International Science Index
After Schubert’s Winterreise: Contemporary Aesthetic Journeys
Following previous studies about Writing and Seeing, this paper focuses on the aesthetic assumptions within the concept of Winter Journey (Voyage d’Hiver/Winterreise) both in Georges Perec’s Saga and the Oulipo Group vis-à-vis with the creations by William Kentridge and Michael Borremans. The aesthetic and artistic connections are widespread. Nevertheless, we can identify common poetical principles shared by these different authors, not only according to the notion of ekphrasis, but also following the procedures of contemporary creation in literature and visual arts. The analysis of the ongoing process of the French writers as individuals and as group and the visual artists’ acting might contribute for another crossed definition of contemporary conception. The same title/theme was a challenge and a goal for them. Let’s wonder how deep the concept encouraged them and which symbolic upbringings were directing their poetical achievements. The idea of an inner journey became the main point, and got “over” and “across” a shared path worth to be followed. The authors were chosen due to the resilient contents of their visual and written images, and looking for the reasons that might had driven their conceptual basis to be. In Pérec’s “Winter Journey” as for the following fictions by Jacques Roubaud, Hervé le Tellier, Jacques Jouet and Hugo Vernier (that emerges from Perec’s fiction and becomes a real author) powerful aesthetic and enigmatic reflections grow connected with a poetic (and aesthetic) understanding of Walkscapes. They might be assumed as ironic fictions and poetical drifts. Outstanding from different logics, the overwhelming impact of Winterreise Lied by Schubert after Wilhelm Müller’s poems is a major reference in present authorship creations. Both Perec and Oulipo’s author’s texts are powerfully ekphrastic, although we should not forget they follow goals, frameworks and identities. When acting as a reader, they induce powerful imageries - cinematic or cinematographic - that flow in our minds. It was well-matched with William Kentridge animated video Winter Journey (2014) and the creations (sharing the same title) of Michael Borremans (2014) for the KlaraFestival, Bozar, Cité de la musique, in Belgium. Both were taken by the foremost Schubert’s Winterreise. Several metaphors fulfil new Winter Journeys (or Travels) that were achieved in contemporary art and literature, as it once succeeded in the 19th century. Maybe the contemporary authors and artists were compelled by the consciousness of nothingness, although outstanding different aesthetics and ontological sources. The unbearable knowledge of the road’s end, and also the urge of fulfilling the void might be a common element to all of them. As Schopenhauer once wrote, after all, Art is the only human subjective power that we can call upon in life. These newer aesthetic meanings, released from these winter journeys are surely open to wider approaches that might happen in other poetic makings to be.
Eco-Design of Multifunctional System Based on a Shape Memory Polymer and ZnO Nanoparticles for Sportswear
Since the beginning of the 20th century, sportswear has a major contribution to the impact of fashion on our lives. Nowadays, the embracing of sportswear fashion/looks is undoubtedly noticeable, as the modern consumer searches for high comfort and linear aesthetics for its clothes. This compromise lead to the arise of the athleisure trend. Athleisure surges as a new style area that combines both wearability and fashion sense, differentiated from the archetypal sportswear, usually associated to “gym clothes”. Additionally, the possibility to functionalize and implement new technologies have shifted and progressively empowers the connection between the concepts of physical activities practice and well-being, allowing clothing to be more interactive and responsive with its surroundings. In this study, a design inspired in retro and urban lifestyle was envisioned, engineering textile structures that can respond to external stimuli. These structures are enhanced to be responsive to heat, water vapor and humidity, integrating shape memory polymers (SMP) to improve the breathability and heat-responsive behavior of the textiles and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) to heighten the surface hydrophobic properties. The best results for hydrophobic exhibited superhydrophobic behavior with water contact angle (WAC) of more than 150 degrees. For the breathability and heat-response properties, SMP-coated samples showed an increase in water vapour permeability values of about 50% when compared with non SMP-coated samples. These innovative technological approaches were endorsed to design innovative clothing, in line with circular economy and eco-design principles, by assigning a substantial degree of mutability and versatility to the clothing. The development of a coat and shirt, in which different parts can be purchased separately to create multiple products, aims to combine the technicality of both the fabrics used and the making of the garments. This concept translates itself into a real constructive mechanism through the symbiosis of high-tech functionalities and the timeless design that follows the athleisure aesthetics.
Impact of Management and Development of Destination Attributes on Coastal Tourists' Visitor Experience, Negombo, Sri Lanka
The purpose of this quantitative study is to identify the impact of the destination attributes of Negombo on the coastal tourists’ visitor experience. As an island nation, Sri Lanka is identified and well renowned for its gold sandy beaches and natural scenic beauty. Among many tourist attractions, Negombo is identified as a developed beach centric tourist destination in the country. Yet, it is identified that there are low positive reviews on the internet for Negombo compared to other beach centric tourist attractions in Sri Lanka. Therefore, this study would help the policymakers and tourism service providers to identify the impact of destination attributes on international visitor satisfaction and to understand the visitors comprehensively so as to develop Negombo as a stable tourist destination while offering a memorable and satisfying experience for its visitors. In support, a self-administered questionnaire survey study was performed with 150 respondents (international tourists) in Negombo. The questions were designed based on the selected dimensions of destination attributes such as tourism service quality, infrastructure and superstructure developments, tourist information facilities and destination aesthetics and developments. The results showed that the overall satisfaction level of the international tourists who visit Sri Lanka is significantly affected by the destination attributes of Negombo. Yet, the dimensions of destination aesthetics and developments and tourist information facilities indicated a low level of mean satisfaction, paving the critique that Negombo as a beach centric tourist attraction is not serving well with its natural beauty and its destination management. Further, it is advocated that the policymakers and tourism service providers have a significant role in leading the way to attract more potential visitors to enhance their destination satisfaction and to encourage them to revisit Sri Lanka while recommending it to others. The survey was done during the off-peak season of the industry and it is suggested that the survey would have been conducted throughout a complete year.
Towards the Prediction of Aesthetic Requirements for Women’s Apparel Product
The prediction of aesthetics of apparel is helpful for the development of a new type of apparel. This study is to build the quantitative relationship between the aesthetics and its design parameters. In particular, women’s pants have been preliminarily studied. This aforementioned relationship has been carried out by statistical analysis. The contributions of this study include the development of a more personalized apparel design mechanism and the provision of some empirical knowledge for the development of other products in the aspect of aesthetics.
Investigating Aesthetics According to Gestalt's Theories and Principles of Architectural Design
In this study, aesthetics, which is architecture-dependent, covers the interpretable, debatable, and mathematical features. The purpose of this study is to provide a different perspective on the values of formal aesthetics and to analyze architectural forms to examine the factors that are related to the form of architectural works. In this study, the formal factors of aesthetics have been objectively studied and analyzed.
Assessment of the Illustrated Language Activities of the Portage Guide to Early Education
The study was focused on the development and assessment of the illustrated language activities of the 1996 Edition of the Portage Guide to Early Education. It determined the extent of appropriateness, applicability, time efficiency and aesthetics of the illustrated language activities to be used as instructional material not only by teachers, but parents and caregivers as well. The eclectic research design was applied in this study using qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine the applicability and time efficiency of the study, a try out was done. Since the eclectic research design was used, it made use of a researcher-made survey questionnaire and focus group discussion. Analysis of the data was done through weighted mean and ANOVA. The respondents of the study were representatives of Special Education (SPED) teachers, caregivers and parents of a special-needs child, particularly with difficulties in learning basic language skills. The results of the study show that a large number of respondents are SPED teachers and caregivers and are mostly college graduates. Many of them have earned units towards Master’s studies. Moreover, a majority of the respondents have not attended seminars or in-service training in early intervention for them to be more competent in the area of specialization. It is concluded that the illustrated language activities under review in this study are appropriate, applicable, time efficient and aesthetic for use as a tool in teaching. The recommendations are focused on the advocacy for SPED teachers, caregivers and parents of special-needs children to be more consistent in the implementation of the new instructional materials as an aid in an intervention program.
The Concept of the Aesthetic Features in Architectural Structures of the Museums
The focus of this study is to analyze and elaborate the formal factors in the architectural features of the museums. From aesthetic vantage point, this study has scrutinized the formal aesthetic values and identity-related features of the museums. Furthermore, the importance of the museums as the centers of knowledge, science and arts has gradually increased in the last century, whereby they have shifted from an elite standing to the pluralist approach as to address every sections of the community. This study will focus on the museum structures that are designed with the aesthetic apprehension, and presented as the artistic works on the basis of an objective attitude to elaborate the formal aesthetic factors on the formal aesthetics. It is of great importance to increase such studies for getting some concrete results to perceive the recent term aesthetic approaches and improve the forms in line with such approaches. This study elaborates the aesthetic facts solely on the basis of visual dimensions, but ignores the subjective effects to evaluate it in formal, subjective and conceptual aspects. The main material of this study comprises of the descriptive works on the conceptual substructure, and a number of schedules drawn on such concepts, which are applied on the example museum structures. Such works cover many several existing sources such as the design, philosophy, artistic philosophy, shape, form, design elements and principles as well as the museums.
Shaping of World-Class Delhi: Politics of Marginalization and Inclusion
In the context of the government's vision of turning Delhi into a green, privatized and slum free city, giving it a world-class image at par with the global cities of the world, this paper investigates into the various processes and politics of things that went behind defining spaces in the city and attributing an aesthetic image to it. The paper will explore two cases that were forged primarily through the forces of one particular type of power relation. One would be to look at the modernist movement adopted by the Nehruvian government post-independence and the next case will look at special periods like Emergency and Commonwealth games. The study of these cases will help understand the ambivalence embedded in the different rationales of the Government and different powerful agencies adopted in order to build world-classness. Through the study, it will be easier to discern how city spaces were reconfigured in the name of 'good governance'. In this process, it also became important to analyze the double nature of law, both as a protector of people’s rights and as a threat to people. What was interesting to note through the study was that in the process of nation building and creating an image for the city, the government’s policies and programs were mostly aimed at the richer sections of the society and the poorer sections and people from lower income groups kept getting marginalized, subdued, and pushed further away (These marginalized people were pushed away even geographically!). The reconfiguration of city space and attributing an aesthetic character to it, led to an alteration not only in the way in which citizens perceived and engaged with these spaces, but also brought about changes in the way they envisioned their place in the city. Ironically, it was found that every attempt to build any kind of facility for the city’s elite in turn led to an inevitable removal of the marginalized sections of the society as a necessary step to achieve a clean, green and world-class city. The paper questions the claim made by the government for creating a just, equitable city and granting rights to all. An argument is put forth that in the politics of redistribution of space, the city that has been designed is meant for the aspirational middle-class and elite only, who are ideally primed to live in world-class cities. Thus, the aim is to study city spaces, urban form, the associated politics and power plays involved within and understand whether segmented cities are being built in the name of creating sensible, inclusive cities.
A Look at the History of Calligraphy in Decoration of Mosques in Iran: 630-1630 AD
Architecture in Iran has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, and numerous Iranian pre-Islamic elements have contributed significantly to the formation of Islamic art. At first, decoration was limited to small objects and containers and then progressed in the art of plaster and brickwork. They later applied in architecture as well. The art of gypsum and brickwork, which was prevalent in the form of motifs (animals and plants) in pre-Islam, was used in the aftermath of Islam with the art of calligraphy in decorations. The splendor and beauty of Iranian architecture, especially during the Islamic era, are related to decoration and design. After the invasion of Iran by the Arabs and the introduction of Islam to Iran, the arrival of the Iranian classical architecture significantly changed, and we saw the Arabic calligraphy decoration of the mosques in Iran. The principles of aesthetics in the art of calligraphy in Iran are based precisely on the principles of the beauty of ancient Iranian and Islamic art. On the other hand, after Islam, calligraphy was one of the most important sources of Islamic art in Islam and one of the important features of Islamic culture. First, the calligraphy had no cultural meaning and was only for decoration and beautification, it had the same meaning only in the inscriptions; however, over time, it became meaningful. This article provides a summary of the history of calligraphy in the mosques (from the entrance to Islam until the Safavid period), which cannot ignore the role of the calligraphy in their decorative ideas; and also, the important role that decorative elements play in creating a public space in terms of social and aesthetic performance. This study was conducted using library studies and field studies. The purpose of this study is to show the characteristics of architecture and art of decorations in Iran, especially in the mosque's architecture, which reaches the pinnacle of progress. We will see that religious beliefs and artistic practices are merging and trying to bring a single concept.
Evaluating the Evolution of Public Art across the World and Exploring Its Growth in Urban India
Public Art is a tool with the power to enrich and enlighten any place; it has been accepted and welcomed effortlessly by many cultures around the World. In this paper, we discuss the implications Public Art has had on the society and how it has evolved over the years, and how in India, art in this aspect is still overlooked and treated as an accessory. Urban aesthetics are still substantially limited to the installation of deities, political figures, and so on. The paper also discusses various possibilities and opportunities on how Public Art can boost a society; it also suggests a framework that can be incorporated in the legal system of the country to make it a part of the city development process.
The Influence of Travel Experience within Perceived Public Transport Quality
The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by passengers. Among the “traditional” public transport quality attributes there are, for example: travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, and ticket price. By contrast, there are some “non-conventional” attributes that could significantly influence customer satisfaction jointly with the “traditional” ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how munch) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a “long trip” (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as “low” the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the “short trip” passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if confirmed through other case studies, will allow to conclude that the “travel experience impact" must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.
An Investigation into the Use of an Atomistic, Hermeneutic, Holistic Approach in Education Relating to the Architectural Design Process
Within architectural education, students arrive fore-armed with; their life-experience; knowledge gained from subject-based learning; their brains and more specifically their imaginations. The learning-by-doing that they embark on in studio-based/project-based learning calls for supervision that allows the student to proactively undertake research and experimentation with design solution possibilities. The degree to which this supervision includes direction is subject to debate and differing opinion. It can be argued that if the student is to learn-by-doing, then design decision making within the design process needs to be instigated and owned by the student so that they have the ability to personally reflect on and evaluate those decisions. Within this premise lies the problem that the student's endeavours can become unstructured and unfocused as they work their way into a new and complex activity. A resultant weakness can be that the design activity is compartmented and not holistic or comprehensive, and therefore, the student's reflections are consequently impoverished in terms of providing a positive, informative feedback loop. The construct proffered in this paper is that a supportive 'armature' or 'Heuristic-Framework' can be developed that facilitates a holistic approach and reflective learning. The normal explorations of architectural design comprise: Analysing the site and context, reviewing building precedents, assimilating the briefing information. However, the student can still be compromised by 'not knowing what they need to know'. The long-serving triad 'Firmness, Commodity and Delight' provides a broad-brush framework of considerations to explore and integrate into good design. If this were further atomised in subdivision formed from the disparate aspects of architectural design that need to be considered within the design process, then the student could sieve through the facts more methodically and reflectively in terms of considering their interrelationship conflict and alliances. The words facts and sieve hold the acronym of the aspects that form the Heuristic-Framework: Function, Aesthetics, Context, Tectonics, Spatial, Servicing, Infrastructure, Environmental, Value and Ecological issues. The Heuristic could be used as a Hermeneutic Model with each aspect of design being focused on and considered in abstraction and then considered in its relation to other aspect and the design proposal as a whole. Importantly, the heuristic could be used as a method for gathering information and enhancing the design brief. The more poetic, mysterious, intuitive, unconscious processes should still be able to occur for the student. The Heuristic-Framework should not be seen as comprehensive prescriptive formulaic or inhibiting to the wide exploration of possibilities and solutions within the architectural design process.
Perception of Neighbourhood-Level Built Environment in Relation to Youth Physical Activity in Malaysia
Neighbourhood environment walkability on reported physical activity (PA) levels of students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in Malaysia. Compared with previous generations, today’s young people spend less time playing outdoors and have lower participation rates in PA. Research suggests that negative perceptions of neighbourhood walkability may be a potential barrier to adolescents’ PA. The sample consisted of 200 USM students (to 24 years old) who live outside of the main campus and engage in PA in sport halls and sport fields of USM. The data were analysed using the t-test, binary logistic regression, and discriminant analysis techniques. The present study found that youth PA was affected by neighbourhood environment walkability factors, including neighbourhood infrastructures, neighbourhood safety (crime), and recreation facilities, as well as street characteristics and neighbourhood design variables such as facades of sidewalks, roadside trees, green spaces, and aesthetics. The finding also illustrated that active students were influenced by street connectivity, neighbourhood infrastructures, recreation facilities, facades of sidewalks, and aesthetics, whereas students in the less active group were affected by access to destinations, neighbourhood safety (crime), and roadside trees and green spaces for their PAs. These results report which factors of built environments have more effect on youth PA and they message to the public to create more awareness about the benefits of PA on youth health.
Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art
Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.
Congolese Wood in the Antwerp Interwar Interior
During the interwar period artificial materials were often preferred, but many Antwerp architects relied on the application of wood for most of the interior finishing works and furnishings. Archival, literature and on site research of interwar suburban townhouses and the Belgian wood and furniture industry gave a new insight to the application of wood in the interwar interior. Many interwar designers favored the decorative values in all treatments of wood because of its warmth, comfort, good-wearing, and therefore, economic qualities. For the creation of a successful modern interior the texture and surface of the wood becomes as important as the color itself. This aesthetics valuation was the result of the modernization of the wood industry. The development of veneer and plywood gave the possibility to create strong, flat, long and plain wooden surfaces which are capable of retaining their shape. Also the modernization of cutting machines resulted in high quality and diversity in texture of veneer. The flat and plain plywood surfaces were modern decorated with all kinds of veneer-sliced options. In addition, wood species from the former Belgian Colony Congo were imported. Limba (Terminalia superba), kambala (Chlorophora excelsa), mubala (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum) were used in the interior of many Antwerp interwar suburban town houses. From the thirties onwards Belgian wood firms established modern manufactures in Congo. There the local wood was dried, cut and prepared for exportation to the harbor of Antwerp. The presence of all kinds of strong and decorative Congolese wood products supported its application in the interwar interior design. The Antwerp architects combined them in their designs for doors, floors, stairs, built-in-furniture, wall paneling and movable furniture.
Evolution of Fashion Design in the Era of High-Tech Culture
Fashion, like many other design fields, undergoes numerous evolutions throughout the ages. This paper aims to recognize and evaluate the significance of advance technology in fashion design and examine how it changes the role of modern fashion designers by modifying the creation process. It also touches on how modern culture is involved in such developments and how it affects fashion design in terms of conceptualizing and fabrication. The methodology used is through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design and drawing parallels between what was achievable then and what is achievable now. By comparing case studies, existing fashion design examples and crafting method experimentations; we then spot patterns in which to predict the direction of future developments in the field. A breakdown on the elements of technology in fashion design helps us understand the driving force behind such a trend. The results from explorations in the paper have shown that there is an observed pattern of a distinct increase in interest and progress in the field of fashion technology, which leads to the birth of hybrid crafting methods. In conclusion, it is shown that as fashion technology continues to evolve, their role in clothing crafting becomes more prominent and grows far beyond the humble sewing machine.
Interpreting Chopin’s Music Today: Mythologization of Art: Kitsch
The subject of this abstract is related to the notion of 'popular music', a notion that should be treated with extreme care, particularly when applied to Frederic Chopin, one of the greatest composers of Romanticism. By ‘popular music’, we mean a category of everyday music, set against the more intellectual kind, referred to as ‘classical’. We only need to look back to the culture of the nineteenth century to realize that this ‘popular music’ refers to the ‘music of the low’. It can be studied from a sociological viewpoint, or as sociological aesthetics. However, we cannot ignore the fact that, very quickly, this music spread to the wealthiest strata of the European society of the nineteenth century, while likewise the lowest classes often listen to the intellectual classical music, so pleasant to listen to. Further, we can observe that a sort of ‘sacralisation of kitsch’ occurs at the intersection between the classical and popular music. This process is the topic of this contribution. We will start by investigating the notion of kitsch through the study of Chopin’s popular compositions. However, before considering the popularisation of this music in today’s culture, we will have to focus on the use of the word kitsch in Chopin’s times, through his own musical aesthetics. Finally, the objective here will be to negate the theory that art is simply the intellectual definition of aesthetics. A kitsch can, obviously, only work on the emotivity of the masses, as it represents one of the features of culture-language (the words which the masses identify with). All art is transformed, becoming something outdated or even outmoded. Here, we are truly within a process of mythologization of art, through the study of the aesthetic reception of the musical work.
Using Daily Light Integral Concept to Construct the Ecological Plant Design Strategy of Urban Landscape
It is an indispensible strategy to adopt greenery
approach on architectural bases so as to improve ecological habitats,
decrease heat-island effect, purify air quality, and relieve surface
runoff as well as noise pollution, all of which are done in an attempt to
achieve sustainable environment. How we can do with plant design to
attain the best visual quality and ideal carbon dioxide fixation depends
on whether or not we can appropriately make use of greenery
according to the nature of architectural bases. To achieve the goal, it is
a need that architects and landscape architects should be provided with
sufficient local references. Current greenery studies focus mainly on
the heat-island effect of urban with large scale. Most of the architects
still rely on people with years of expertise regarding the adoption and
disposition of plantation in connection with microclimate scale.
Therefore, environmental design, which integrates science and
aesthetics, requires fundamental research on landscape environment
technology divided from building environment technology. By doing
so, we can create mutual benefits between green building and the
environment. This issue is extremely important for the greening design
of the bases of green buildings in cities and various open spaces. The
purpose of this study is to establish plant selection and allocation
strategies under different building sunshade levels. Initially, with the
shading of sunshine on the greening bases as the starting point, the
effects of the shades produced by different building types on the
greening strategies were analyzed. Then, by measuring the PAR
(photosynthetic active radiation), the relative DLI (daily light integral)
was calculated, while the DLI Map was established in order to
evaluate the effects of the building shading on the established
environmental greening, thereby serving as a reference for plant
selection and allocation. The discussion results were to be applied in
the evaluation of environment greening of greening buildings and
establish the “right plant, right place” design strategy of multi-level
ecological greening for application in urban design and landscape
design development, as well as the greening criteria to feedback to the
eco-city greening buildings.
Reading against the Grain: Transcodifying Stimulus Meaning
The paper shows that on transferring sense from the
SL to the TL, the translator’s reading against the grain determines the
creation of a faulty pattern of rendering the original meaning in the
receiving culture which reflects the use of misleading transformative
codes. In this case, the translator is a writer per se who decides what
goes in and out of the book, how the style is to be ciphered and what
elements of ideology are to be highlighted. The paper also proves that
figurative language must not be flattened for the sake of clarity or
naturalness. The missing figurative elements make the translated text
less interesting, less challenging and less vivid which reflects poorly
on the writer. There is a close connection between style and the
writer’s person. If the writer’s style is very much altered in a
translation, the translation is useless as the original writer and his /
her imaginative world can no longer be discovered. The purpose of the paper is to prove that adaptation is a dangerous
tool which leads to variants that sometimes reflect the original less
than the reader would wish to. It contradicts the very essence of the
process of translation which is that of making an original work
available in a foreign language. If the adaptive transformative codes
are so flexible that they encourage the translator to repeatedly leave
out parts of the original work, then a subversive pattern emerges
which changes the entire book. In conclusion, as a result of using adaptation, manipulative or
subversive effects are created in the translated work. This is generally
achieved by adding new words or connotations, creating new figures
of speech or using explicitations. The additional meanings of the
original work are neglected and the translator creates new meanings,
implications, emphases and contexts. Again s/he turns into a new
author who enjoys the freedom of expressing his / her own ideas
without the constraints of the original text. Reading against the grain
is unadvisable during the process of translation and consequently,
following personal common sense becomes essential in the field of
translation as well as everywhere else, so that translation should not
become a source of fantasy.
The Use of Themes and Variations in Early and Contemporary Juju Music
This paper discusses the thematic structure of Yoruba
popular music of Southwest Nigeria. It examines the use of themes
and variations in early and contemporary Juju music. The work is an
outcome of a research developed by the author in his doctoral studies
at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, with the aim of analyzing the
thematic and motivic developments in Yoruba popular genres.
Observations, interviews, live recordings and CDs were used as
methods for eliciting information. Field recordings and CDs of
selected musical samples were also transcribed and notated. The
research established the prevalent use of string of themes by Juju
musicians as a compositional technique in moving from one musical
section to another, as they communicate the verbal messages in their
song. These themes consist of the popular ‘call and response’ form
found in most African music, analogous to the western ‘subject and
answer’ style of the fugue or sonata form, although without the tonic–
dominant relations. Due to the short and repetitive form of African
melodies and rhythms, a theme is restated as a variation, where its
rhythmic and melodic motifs are stylistically developed and repeated,
but still retaining its recognizable core musical structure. The
findings of this study showed that Juju musicians generally often
employ a thematic plan where new themes are used to arrange the
songs into sections, and each theme is developed into variations in
order to further expand the music, eliminate monotony, and create
musical aesthetics, serving as hallmark of its musical identity. The
study established the musical and extra-musical attributes of the
genre, while recommending further research towards analyzing the
various compositional techniques employed in African popular
Public Art and Public Space in an Emerging Knowledge Economy: The Case of Doha
Qatar, a Gulf country highly dependent on its oil and
gas revenues – is looking to innovate, diversify, and ultimately reach
its aim of creating a knowledge economy to prepare for its post-oil
era. One area that the country is investing in is Contemporary Art,
and world renowned artists such as Damien Hirst and Richard Serra –
have been commissioned to design site-specific art for the public
spaces of the city of Doha as well as in more remote desert locations.
This research discusses the changing presence, role and context of
public art in Doha, both from a historical and cultural overview, and
the different forms and media as well as the typologies of urban and
public spaces in which the art is installed. It examines the process of
implementing site-specific artworks, looking at questions of scale,
history, social meaning and formal aesthetics. The methodologies
combine theoretical research on the understanding of public art and
its role and placement in public space, as well as empirical research
on contemporary public art projects in Doha, based on documentation
and interviews and as well as site and context analysis of the urban or
architectural spaces within which the art is situated. Surveys and
interviews – using social media - in different segments of the
contemporary Qatari society, including all nationalities and social
groups, are used to measure and qualify the impacts and effects on
A Study of Thai Muslims’ Way of Life through Their Clothes
The purpose of this research was to investigate Thai Muslims’ way of life through the way their clothes. The data of this qualitative research were collected from related documents and research reports, ancient cloths and clothing, and in-depth interviews with clothes owners and weavers.
The research found that in the 18th century Thai Muslims in the three southern border provinces used many types of clothing in their life. At home women wore plain clothes. They used checked cloths to cover the upper part of their body from the breasts down to the waist. When going out, they used Lima cloth and So Kae with a piece of Pla-nging cloth as a head scarf. For men, they wore a checked sarong as a lower garment, and wore no upper garment. However, when going out, they wore Puyo Potong. In addition, Thai Muslims used cloths in various religious rites, namely, the rite of placing a baby in a cradle, the Masoyawi rite, the Nikah rite, and the burial rite. These types of cloths were related to the way of life of Thai Muslims from birth to death. They reflected the race, gender, age, social status, values, and beliefs in traditions that have been inherited.
Practical Implication: Woven in these cloths are the lost local wisdom, and therefore, aesthetics on the cloths are like mirrors reflecting the background of people in this region that is fading away. These cloths are pages of a local history book that is of importance and value worth for preservation and publicity so that they are treasured. Government organizations can expand and materialize the knowledge received from the study in accordance with government policy in supporting the One Tambon, One Product project.
Traditions of Theatrical Art in the Space of Nomadic Culture of the Kazakhs
A number of theoretical and methodological problems connected with substantiation of a new approach and searches of a new research paradigm and the analysis of features of formation and development of the Kazakh stage are considered in the article. The wide spectrum of questions connected with genesis of the Kazakh stage art has caused necessity of consideration of world outlook and social cultural aspects which have affected formation of the given phenomenon in the Kazakh culture. But how can we define the form of expression and aesthetics of the national theatre? Probably, the answer to this question we will find if we apply to deep world view sources, and, as a consequence, it is necessary to study deeply the plot dramaturgy, which is based on myths, rites and eposes, mastering of symbolic gestures and mimics, allegory of a word, etc.
Measuring Creativity in Die Products for Technological Education
Creative design requires new approaches to assessment
in vocational and technological education. To date, there has been little
discussion on instruments used to evaluate dies produced by students
in vocational and technological education. Developing a generic
instrument has been very difficult due to the diversity of creative
domains, the specificity of content, and the subjectivity involved in
judgment. This paper presents an instrument for measuring the
creativity in the design of products by expanding the Consensual
Assessment Technique (CAT). The content-based scale was evaluated
for content validity by 5 experts. The scale comprises 5 criteria:
originality; practicability; precision; aesthetics; and exchangeability.
Nine experts were invited to evaluate the dies produced by 38 college
students who enrolled in a Product Design and Development course.
To further explore the degree of rater agreement, inter-rater reliability
was calculated for each dimension using Kendall's coefficient of
concordance test. The inter-judge reliability scores achieved
significance, with coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.71.
Factors of Successful Wooden Furniture Design Process
This study systemizes processes and methods in
wooden furniture design that contains uniqueness in function and
aesthetics. The study was done by research and analysis for
designer-s consideration factors that affect function and production.
Therefore, the study result indicates that such factors are design
process (planning for design, product specifications, concept design,
product architecture, industrial design, production), design evaluation
as well as wooden furniture design dependent factors i.e. art (art
style; furniture history, form), functionality (the strength and
durability, area place, using), material (appropriate to function, wood
mechanical properties), joints, cost, safety, and social responsibility.
Specifically, all aforementioned factors affect good design. Resulting
from direct experience gained through user-s usage, the designer
must design the wooden furniture systemically and effectively. As a
result, this study selected dinning armchair as a case study with all
involving factors and all design process stated in this study.
Design Aesthetics of Mobile Interface
Mobiles are considered to be the most frequently used
electronic items in world after electricity. It is probably the only
device that can be used by any gender with no age limits depending
on its functionality. This paper present the interactive interface of
Mobile and particularly aiming the use of advanced phones which are
also called smart phones. With the changes in the trend where users
are now moving from ordinary mobiles to the one with touch screens
and facilities such as WiFi and internet browsing.
Increasing of Energy Efficiency based on Persian Ancient Architectural Patterns in Desert Regions (Case Study Of Traditional Houses In Kashan)
In general architecture means the art of creating the
space. Comprehensive and complete body which is created by a
creative and purposeful thought to respond the human needs.
Professionally, architecture is the are of designing and
comprehensive planning of physical spaces that is created for
human-s productivity. The purpose of architectural design is to
respond the human needs which is appeared in physical frame.
Human in response to his needs is always looking to achieve comfort.
Throughout history of human civilization this relative comfort has
been inspired by nature and assimilating the facility and natural
achievement in the format of artifact patterns base on the nature, so
that it is achieved in this comfort level and invention of these factors.
All physical factors like regional, social and economical factors are
made available to human in order to achieve a specific goal and are
made to gain an ideal architecture to respond the functional needs and
consider the aesthetics and elemental principles and pay attention to
residents- comfort. In this study the Persian architecture with
exploiting and transforming the energies into the requisite energies of
architecture spaces and importing fuel products, utilities, etc, in order
to achieve a relative comfort level will be investigated. In this paper
the study of structural and physical specialties of traditional houses in
desert regions and Central Plateau of Iran gave us this opportunity to
being more familiar with important specialties of energy productivity
in architecture body of traditional houses in these regions specially
traditional houses of Kashan and in order to use these principles to
create modern architectures in these regions.
Aesthetics and Robotics: Which Form to give to the Human-Like Robot?
The recent development of humanoid robots has led robot designers to imagine a great variety of anthropomorphic forms for human-like machine. Which form is the best ? We try to answer this question from a double meaning of the anthropomorphism : a positive anthropomorphism corresponing to the realization of an effective anthropomorphic form object and a negative one corresponding to our natural tendency in certain circumstances to give human attributes to non-human beings. We postulate that any humanoid robot is concerned by both these two anthropomorphism kinds. We propose to use gestalt theory and Heider-s balance theory in order to analyze how negative anthropomorphism can influence our perception of human-like robots. From our theoretical approach we conclude that an “even shape" as defined by gestalt theory is not a sufficient condition for a good integration of future humanoid robots into a human community. Aesthetic perception of the robot cannot be splitted from a social perception : a humanoid robot, any how the efforts made for improving its appearance, could be rejected if it is devoted to a task with too high affective implications.