International Science Index
Triggering Supersonic Boundary-Layer Instability by Small-Scale Vortex Shedding
Tripping of boundary-layers from laminar to turbulent flow, which may be necessary in specific practical applications, requires high amplitude disturbances to be introduced into the boundary layers without large drag penalties. As a possible improvement on fixed trip devices, a technique based on vortex shedding for enhancing supersonic flow transition is demonstrated in the present paper for a Mach 1.5 boundary layer. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-order (fifth-order in space and third-order in time) finite difference method for small-scale cylinders suspended transversely near the wall. For cylinders with proper diameter and mount location, asymmetry vortices shed within the boundary layer are capable of tripping laminar-turbulent transition. Full three-dimensional simulations showed that transition was enhanced. A parametric study of the size and mounting location of the cylinder is carried out to identify the most effective setup. It is also found that the vortex shedding can be suppressed by some factors such as wall effect.
Designing of a Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber with Ultra-High Birefringence and High Non-Linearity
Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) uses are no longer limited to telecommunication only rather it is now used for many sensors-based fiber optics application, medical science, space application and so on. In this paper, the authors have proposed a microstructure PCF that is designed by using Finite Element Method (FEM) based software. Besides designing, authors have discussed the necessity of the characteristics that it poses for some specified applications because it is not possible to have all good characteristics from a single PCF. Proposed PCF shows the property of ultra-high birefringence (0.0262 at 1550 nm) which is more useful for sensor based on fiber optics. The non-linearity of this fiber is 50.86 w-1km-1 at 1550 nm wavelength which is very high to guide the light through the core tightly. For Perfectly Matched Boundary Layer (PML), 0.6 μm diameter is taken. This design will offer the characteristics of Nonzero-Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (NZ-DSF) for 450 nm waveband. Since it is a software-based design and no practical evaluation has made, 2% tolerance is checked and the authors have found very small variation of the characteristics.
Modeling Non-Darcy Natural Convection Flow of a Micropolar Dusty Fluid with Convective Boundary Condition
A numerical approach of the effectiveness of numerous
parameters on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection
heat and mass transfer problem of a dusty micropolar fluid in
a non-Darcy porous regime is prepared in the current paper.
In addition, a convective boundary condition is scrutinized into
the micropolar dusty fluid model. The governing boundary layer
equations are converted utilizing similarity transformations to a
system of dimensionless equations to be convenient for numerical
treatment. The resulting equations for fluid phase and dust phases
of momentum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration with
the appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically applying
the Runge-Kutta method of fourth-order. In accordance with the
numerical study, it is obtained that the magnitude of the velocity
of both fluid phase and particle phase reduces with an increasing
magnetic parameter, the mass concentration of the dust particles, and
Forchheimer number. While rises due to an increment in convective
parameter and Darcy number. Also, the results refer that high values
of the magnetic parameter, convective parameter, and Forchheimer
number support the temperature distributions. However, deterioration
occurs as the mass concentration of the dust particles and Darcy
number increases. The angular velocity behavior is described by
progress when studying the effect of the magnetic parameter and
MHD Natural Convection Flow of Tangent Hyperbolic Nanofluid Past a Vertical Permeable Cone
In this paper, a non-similraity analysis has been
presented to exhibit the two-dimensional boundary layer flow
of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convection of tangent
hyperbolic nanofluid nearby a vertical permeable cone in the presence
of variable wall temperature impact. The mutated boundary layer
nonlinear governing equations are solved numerically by the an
efficient implicit finite difference procedure. For both nanofluid
effective viscosity and nanofluid thermal conductivity, a number of
experimental relations have been recognized. For characterizing the
nanofluid, the compatible nanoparticle volume fraction model has
been used. Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are calculated
for some values of Weissenberg number W, surface temperature
exponent n, magnetic field parameter Mg, power law index m and
Prandtl number Pr as functions of suction parameter. The rate of heat
transfer from a vertical permeable cone in a regular fluid is less than
that in nanofluids. A best convection has been presented by Copper
nanoparticle among all the used nanoparticles.
A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls
In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.
Aerodynamic Design Optimization of High-Speed Hatchback Cars for Lucrative Commercial Applications
The choice of high-speed, low budget hatchback car with diversified options is increasing for meeting the new generation buyers trend. This paper is aimed to augment the current speed of the hatchback cars through the aerodynamic drag reduction technique. The inverted airfoils are facilitated at the bottom of the car for generating the downward force for negating the lift while increasing the current speed range for achieving a better road performance. The numerical simulations have been carried out using a 2D steady pressure-based k-ɛ realizable model with enhanced wall treatment. In our numerical studies, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model and its code of solution are used. The code is calibrated and validated using the exact solution of the 2D boundary layer displacement thickness at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows. We observed through the parametric analytical studies that the inverted airfoil integrated with the bottom surface at various predesigned locations of Hatchback cars can improve its overall aerodynamic efficiency through drag reduction, which obviously decreases the fuel consumption significantly and ensure an optimum road performance lucratively with maximum permissible speed within the framework of the manufactures constraints.
Effect of Reynolds Number and Concentration of Biopolymer (Gum Arabic) on Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipe
Biopolymers are popular in many areas, like petrochemicals, food industry and agriculture due to their favorable properties like environment-friendly, availability, and cost. In this study, a biopolymer gum Arabic was used to find its effect on the pressure drop at various concentrations (100 ppm – 300 ppm) with various Reynolds numbers (10000 – 45000). A rheological study was also done by using the same concentrations to find the effect of the shear rate on the shear viscosity. Experiments were performed to find the effect of injection of gum Arabic directly near the boundary layer and to investigate its effect on the maximum possible drag reduction. Experiments were performed on a test section having i.d of 19.50 mm and length of 3045 mm. The polymer solution was injected from the top of the test section by using a peristaltic pump. The concentration of the polymer solution and the Reynolds number were used as parameters to get maximum possible drag reduction. Water was circulated through a centrifugal pump having a maximum 3000 rpm and the flow rate was measured by using rotameter. Results were validated by using Virk's maximum drag reduction asymptote. A maximum drag reduction of 62.15% was observed with the maximum concentration of gum Arabic, 300 ppm. The solution was circulated in the closed loop to find the effect of degradation of polymers with a number of cycles on the drag reduction percentage. It was observed that the injection of the polymer solution in the boundary layer was showing better results than premixed solutions.
Numerical Approach to a Mathematical Modeling of Bioconvection Due to Gyrotactic Micro-Organisms over a Nonlinear Inclined Stretching Sheet
The water-based bioconvection of a nanofluid
containing motile gyrotactic micro-organisms over nonlinear
inclined stretching sheet has been investigated. The governing
nonlinear boundary layer equations of the model are reduced to a
system of ordinary differential equations via Oberbeck-Boussinesq
approximation and similarity transformations. Further, the modified
set of equations with associated boundary conditions are solved using
Finite Element Method. The impact of various pertinent parameters
on the velocity, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, density of
motile micro-organisms profiles are obtained and analyzed in details.
The results show that with the increase in angle of inclination δ,
velocity decreases while temperature, nanoparticles concentration,
a density of motile micro-organisms increases. Additionally, the
skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, density
number are computed for various thermophysical parameters. It
is noticed that increasing Brownian motion and thermophoresis
parameter leads to an increase in temperature of fluid which results
in a reduction in Nusselt number. On the contrary, Sherwood number
rises with an increase in Brownian motion and thermophoresis
parameter. The findings have been validated by comparing the
results of special cases with existing studies.
Similarity Solutions of Nonlinear Stretched Biomagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer with Signum Function and Temperature Power Law Geometries
Biomagnetic fluid dynamics is an interdisciplinary field comprising engineering, medicine, and biology. Bio fluid dynamics is directed towards finding and developing the solutions to some of the human body related diseases and disorders. This article describes the flow and heat transfer of two dimensional, steady, laminar, viscous and incompressible biomagnetic fluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic dipole. Our model is consistent with blood fluid namely biomagnetic fluid dynamics (BFD). This model based on the principles of ferrohydrodynamic (FHD). The temperature at the stretching surface is assumed to follow a power law variation, and stretching velocity is assumed to have a nonlinear form with signum function or sign function. The governing boundary layer equations with boundary conditions are simplified to couple higher order equations using usual transformations. Numerical solutions for the governing momentum and energy equations are obtained by efficient numerical techniques based on the common finite difference method with central differencing, on a tridiagonal matrix manipulation and on an iterative procedure. Computations are performed for a wide range of the governing parameters such as magnetic field parameter, power law exponent temperature parameter, and other involved parameters and the effect of these parameters on the velocity and temperature field is presented. It is observed that for different values of the magnetic parameter, the velocity distribution decreases while temperature distribution increases. Besides, the finite difference solutions results for skin-friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are discussed. This study will have an important bearing on a high targeting efficiency, a high magnetic field is required in the targeted body compartment.
Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles
The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.
Investigation on Mesh Sensitivity of a Transient Model for Nozzle Clogging
A transient model for nozzle clogging has been developed and successfully validated against a laboratory experiment. Key steps of clogging are considered: transport of particles by turbulent flow towards the nozzle wall; interactions between fluid flow and nozzle wall, and the adhesion of the particle on the wall; the growth of the clog layer and its interaction with the flow. The current paper is to investigate the mesh (size and type) sensitivity of the model in both two and three dimensions. It is found that the algorithm for clog growth alone excluding the flow effect is insensitive to the mesh type and size, but the calculation including flow becomes sensitive to the mesh quality. The use of 2D meshes leads to overestimation of the clog growth because the 3D nature of flow in the boundary layer cannot be properly solved by 2D calculation. 3D simulation with tetrahedron mesh can also lead to an error estimation of the clog growth. A mesh-independent result can be achieved with hexahedral mesh, or at least with triangular prism (inflation layer) for near-wall regions.
A Note on MHD Flow and Heat Transfer over a Curved Stretching Sheet by Considering Variable Thermal Conductivity
The mixed convective flow of MHD incompressible, steady boundary layer in heat transfer over a curved stretching sheet due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity is studied. We use curvilinear coordinate system in order to describe the governing flow equations. Finite difference solutions with central differencing have been used to solve the transform governing equations. Numerical results for the flow velocity and temperature profiles are presented as a function of the non-dimensional curvature radius. Skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number at the surface of the curved sheet are discussed as well.
Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation
This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.
Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows
In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics
for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has
been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent
(non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The
cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre
of the element. The results show that the values of average heat
transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil
flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little
effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70%
in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values
are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the
water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer
coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The
enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed
to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to
thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow,
the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of
single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water
values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the
introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil
leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface
covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.
Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important
parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored
at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it
is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is,
therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining
in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three
nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation.
One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one
state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF),
the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying
smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the
results are compared.
High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry of the Flow around a Moving Train Model with Boundary Layer Control Elements
Trackside induced airflow velocities, also known as
slipstream velocities, are an important criterion for the design of
high-speed trains. The maximum permitted values are given by the
Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) and have to be
checked in the approval process. For train manufactures it is of great
interest to know in advance, how new train geometries would perform
in TSI tests. The Reynolds number in moving model experiments is
lower compared to full-scale. Especially the limited model length
leads to a thinner boundary layer at the rear end. The hypothesis is
that the boundary layer rolls up to characteristic flow structures in the
train wake, in which the maximum flow velocities can be observed.
The idea is to enlarge the boundary layer using roughness elements
at the train model head so that the ratio between the boundary
layer thickness and the car width at the rear end is comparable to a
full-scale train. This may lead to similar flow structures in the wake
and better prediction accuracy for TSI tests. In this case, the design
of the roughness elements is limited by the moving model rig. Small
rectangular roughness shapes are used to get a sufficient effect on the
boundary layer, while the elements are robust enough to withstand
the high accelerating and decelerating forces during the test runs. For
this investigation, High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV)
measurements on an ICE3 train model have been realized in the
moving model rig of the DLR in Göttingen, the so called tunnel
simulation facility Göttingen (TSG). The flow velocities within the
boundary layer are analysed in a plain parallel to the ground. The
height of the plane corresponds to a test position in the EN standard
(TSI). Three different shapes of roughness elements are tested. The
boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness as well as the
momentum thickness and the form factor are calculated along the
train model. Conditional sampling is used to analyse the size and
dynamics of the flow structures at the time of maximum velocity
in the train wake behind the train. As expected, larger roughness
elements increase the boundary layer thickness and lead to larger
flow velocities in the boundary layer and in the wake flow structures.
The boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum
thickness are increased by using larger roughness especially when
applied in the height close to the measuring plane. The roughness
elements also cause high fluctuations in the form factors of the
boundary layer. Behind the roughness elements, the form factors
rapidly are approaching toward constant values. This indicates that
the boundary layer, while growing slowly along the second half of
the train model, has reached a state of equilibrium.
Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors
The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.
Occurrence of High Nocturnal Surface Ozone at a Tropical Urban Area
The occurrence of high nocturnal surface ozone over a tropical urban area (23̊ 32′16.99″ N and 87̊ 17′ 38.95″ E) is analyzed in this paper. Five incidences of nocturnal ozone maxima are recorded during the observational span of two years (June, 2013 to May, 2015). The maximum and minimum values of the surface ozone during these five occasions are 337.630 μg/m3 and 13.034 μg/m3 respectively. HYSPLIT backward trajectory analyses and wind rose diagrams support the horizontal transport of ozone from distant polluted places. Planetary boundary layer characteristics, concentration of precursor (NO2) and meteorology are found to play important role in the horizontal and vertical transport of surface ozone during nighttime.
Numerical Simulations of Acoustic Imaging in Hydrodynamic Tunnel with Model Adaptation and Boundary Layer Noise Reduction
The noise requirements for naval and research vessels
have seen an increasing demand for quieter ships in order to fulfil
current regulations and to reduce the effects on marine life. Hence,
new methods dedicated to the characterization of propeller noise,
which is the main source of noise in the far-field, are needed. The
study of cavitating propellers in closed-section is interesting for
analyzing hydrodynamic performance but could involve significant
difficulties for hydroacoustic study, especially due to reverberation
and boundary layer noise in the tunnel. The aim of this paper
is to present a numerical methodology for the identification of
hydroacoustic sources on marine propellers using hydrophone arrays
in a large hydrodynamic tunnel. The main difficulties are linked to the
reverberation of the tunnel and the boundary layer noise that strongly
reduce the signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper it is proposed to estimate
the reflection coefficients using an inverse method and some reference
transfer functions measured in the tunnel. This approach allows to
reduce the uncertainties of the propagation model used in the inverse
problem. In order to reduce the boundary layer noise, a cleaning
algorithm taking advantage of the low rank and sparse structure of the
cross-spectrum matrices of the acoustic and the boundary layer noise
is presented. This approach allows to recover the acoustic signal even
well under the boundary layer noise. The improvement brought by
this method is visible on acoustic maps resulting from beamforming
and DAMAS algorithms.
A Wall Law for Two-Phase Turbulent Boundary Layers
The presence of bubbles in the boundary layer introduces corrections into the log law, which must be taken into account. In this work, a logarithmic wall law was presented for bubbly two phase flows. The wall law presented in this work was based on the postulation of additional turbulent viscosity associated with bubble wakes in the boundary layer. The presented wall law contained empirical constant accounting both for shear induced turbulence interaction and for non-linearity of bubble. This constant was deduced from experimental data. The wall friction prediction achieved with the wall law was compared to the experimental data, in the case of a turbulent boundary layer developing on a vertical flat plate in the presence of millimetric bubbles. A very good agreement between experimental and numerical wall friction prediction was verified. The agreement was especially noticeable for the low void fraction when bubble induced turbulence plays a significant role.
Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM
This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.
FEM Simulation of Triple Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamics Effect of Nanofluid Flow over a Nonlinear Stretching Sheet
The triple diffusive boundary layer flow of nanofluid under the action of constant magnetic field over a non-linear stretching sheet has been investigated numerically. The model includes the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, and cross-diffusion; slip mechanisms which are primarily responsible for the enhancement of the convective features of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (by using group theory transformations) and solved numerically by using variational finite element method. The effects of various controlling parameters, such as the magnetic influence number, thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter, modified Dufour parameter, and Dufour solutal Lewis number, on the fluid flow as well as on heat and mass transfer coefficients (both of solute and nanofluid) are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. The present study has industrial applications in aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, coating and suspensions, melt spinning, hot rolling, wire drawing, glass-fibre production, and manufacture of polymer and rubber sheets, where the quality of the desired product depends on the stretching rate as well as external field including magnetic effects.
Air Dispersion Model for Prediction Fugitive Landfill Gaseous Emission Impact in Ambient Atmosphere
This paper will explore formation of HCl aerosol at atmospheric boundary layers and encourages the uptake of environmental modeling systems (EMSs) as a practice evaluation of gaseous emissions (“framework measures”) from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The conceptual model predicts greenhouse gas emissions to ecological points beyond landfill site operations. It focuses on incorporation traditional knowledge into baseline information for both measurement data and the mathematical results, regarding parameters influence model variable inputs. The paper has simplified parameters of aerosol processes based on the more complex aerosol process computations. The simple model can be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian rural dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds is taken into account photochemical formulation with exposure effects according to HCl concentrations as starting point of risk assessment. The discussion set out distinctly aspect of sustainability in reflection inputs, outputs, and modes of impact on the environment. Thereby, models incorporate abiotic and biotic species to broaden the scope of integration for both quantification impact and assessment risks. The later environmental obligations suggest either a recommendation or a decision of what is a legislative should be achieved for mitigation measures of landfill gas (LFG) ultimately.
Spectral Investigation for Boundary Layer Flow over a Permeable Wall in the Presence of Transverse Magnetic Field
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Falkner-Skan
equations appear in study of laminar boundary layers flow over
a wedge in presence of a transverse magnetic field. The partial
differential equations of boundary layer problems in presence of
a transverse magnetic field are reduced to MHD Falkner-Skan
equation by similarity solution methods. This is a nonlinear ordinary
differential equation. In this paper, we solve this equation via
spectral collocation method based on Bessel functions of the first
kind. In this approach, we reduce the solution of the nonlinear
MHD Falkner-Skan equation to a solution of a nonlinear algebraic
equations system. Then, the resulting system is solved by Newton
method. We discuss obtained solution by studying the behavior
of boundary layer flow in terms of skin friction, velocity, various
amounts of magnetic field and angle of wedge. Finally, the results
are compared with other methods mentioned in literature. We can
conclude that the presented method has better accuracy than others.
Study the Effect of Roughness on the Higher Order Moment to Extract Information about the Turbulent Flow Structure in an Open Channel Flow
The present study was carried out to understand the extent of effect of roughness and Reynolds number in open channel flow (OCF). To this extent, four different types of bed surface conditions consisting smooth, distributed roughness, continuous roughness, natural sand bed and two different Reynolds number for each bed surfaces were adopted in this study. Particular attention was given on mean velocity, turbulence intensity, Reynolds shear stress, correlation, higher order moments and quadrant analysis. Further, the extent of influence of roughness and Reynolds number in the depth-wise direction also studied. Increasing Reynolds shear stress near rough beds are noticed due to arrays of discrete roughness elements and flow over these elements generating a series of wakes which contributes to the generation of significantly higher Reynolds shear stress.
Computational Investigation of Secondary Flow Losses in Linear Turbine Cascade by Modified Leading Edge Fence
It is well known that secondary flow loses account about one third of the total loss in any axial turbine. Modern gas turbine height is smaller and have longer chord length, which might lead to increase in secondary flow. In order to improve the efficiency of the turbine, it is important to understand the behavior of secondary flow and device mechanisms to curtail these losses. The objective of the present work is to understand the effect of a stream wise end-wall fence on the aerodynamics of a linear turbine cascade. The study is carried out computationally by using commercial software ANSYS CFX. The effect of end-wall on the flow field are calculated based on RANS simulation by using SST transition turbulence model. Durham cascade which is similar to high-pressure axial flow turbine for simulation is used. The aim of fencing in blade passage is to get the maximum benefit from flow deviation and destroying the passage vortex in terms of loss reduction. It is observed that, for the present analysis, fence in the blade passage helps reducing the strength of horseshoe vortex and is capable of restraining the flow along the blade passage. Fence in the blade passage helps in reducing the under turning by 70 in comparison with base case. Fence on end-wall is effective in preventing the movement of pressure side leg of horseshoe vortex and helps in breaking the passage vortex. Computations are carried for different fence height whose curvature is different from the blade camber. The optimum fence geometry and location reduces the loss coefficient by 15.6% in comparison with base case.
Radiation Effect on MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Power-Law Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction
This article addresses the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Casson fluid over a nonlinearly permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction in the presence of variable magnetic field. The effect of thermal radiation is considered to control the rate of heat transfer at the surface. Using similarity transformations, the governing partial differential equations of this problem are reduced into a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by finite difference method. It is observed that the velocity at fixed point decreases with increasing the nonlinear stretching parameter but the temperature increases with nonlinear stretching parameter.
Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples
Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.
Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields
The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.
Localized and Time-Resolved Velocity Measurements of Pulsatile Flow in a Rectangular Channel
The exploitation of flow pulsation in micro- and
mini-channels is a potentially useful technique for enhancing cooling
of high-end photonics and electronics systems. It is thought that
pulsation alters the thickness of the hydrodynamic and thermal
boundary layers, and hence affects the overall thermal resistance
of the heat sink. Although the fluid mechanics and heat transfer
are inextricably linked, it can be useful to decouple the parameters
to better understand the mechanisms underlying any heat transfer
enhancement. Using two-dimensional, two-component particle image
velocimetry, the current work intends to characterize the heat transfer
mechanisms in pulsating flow with a mean Reynolds number of
48 by experimentally quantifying the hydrodynamics of a generic
liquid-cooled channel geometry. Flows circulated through the test
section by a gear pump are modulated using a controller to achieve
sinusoidal flow pulsations with Womersley numbers of 7.45 and
2.36 and an amplitude ratio of 0.75. It is found that the transient
characteristics of the measured velocity profiles are dependent on the
speed of oscillation, in accordance with the analytical solution for
flow in a rectangular channel. A large velocity overshoot is observed
close to the wall at high frequencies, resulting from the interaction
of near-wall viscous stresses and inertial effects of the main fluid
body. The steep velocity gradients at the wall are indicative of
augmented heat transfer, although the local flow reversal may reduce
the upstream temperature difference in heat transfer applications.
While unsteady effects remain evident at the lower frequency, the
annular effect subsides and retreats from the wall. The shear rate at
the wall is increased during the accelerating half-cycle and decreased
during deceleration compared to steady flow, suggesting that the flow
may experience both enhanced and diminished heat transfer during
a single period. Hence, the thickness of the hydrodynamic boundary
layer is reduced for positively moving flow during one half of the
pulsation cycle at the investigated frequencies. It is expected that the
size of the thermal boundary layer is similarly reduced during the
cycle, leading to intervals of heat transfer enhancement.