Language Policy as an Instrument for Nation Building and Minority Representation: Supporting Cases from South Asia
Nation-building has been a key consideration in ethno-linguistically diverse post-colonial ‘artificial states’, where ethnic tensions, religious differences and the risk of persecution of minorities are common. Language policy can help with nation-building, but it can also hinder the process. An important challenge is in recognising which language policy to adopt. This article proposes that the designation of a widely used lingua franca as a national language (in an official capacity or otherwise) - in a culturally, ethnically and linguistically diverse post-colonial state - assists its nation-building efforts in the long run. To demonstrate, this paper looks at the cases of Sri Lanka, Indonesia and India: three young nations which together emerged out of the Second World War with comparable colonial experiences, but subsequently adopted different language policies to different effects. Insights presented underscore the significance of inclusive language policy in sustainable nation-building in states with comparable post-colonial experiences.
 Alesina, A, W Easterly and J Matuszeski. "Artificial states." Journal of the European Economic Association 9.2, 2011: 246-277. p.246.
 Fukuyama, F. The Origins of Political Order. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011.
 Fukuyama, F. Political Order and Political Decay. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014.
 Acemoğlu, D and J Robinson. Why Nations Fail. New York: Crown Business, 2012.
 Weber, M. "Politik als Beruf." Munich, 1919.
 Miguel, E. "Tribe or Nation?: Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya Versus Tanzania." World Politics 56.3 (2004): 327-362.
 Blommaert, J. "Language Policy and National Identity." An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method. Ed. T Ricento. Malden: Blackwell, 2006. 238-254.
 Fee, L. The Politics of Nation Building and Citizenship in Singapore. London: Routledge, 1995.
 Dardjowidjojo, S. "Strategies for a successful national language policy: the Indonesian case." International Journal of the Sociology of Language 130.1, 1998: 35–48.
 Dong, J. "The Enregisterment of Putonghua in Practice." Language & Communication 30, 2010: 265–275.
 Gebresilassie, F. "Choosing a Working Language in Multiethnic Nations: Rethinking Ethiopia's Working Language Policy." n.d. Aigaforum. 12 September 2016. .
 Laitin, D. "Language Policy and Civil War." Proceedings of the 7th Francqui Colloq. Ed. P Parjis. Brussels: De Boeck, 2004. 171-187.
 Li, D. "Chinese as a lingua franca in greater China." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26, 2006: 149-176.
 Kaufman, S. "The limits of nation-building in the Philippines." International Area Studies Review (2013): 3–23.
 Paauw, S. "One Land, One Nation, One Language: An Analysis of Indonesia’s National Language Policy." University of Rochester Working Papers in the Language Sciences 5.1, 2009: 2-16.
 Smolicz, J. "National Language Policy in the Philippines." Language and Education in Multilingual Settings. Ed. B Spolsky. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1986. 96-116.
 Bhattacharya, U. "Colonization and English ideologies in India: a language policy perspective." Language Policy, 2016.
 Collier, D. "The Comparative Method." Political Science: The State of the Discipline. Ed. A Finifter. Washington DC: American Political Science Association, 1993. 105-119.
 Lijphart, A. "Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method." The American Political Science Review 65.3, 1971: 682-693.
 Montolalu, L and L Suryadinata. "National Language and Nation Building: The Case of Bahasa Indonesia." Language, Nation and Development in South East Asia. Ed. L Guan and L Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS, 2007. 39-50.
 de Silva, K. A History of Sri Lanka. 2nd. Gurgaon: Penguin, 2005.
 Weiss, G. The Cage: The fight for Sri Lanka & the Last Days of the Tamil Tigers. Sydney: PanMacmillan, 2011.
 Lee, K. From Third World To First – The Singapore Story: 1965-2000. London: Harper Collins, 2000.
 Richardson, J. Paradise Lost: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars. Kandy: International Centre for Ethnic Studies, 2005.
 Wriggins, W. Ceylon: Dilemmas of a New Nation. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1960.
 DeVotta, N. "Ethnolinguistic Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka." Fighting Words: Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia. London: MIT Press, 2003. 105-140.
 Brown, M and Š Ganguly. "Introduction." Fighting Words: Language Policy and Ethnic Relations in Asia. London: MIT Press, 2003. 1-18.
 Wijesundara, N. Whither or Whether the Executive Presidency: A Study in the Light of Separatism. Pannipitiya: Stamford Lake, 2010. p.141.
 Hariharan, T. "Looking Back at the Indo-Sri Lankan Accord." The Hindu 28 July 2010. 7 July 2016. .
 Swamy, N. "India-Sri Lanka Accord: Does it Still Flicker." IPCS Issue Brief 2007: 1-4.
 Martyn, S. "In Post-Conflict Sri Lanka, Language is Essential for Reconciliation." 13 January 2013. The Asia Foundation. 10 July 2016. .
 Kirkpatrick, A. "English as an Asian lingua franca and the multilingual model of ELT." Language Teaching 44.2, 2010: 212–224.
 Sneddon, J. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. Sydney: UNSW Press, 2003.
 Saba, N. "Linguistic heterogeneity and multilinguality in India: a linguistic assessment of Indian language policies." Doctoral Thesis. Aligarh Muslim University, 2011.
 Das Gupta, J. Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and National Devt. Berkley: University of California, 1970.
 Perera, A. "Consequences of adopting a multiple language policy in a multilingual and multiethnic country: the case of India." Proceedg of the 1st Undergrad Research Symposium. Colombo: Univ of Kelaniya, 2015.
 NCERT. "National focus group on the teaching of English: Position paper on the teaching of English." Position Paper No.1.4. Delhi: National Council Of Educational Research And Training, 2006. 1-26.