCNN: Mitotic Figure Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Region Based Convolutional Neural Networks
Studies estimate that there will be 266,120 new cases
of invasive breast cancer and 40,920 breast cancer induced deaths
in the year of 2018 alone. Despite the pervasiveness of this
affliction, the current process to obtain an accurate breast cancer
prognosis is tedious and time consuming. It usually requires a
trained pathologist to manually examine histopathological images and
identify the features that characterize various cancer severity levels.
We propose MITOS-RCNN: a region based convolutional neural
network (RCNN) geared for small object detection to accurately
grade one of the three factors that characterize tumor belligerence
described by the Nottingham Grading System: mitotic count. Other
computational approaches to mitotic figure counting and detection
do not demonstrate ample recall or precision to be clinically viable.
Our models outperformed all previous participants in the ICPR 2012
challenge, the AMIDA 2013 challenge and the MITOS-ATYPIA-14
challenge along with recently published works. Our model achieved
an F- measure score of 0.955, a 6.11% improvement in accuracy from
the most accurate of the previously proposed models.
Prediction on Housing Price Based on Deep Learning
In order to study the impact of various factors on the housing price, we propose to build different prediction models based on deep learning to determine the existing data of the real estate in order to more accurately predict the housing price or its changing trend in the future. Considering that the factors which affect the housing price vary widely, the proposed prediction models include two categories. The first one is based on multiple characteristic factors of the real estate. We built Convolution Neural Network (CNN) prediction model and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network prediction model based on deep learning, and logical regression model was implemented to make a comparison between these three models. Another prediction model is time series model. Based on deep learning, we proposed an LSTM-1 model purely regard to time series, then implementing and comparing the LSTM model and the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. In this paper, comprehensive study of the second-hand housing price in Beijing has been conducted from three aspects: crawling and analyzing, housing price predicting, and the result comparing. Ultimately the best model program was produced, which is of great significance to evaluation and prediction of the housing price in the real estate industry.
Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network
This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.
FCNN-MR: A Parallel Instance Selection Method Based on Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbor Rule
Instance selection (IS) technique is used to reduce
the data size to improve the performance of data mining methods.
Recently, to process very large data set, several proposed methods
divide the training set into some disjoint subsets and apply IS
algorithms independently to each subset. In this paper, we analyze
the limitation of these methods and give our viewpoint about how to
divide and conquer in IS procedure. Then, based on fast condensed
nearest neighbor (FCNN) rule, we propose a large data sets instance
selection method with MapReduce framework. Besides ensuring the
prediction accuracy and reduction rate, it has two desirable properties:
First, it reduces the work load in the aggregation node; Second
and most important, it produces the same result with the sequential
version, which other parallel methods cannot achieve. We evaluate the
performance of FCNN-MR on one small data set and two large data
sets. The experimental results show that it is effective and practical.
Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features
Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.
Pose Normalization Network for Object Classification
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have
demonstrated their effectiveness in synthesizing 3D views of object
instances at various viewpoints. Given the problem where one
have limited viewpoints of a particular object for classification, we
present a pose normalization architecture to transform the object to
existing viewpoints in the training dataset before classification to
yield better classification performance. We have demonstrated that
this Pose Normalization Network (PNN) can capture the style of
the target object and is able to re-render it to a desired viewpoint.
Moreover, we have shown that the PNN improves the classification
result for the 3D chairs dataset and ShapeNet airplanes dataset
when given only images at limited viewpoint, as compared to a
A Sentence-to-Sentence Relation Network for Recognizing Textual Entailment
Over the past decade, there have been promising developments in Natural Language Processing (NLP) with several investigations of approaches focusing on Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). These models include models based on lexical similarities, models based on formal reasoning, and most recently deep neural models. In this paper, we present a sentence encoding model that exploits the sentence-to-sentence relation information for RTE. In terms of sentence modeling, Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) adopt different approaches. RNNs are known to be well suited for sequence modeling, whilst CNN is suited for the extraction of n-gram features through the filters and can learn ranges of relations via the pooling mechanism. We combine the strength of RNN and CNN as stated above to present a unified model for the RTE task. Our model basically combines relation vectors computed from the phrasal representation of each sentence and final encoded sentence representations. Firstly, we pass each sentence through a convolutional layer to extract a sequence of higher-level phrase representation for each sentence from which the first relation vector is computed. Secondly, the phrasal representation of each sentence from the convolutional layer is fed into a Bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) to obtain the final sentence representations from which a second relation vector is computed. The relations vectors are combined and then used in then used in the same fashion as attention mechanism over the Bi-LSTM outputs to yield the final sentence representations for the classification. Experiment on the Stanford Natural Language Inference (SNLI) corpus suggests that this is a promising technique for RTE.