International Science Index
Antenna for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Connected Objects
If connected objects multiply, they are becoming a
challenge in more than one way. In particular by their consumption
and their supply of electricity. A large part of the new generations of
connected objects will only be able to develop if it is possible to make
them entirely autonomous in terms of energy. Some manufacturers are
therefore developing products capable of recovering energy from their
environment. Vital solutions in certain contexts, such as the medical
industry. Energy recovery from the environment is a reliable solution
to solve the problem of powering wireless connected objects. This
paper presents and study a optically transparent solar patch antenna
in frequency band of 2.4 GHz for connected objects in the future
standard 5G for energy harvesting and RF transmission.
Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems
The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.
Relation of Optimal Pilot Offsets in the Shifted Constellation-Based Method for the Detection of Pilot Contamination Attacks
One possible approach for maintaining the security of communication systems relies on Physical Layer Security mechanisms. However, in wireless time division duplex systems, where uplink and downlink channels are reciprocal, the channel estimate procedure is exposed to attacks known as pilot contamination, with the aim of having an enhanced data signal sent to the malicious user. The Shifted 2-N-PSK method involves two random legitimate pilots in the training phase, each of which belongs to a constellation, shifted from the original N-PSK symbols by certain degrees. In this paper, legitimate pilots’ offset values and their influence on the detection capabilities of the Shifted 2-N-PSK method are investigated. As the implementation of the technique depends on the relation between the shift angles rather than their specific values, the optimal interconnection between the two legitimate constellations is investigated. The results show that no regularity exists in the relation between the pilot contamination attacks (PCA) detection probability and the choice of offset values. Therefore, an adversary who aims to obtain the exact offset values can only employ a brute-force attack but the large number of possible combinations for the shifted constellations makes such a type of attack difficult to successfully mount. For this reason, the number of optimal shift value pairs is also studied for both 100% and 98% probabilities of detecting pilot contamination attacks. Although the Shifted 2-N-PSK method has been broadly studied in different signal-to-noise ratio scenarios, in multi-cell systems the interference from the signals in other cells should be also taken into account. Therefore, the inter-cell interference impact on the performance of the method is investigated by means of a large number of simulations. The results show that the detection probability of the Shifted 2-N-PSK decreases inversely to the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio.
Comparative Analysis of Geographical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
The field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) engages a lot of associates in the research community as an interdisciplinary field of interest. This type of network is inexpensive, multifunctionally attributable to advances in micro-electromechanical systems and conjointly the explosion and expansion of wireless communications. A mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network without fastened infrastructure or federal management. Due to the infrastructure-less mode of operation, mobile ad-hoc networks are gaining quality. During this work, we have performed an efficient performance study of the two major routing protocols: Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols. We have used an accurate simulation model supported NS2 for this purpose. Our simulation results showed that AODV mitigates the drawbacks of the DSDV and provides better performance as compared to DSDV.
Research and Application of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Wireless Communications Standards for Spacecraft
According to the new requirements of the future spacecraft, such as networking, modularization and non-cable, this paper studies the CCSDS wireless communications standards, and focuses on the low data-rate wireless communications for spacecraft monitoring and control. The application fields and advantages of wireless communications are analyzed. Wireless communications technology has significant advantages in reducing the weight of the spacecraft, saving time in spacecraft integration, etc. Based on this technology, a scheme for spacecraft data system is put forward. The corresponding block diagram and key wireless interface design of the spacecraft data system are given. The design proposal of the wireless node and information flow of the spacecraft are also analyzed. The results show that the wireless communications scheme is reasonable and feasible. The wireless communications technology can meet the future spacecraft demands in networking, modularization and non-cable.
Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code
Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a
great development during the last decade which makes it a promising
candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring
considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However,
like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in
terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To
face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular
counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on
distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud,
Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way
to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping
code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the
performances of the protocol in terms of security communication
in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband
impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different
merits of the protocols are analyzed.
Ankh Key Broadband Array Antenna for 5G Applications
A simple design of array antenna is presented in this paper, supporting millimeter wave applications which can be used in short range wireless communications such as 5G applications. This design enhances the use of V-band, according to IEEE standards, as the antenna works in the 70 GHz band with bandwidth more than 11 GHz and peak gain more than 13 dBi. The design is simulated using different numerical techniques achieving a very good agreement.
Computing Continuous Skyline Queries without Discriminating between Static and Dynamic Attributes
Although most of the existing skyline queries algorithms focused basically on querying static points through static databases; with the expanding number of sensors, wireless communications and mobile applications, the demand for continuous skyline queries has increased. Unlike traditional skyline queries which only consider static attributes, continuous skyline queries include dynamic attributes, as well as the static ones. However, as skyline queries computation is based on checking the domination of skyline points over all dimensions, considering both the static and dynamic attributes without separation is required. In this paper, we present an efficient algorithm for computing continuous skyline queries without discriminating between static and dynamic attributes. Our algorithm in brief proceeds as follows: First, it excludes the points which will not be in the initial skyline result; this pruning phase reduces the required number of comparisons. Second, the association between the spatial positions of data points is examined; this phase gives an idea of where changes in the result might occur and consequently enables us to efficiently update the skyline result (continuous update) rather than computing the skyline from scratch. Finally, experimental evaluation is provided which demonstrates the accuracy, performance and efficiency of our algorithm over other existing approaches.
Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems
In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.
Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links
Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.
An Adaptive Opportunistic Transmission for Unlicensed Spectrum Sharing in Heterogeneous Networks
Efficient utilization of spectrum resources is a
fundamental issue of wireless communications due to its scarcity.
To improve the efficiency of spectrum utilization, the spectrum
sharing for unlicensed bands is being regarded as one of key
technologies in the next generation wireless networks. A number
of schemes such as Listen-Before-Talk(LBT) and carrier sensor
adaptive transmission (CSAT) have been suggested from this aspect,
but more efficient sharing schemes are required for improving
spectrum utilization efficiency. This work considers an opportunistic
transmission approach and a dynamic Contention Window (CW)
adjustment scheme for LTE-U users sharing the unlicensed spectrum
with Wi-Fi, in order to enhance the overall system throughput. The
decision criteria for the dynamic adjustment of CW are based on
the collision evaluation, derived from the collision probability of the
system. The overall performance can be improved due to the adaptive
adjustment of the CW. Simulation results show that our proposed
scheme outperforms the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
mechanism of IEEE 802.11 MAC.
An Approach for the Integration of the Existing Wireless Networks
The demand of high quality services has fueled
dimensional research and development in wireless communications
and networking. As a result, different wireless technologies like
Wireless LAN, CDMA, GSM, UMTS, MANET, Bluetooth and
satellite networks etc. have emerged in the last two decades. Future
networks capable of carrying multimedia traffic need IP convergence,
portability, seamless roaming and scalability among the existing
networking technologies without changing the core part of the
existing communications networks. To fulfill these goals, the present
networking systems are required to work in cooperation to ensure
technological independence, seamless roaming, high security and
authentication, guaranteed Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a
conceptual framework for a cooperative network (CN) is proposed
for integration of heterogeneous existing networks to meet out the
requirements of the next generation wireless networks.
The SEMONT Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Environmental EMF Pollution
Wireless communications have been expanded very fast in recent decades. This technology relies on an extensive network of base stations and antennas, using radio frequency signals to transmit information. Devices that use wireless communication, while offering various services, basically act as sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF). Such devices are permanently present in human vicinity and almost constantly radiate, causing EMF pollution of the environment. This fact has initiated development of modern systems for observation of the EMF pollution, as well as for risk assessment. This paper presents the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network – SEMONT, designed for automated, remote and continuous broadband monitoring of EMF in the environment. Measurement results of the SEMONT monitoring at one of the test locations, within the main campus of the University of Novi Sad, are presented and discussed, along with corresponding exposure assessment of the general population, regarding the Serbian legislation.
Augmentation Opportunity of Transmission Control Protocol Performance in Wireless Networks and Cellular Systems
The advancement in wireless technology with the wide
use of mobile devices have drawn the attention of the research and
technological communities towards wireless environments, such as
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Wide Area
Networks (WWANs), and mobile systems and ad-hoc networks.
Unfortunately, wired and wireless networks are expressively different
in terms of link reliability, bandwidth, and time of propagation delay
and by adapting new solutions for these enhanced
telecommunications, superior quality, efficiency, and opportunities
will be provided where wireless communications were otherwise
unfeasible. Some researchers define 4G as a significant improvement
of 3G, where current cellular network’s issues will be solved and data
transfer will play a more significant role. For others, 4G unifies
cellular and wireless local area networks, and introduces new routing
techniques, efficient solutions for sharing dedicated frequency bands,
and an increased mobility and bandwidth capacity. This paper
discusses the possible solutions and enhancements probabilities that
proposed to improve the performance of Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) over different wireless networks and also the paper
investigated each approach in term of advantages and disadvantages.
Wideband Tunable RF Filters for Channel Selection in Crowded Spectral Bands
It is very effective way to utilize a very wide tunable filter in co-existing multi-standards wireless communications environment. Especially, as the long term evolution (LTE) communication era has come, the multi-band coverage is one of the important features required for the RF components. In this paper, we present the frequency conversion technique, and so generate two types of RF filters which are specially designed for the superb tunable ability to support multiple wireless communication standards. With the help of a complex mixing structure, the inherent image signal is suppressed. The RF band-pass filter (BPF) and notch filter achieve 1.8dB and 1.6dB insertion losses and 18 dB and 17 dB attenuations, respectively. The quality factor show greater than 30.
An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs
This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.
Wireless Sensor Network: Characteristics and Architectures
An information procuring and processing emerging technology wireless sensor network (WSN) Consists of autonomous nodes with versatile devices underpinned by applications. Nodes are equipped with different capabilities such as sensing, computing, actuation and wireless communications etc. based on application requirements. A WSN application ranges from military implementation in the battlefield, environmental monitoring, health sector as well as emergency response of surveillance. The nodes are deployed independently to cooperatively monitor the physical and environmental conditions. The architecture of WSN differs based on the application requirements and focus on low cost, flexibility, fault tolerance capability, deployment process as well as conserve energy. In this paper we have present the characteristics, architecture design objective and architecture of WSN
Matrix-Interleaved Serially Concatenated Block Codes for Speech Transmission in Fixed Wireless Communication Systems
In this paper, we study a class of serially concatenated block codes (SCBC) based on matrix interleavers, to be employed in fixed wireless communication systems. The performances of SCBC¬coded systems are investigated under various interleaver dimensions. Numerical results reveal that the matrix interleaver could be a competitive candidate over conventional block interleaver for frame lengths of 200 bits; hence, the SCBC coding based on matrix interleaver is a promising technique to be employed for speech transmission applications in many international standards such as pan-European Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800, and Joint Detection Code Division Multiple Access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio systems, where the speech frame contains around 200 bits.
Investigating Simple Multipath Compensation for Frequency Modulated Signals at Lower Frequencies
Radio propagation from point-to-point is affected by
the physical channel in many ways. A signal arriving at a destination
travels through a number of different paths which are referred to as
multi-paths. Research in this area of wireless communications has
progressed well over the years with the research taking different
angles of focus. By this is meant that some researchers focus on
ways of reducing or eluding Multipath effects whilst others focus on
ways of mitigating the effects of Multipath through compensation
schemes. Baseband processing is seen as one field of signal
processing that is cardinal to the advancement of software defined
radio technology. This has led to wide research into the carrying out
certain algorithms at baseband. This paper considers compensating
for Multipath for Frequency Modulated signals. The compensation
process is carried out at Radio frequency (RF) and at Quadrature
baseband (QBB) and the results are compared. Simulations are
carried out using MatLab so as to show the benefits of working at
lower QBB frequencies than at RF.
A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications
A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.
The Performance Analysis of CSS-based Communication Systems in the Jamming Environment
Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp
spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in
the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little
rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication
system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic
results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol
error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying
(MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming
signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical
SER closely agrees with the analytic result.
The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems
In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage
power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic
shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope
power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of
searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and
determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for
one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data.
Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code
always have the minimum PAPR.
Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications
In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the
complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial
focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal
one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband
multi-user wireless communications. The results show that, by optimally
selecting the number of used taps in the pre-filter the optimal
one bit TR system can outperform the full one bit TR system. In
some cases, the temporal and spatial focusing performance of the
optimal one bit TR system appears to be compatible with that of the
original TR system. This is a significant result as the overhead cost
is much lower than it is required in the original TR system.
RRNS-Convolutional Concatenated Code for OFDM based Wireless Communication with Direct Analog-to-Residue Converter
The modern telecommunication industry demands
higher capacity networks with high data rate. Orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high data
rate wireless communications at reasonable complexity in wireless
channels. OFDM has been adopted for many types of wireless
systems like wireless local area networks such as IEEE 802.11a, and
digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB/DVB). The proposed research
focuses on a concatenated coding scheme that improve the
performance of OFDM based wireless communications. It uses a
Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS) code as the outer code
and a convolutional code as the inner code. Here, a direct conversion
of analog signal to residue domain is done to reduce the conversion
complexity using sigma-delta based parallel analog-to-residue
converter. The bit error rate (BER) performances of the proposed
system under different channel conditions are investigated. These
include the effect of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),
multipath delay spread, peak power clipping and frame start
synchronization error. The simulation results show that the proposed
RRNS-Convolutional concatenated coding (RCCC) scheme provides
significant improvement in the system performance by exploiting the
inherent properties of RRNS.
Issues in Deploying Smart Antennas in Mobile Radio Networks
With the exponentially increasing demand for
wireless communications the capacity of current cellular systems will
soon become incapable of handling the growing traffic. Since radio
frequencies are diminishing natural resources, there seems to be a
fundamental barrier to further capacity increase. The solution can be
found in smart antenna systems.
Smart or adaptive antenna arrays consist of an array of antenna
elements with signal processing capability, that optimize the
radiation and reception of a desired signal, dynamically. Smart
antennas can place nulls in the direction of interferers via adaptive
updating of weights linked to each antenna element. They thus cancel
out most of the co-channel interference resulting in better quality of
reception and lower dropped calls. Smart antennas can also track the
user within a cell via direction of arrival algorithms. This implies that
they are more advantageous than other antenna systems. This paper
focuses on few issues about the smart antennas in mobile radio
System Concept for Low Analog Complexity and High-IF Superposition Heterodyne Receivers
For today-s and future wireless communications applications,
more and more data traffic has to be transmitted with
growing speed and quality demands. The analog front-end of any
mobile device has to cope with very hard specifications regardless
which transmission standard has to be supported. State-of-the-art
analog front-end implementations are reaching the limit of technical
feasibility. For that reason, alternative front-end architectures could
support a continuing development of mobile communications e.g.,
six-port-based front-ends , .
In this article we propose an analog front-end with high intermediate
frequency and which utilizes additive mixing instead
of multiplicative mixing. The system architecture is presented and
several spurious effects as well as their influence on the system
dimensioning are discussed. Furthermore, several issues concerning
the technical feasibility are provided and some simulation results
are discussed which show the principle functionality of the proposed
superposition heterodyne receiver.
New Proxy Signatures Preserving Privacy and as Secure as ElGamal Signatures
Digital signature is a useful primitive to attain the integrity and authenticity in various wire or wireless communications. Proxy signature is one type of the digital signatures. It helps the proxy signer to sign messages on behalf of the original signer. It is very useful when the original signer (e.g. the president of a company) is not available to sign a specific document. If the original signer can not forge valid proxy signatures through impersonating the proxy signer, it will be robust in a virtual environment; thus the original signer can not shift any illegal action initiated by herself to the proxy signer. In this paper, we propose a new proxy signature scheme. The new scheme can prevent the original signer from impersonating the proxy signer to sign messages. The proposed scheme is based on the regular ElGamal signature. In addition, the fair privacy of the proxy signer is maintained. That means, the privacy of the proxy signer is preserved; and the privacy can be revealed when it is necessary.
Emerging Wireless Standards - WiFi, ZigBee and WiMAX
The world of wireless telecommunications is rapidly evolving. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. This paper presents the emerging technologies helping wireless systems grow from where we are today into our visions of the future. This paper will cover the applications and characteristics of emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). The purpose of this paper is to explain the impending 802.11n standard and how it will enable WLANs to support emerging media-rich applications. The paper will also detail how 802.11n compares with existing WLAN standards and offer strategies for users considering higher-bandwidth alternatives. The emerging IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) standard aims to provide low data rate wireless communications with high-precision ranging and localization, by employing UWB technologies for a low-power and low cost solution. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standard for wireless data transmission covering a range similar to cellular phone towers. With high performance in both distance and throughput, WiMAX technology could be a boon to current Internet providers seeking to become the leader of next generation wireless Internet access. This paper also explores how these emerging technologies differ from one another.