International Science Index
Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals
In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction
accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings
mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which
are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating
signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following
two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features
have the different contributions to construct the health indicators,
the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When
convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency
features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered.
To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining
convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to
extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are
utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life
of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency
images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the
original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers
of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of
time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets.
Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit
to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed
method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which
have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.
River Stage-Discharge Forecasting Based on Multiple-Gauge Strategy Using EEMD-DWT-LSSVM Approach
This study presented hybrid pre-processing approach along with a conceptual model to enhance the accuracy of river discharge prediction. In order to achieve this goal, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition algorithm (EEMD), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Mutual Information (MI) were employed as a hybrid pre-processing approach conjugated to Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM). A conceptual strategy namely multi-station model was developed to forecast the Souris River discharge more accurately. The strategy used herein was capable of covering uncertainties and complexities of river discharge modeling. DWT and EEMD was coupled, and the feature selection was performed for decomposed sub-series using MI to be employed in multi-station model. In the proposed feature selection method, some useless sub-series were omitted to achieve better performance. Results approved efficiency of the proposed DWT-EEMD-MI approach to improve accuracy of multi-station modeling strategies.
A Spatial Information Network Traffic Prediction Method Based on Hybrid Model
Compared with terrestrial network, the traffic of spatial information network has both self-similarity and short correlation characteristics. By studying its traffic prediction method, the resource utilization of spatial information network can be improved, and the method can provide an important basis for traffic planning of a spatial information network. In this paper, considering the accuracy and complexity of the algorithm, the spatial information network traffic is decomposed into approximate component with long correlation and detail component with short correlation, and a time series hybrid prediction model based on wavelet decomposition is proposed to predict the spatial network traffic. Firstly, the original traffic data are decomposed to approximate components and detail components by using wavelet decomposition algorithm. According to the autocorrelation and partial correlation smearing and truncation characteristics of each component, the corresponding model (AR/MA/ARMA) of each detail component can be directly established, while the type of approximate component modeling can be established by ARIMA model after smoothing. Finally, the prediction results of the multiple models are fitted to obtain the prediction results of the original data. The method not only considers the self-similarity of a spatial information network, but also takes into account the short correlation caused by network burst information, which is verified by using the measured data of a certain back bone network released by the MAWI working group in 2018. Compared with the typical time series model, the predicted data of hybrid model is closer to the real traffic data and has a smaller relative root means square error, which is more suitable for a spatial information network.
Labview-Based System for Fiber Links Events Detection
With the rapid development of modern communication,
diagnosing the fiber-optic quality and faults in real-time is widely
focused. In this paper, a Labview-based system is proposed for
fiber-optic faults detection. The wavelet threshold denoising method
combined with Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is applied to
denoise the optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) signal. Then
the method based on Gabor representation is used to detect events.
Experimental measurements show that signal to noise ratio (SNR)
of the OTDR signal is improved by 1.34dB on average, compared
with using the wavelet threshold denosing method. The proposed
system has a high score in event detection capability and accuracy.
The maximum detectable fiber length of the proposed Labview-based
system can be 65km.
Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Broken Bar Problem in Induction Motors Base Wavelet Analysis and EMD Method: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran
Nowadays, induction motors have a significant role in industries. Condition monitoring (CM) of this equipment has gained a remarkable importance during recent years due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk, and uncertainty levels. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is one of the most important techniques in CM. This method can be used for rotor broken bars detection. Signal processing methods such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), Wavelet transformation and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) are used for analyzing MCSA output data. In this study, these signal processing methods are used for broken bar problem detection of Mobarakeh steel company induction motors. Based on wavelet transformation method, an index for fault detection, CF, is introduced which is the variation of maximum to the mean of wavelet transformation coefficients. We find that, in the broken bar condition, the amount of CF factor is greater than the healthy condition. Based on EMD method, the energy of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) is calculated and finds that when motor bars become broken the energy of IMFs increases.
Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM
Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and
important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect
the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders
that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper
demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and
grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and
artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the
cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients.
The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet
transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of
120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the
image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A
comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector
machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for
the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave
better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8%
accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.
Dynamic Web-Based 2D Medical Image Visualization and Processing Software
In the course of recent decades, medical imaging has
been dominated by the use of costly film media for review and
archival of medical investigation, however due to developments in
networks technologies and common acceptance of a standard digital
imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) another approach
in light of World Wide Web was produced. Web technologies
successfully used in telemedicine applications, the combination of
web technologies together with DICOM used to design a web-based
and open source DICOM viewer. The Web server allowance to
inquiry and recovery of images and the images viewed/manipulated
inside a Web browser without need for any preinstalling software.
The dynamic site page for medical images visualization and
The XAMPP ‘apache server’ is used to create a local web server for
testing and deployment of the dynamic site. The web-based viewer
connected to multiples devices through local area network (LAN) to
distribute the images inside healthcare facilities. The system offers a
few focal points over ordinary picture archiving and communication
systems (PACS): easy to introduce, maintain and independently
platforms that allow images to display and manipulated efficiently,
the system also user-friendly and easy to integrate with an existing
system that have already been making use of web technologies. The
wavelet-based image compression technique on which 2-D discrete
wavelet transform used to decompose the image then wavelet
coefficients are transmitted by entropy encoding after threshold to
decrease transmission time, stockpiling cost and capacity. The
performance of compression was estimated by using images quality
metrics such as mean square error ‘MSE’, peak signal to noise ratio
‘PSNR’ and compression ratio ‘CR’ that achieved (83.86%) when
‘coif3’ wavelet filter is used.
Multiscale Modelization of Multilayered Bi-Dimensional Soils
Soil moisture content is a key variable in many environmental sciences. Even though it represents a small proportion of the liquid freshwater on Earth, it modulates interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather. Accurate modeling of the above processes depends on the ability to provide a proper spatial characterization of soil moisture. The measurement of soil moisture content allows assessment of soil water resources in the field of hydrology and agronomy. The second parameter in interaction with the radar signal is the geometric structure of the soil. Most traditional electromagnetic models consider natural surfaces as single scale zero mean stationary Gaussian random processes. Roughness behavior is characterized by statistical parameters like the Root Mean Square (RMS) height and the correlation length. Then, the main problem is that the agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical values is usually poor due to the large variability of the correlation function, and as a consequence, backscattering models have often failed to predict correctly backscattering. In this study, surfaces are considered as band-limited fractal random processes corresponding to a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian process each one having a spatial scale. Multiscale roughness is characterized by two parameters, the first one is proportional to the RMS height, and the other one is related to the fractal dimension. Soil moisture is related to the complex dielectric constant. This multiscale description has been adapted to two-dimensional profiles using the bi-dimensional wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe more correctly natural surfaces. We characterize the soil surfaces and sub-surfaces by a three layers geo-electrical model. The upper layer is described by its dielectric constant, thickness, a multiscale bi-dimensional surface roughness model by using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm, and volume scattering parameters. The lower layer is divided into three fictive layers separated by an assumed plane interface. These three layers were modeled by an effective medium characterized by an apparent effective dielectric constant taking into account the presence of air pockets in the soil. We have adopted the 2D multiscale three layers small perturbations model including, firstly air pockets in the soil sub-structure, and then a vegetable canopy in the soil surface structure, that is to simulate the radar backscattering. A sensitivity analysis of backscattering coefficient dependence on multiscale roughness and new soil moisture has been performed. Later, we proposed to change the dielectric constant of the multilayer medium because it takes into account the different moisture values of each layer in the soil. A sensitivity analysis of the backscattering coefficient, including the air pockets in the volume structure with respect to the multiscale roughness parameters and the apparent dielectric constant, was carried out. Finally, we proposed to study the behavior of the backscattering coefficient of the radar on a soil having a vegetable layer in its surface structure.
Feature Extraction Technique for Prediction the Antigenic Variants of the Influenza Virus
In genetics, the impact of neighboring amino acids on
a target site is referred as the nearest-neighbor effect or simply
neighbor effect. In this paper, a new method called wavelet particle
decomposition representing the one-dimensional neighbor effect
using wavelet packet decomposition is proposed. The main idea lies
in known dependence of wavelet packet sub-bands on location and
order of neighboring samples. The method decomposes the value of
a signal sample into small values called particles that represent a part
of the neighbor effect information. The results have shown that the
information obtained from the particle decomposition can be used to
create better model variables or features. As an example, the approach
has been applied to improve the correlation of test and reference
sequence distance with titer in the hemagglutination inhibition assay.
Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area
In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer
interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on
the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the
Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four
modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive
headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove
noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method;
(iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform
(WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer
artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing
the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the
headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke
area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by
the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the
produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of
83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the
WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near
Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain
a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of
the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears
particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple
to use BCI, trained for several words.
A Low-Power Two-Stage Seismic Sensor Scheme for Earthquake Early Warning System
The north-eastern, Himalayan, and Eastern Ghats Belt
of India comprise of earthquake-prone, remote, and hilly terrains.
Earthquakes have caused enormous damages in these regions in the
past. A wireless sensor network based earthquake early warning
system (EEWS) is being developed to mitigate the damages caused
by earthquakes. It consists of sensor nodes, distributed over the
region, that perform majority voting of the output of the seismic
sensors in the vicinity, and relay a message to a base station to alert
the residents when an earthquake is detected. At the heart of the
EEWS is a low-power two-stage seismic sensor that continuously
tracks seismic events from incoming three-axis accelerometer signal
at the first-stage, and, in the presence of a seismic event, triggers
the second-stage P-wave detector that detects the onset of P-wave
in an earthquake event. The parameters of the P-wave detector have
been optimized for minimizing detection time and maximizing the
accuracy of detection.Working of the sensor scheme has been verified
with seven earthquakes data retrieved from IRIS. In all test cases, the
scheme detected the onset of P-wave accurately. Also, it has been
established that the P-wave onset detection time reduces linearly with
the sampling rate. It has been verified with test data; the detection
time for data sampled at 10Hz was around 2 seconds which reduced
to 0.3 second for the data sampled at 100Hz.
Empirical Mode Decomposition with Wavelet Transform Based Analytic Signal for Power Quality Assessment
This paper proposes empirical mode decomposition
(EMD) together with wavelet transform (WT) based analytic signal
for power quality (PQ) events assessment. EMD decomposes the
complex signals into several intrinsic mode functions (IMF). As
the PQ events are non stationary, instantaneous parameters have
been calculated from these IMFs using analytic signal obtained
form WT. We obtained three parameters from IMFs and then used
KNN classifier for classification of PQ disturbance. We compared
the classification of proposed method for PQ events by obtaining
the features using Hilbert transform (HT) method. The classification
efficiency using WT based analytic method is 97.5% and using HT
based analytic signal is 95.5%.
Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature
A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.
Image Dehazing Using Dark Channel Prior and Fast Guided Filter in Daubechies Lifting Wavelet Transform Domain
In this paper a method for image dehazing is proposed in lifting wavelet transform domain. Lifting Daubechies (D4) wavelet has been used to obtain the approximate image and detail images. As the haze is contained in low frequency part, only the approximate image is used for further processing. This region is processed by dehazing algorithm based on dark channel prior (DCP). The dehazed approximate image is then recombined with the detail images using inverse lifting wavelet transform. Implementation of lifting wavelet transform has the advantage of auxiliary memory saving, fast implementation and simplicity. Also, the proposed method deals with near white scene problem, blue horizon issue and localized light sources in a way to enhance image quality and makes the algorithm robust. Simulation results present improvement in terms of visual quality, parameters such as root mean square (RMS) contrast, structural similarity index (SSIM), entropy and execution time.
Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking
In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.
Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition
The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.
Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network
This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.
Speech Enhancement Using Wavelet Coefficients Masking with Local Binary Patterns
In this paper, we present a wavelet coefficients masking
based on Local Binary Patterns (WLBP) approach to enhance the
temporal spectra of the wavelet coefficients for speech enhancement.
This technique exploits the wavelet denoising scheme, which splits
the degraded speech into pyramidal subband components and extracts
frequency information without losing temporal information. Speech
enhancement in each high-frequency subband is performed by binary
labels through the local binary pattern masking that encodes the ratio
between the original value of each coefficient and the values of the
neighbour coefficients. This approach enhances the high-frequency
spectra of the wavelet transform instead of eliminating them through
a threshold. A comparative analysis is carried out with conventional
speech enhancement algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed
technique achieves significant improvements in terms of PESQ, an
international recommendation of objective measure for estimating
subjective speech quality. Informal listening tests also show that
the proposed method in an acoustic context improves the quality
of speech, avoiding the annoying musical noise present in other
speech enhancement techniques. Experimental results obtained with a
DNN based speech recognizer in noisy environments corroborate the
superiority of the proposed scheme in the robust speech recognition
Multi-Layer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Network Models for Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Using Video-Oculography Signals
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).
Risk Factors’ Analysis on Shanghai Carbon Trading
First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then, the frequency response diagram is analyzed and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed; respectively, we got the average value for each 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 days. Finally, the data are used as input of the Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.
Scattering Operator and Spectral Clustering for Ultrasound Images: Application on Deep Venous Thrombi
Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a
thrombus is formed within a deep vein (most often in the legs). This
disease can be deadly if a part or the whole thrombus reaches the
lung and causes a Pulmonary Embolism (PE). This disorder, often
asymptomatic, has multifactorial causes: immobilization, surgery,
pregnancy, age, cancers, and genetic variations. Our project aims to
relate the thrombus epidemiology (origins, patient predispositions,
PE) to its structure using ultrasound images. Ultrasonography and
elastography were collected using Toshiba Aplio 500 at Brest
Hospital. This manuscript compares two classification approaches:
spectral clustering and scattering operator. The former is based on
the graph and matrix theories while the latter cascades wavelet
convolutions with nonlinear modulus and averaging operators.
Forecasting Electricity Spot Price with Generalized Long Memory Modeling: Wavelet and Neural Network
This aims of this paper is to forecast the electricity spot prices. First, we focus on modeling the conditional mean of the series so we adopt a generalized fractional -factor Gegenbauer process (k-factor GARMA). Secondly, the residual from the -factor GARMA model has used as a proxy for the conditional variance; these residuals were predicted using two different approaches. In the first approach, a local linear wavelet neural network model (LLWNN) has developed to predict the conditional variance using the Back Propagation learning algorithms. In the second approach, the Gegenbauer generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity process (G-GARCH) has adopted, and the parameters of the k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH model has estimated using the wavelet methodology based on the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) approach. The empirical results have shown that the k-factor GARMA-G-GARCH model outperform the hybrid k-factor GARMA-LLWNN model, and find it is more appropriate for forecasts.
Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm for Image Watermarking Based Discrete Wavelet Transform
Over communication networks, images can be easily copied and distributed in an illegal way. The copyright protection for authors and owners is necessary. Therefore, the digital watermarking techniques play an important role as a valid solution for authority problems. Digital image watermarking techniques are used to hide watermarks into images to achieve copyright protection and prevent its illegal copy. Watermarks need to be robust to attacks and maintain data quality. Therefore, we discussed in this paper two approaches for image watermarking, first is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the second approach is based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). Discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used with the two approaches separately for embedding process to cover image transformation. Each of PSO and GA is based on co-relation coefficient to detect the high energy coefficient watermark bit in the original image and then hide the watermark in original image. Many experiments were conducted for the two approaches with different values of PSO and GA parameters. From experiments, PSO approach got better results with PSNR equal 53, MSE equal 0.0039. Whereas GA approach got PSNR equal 50.5 and MSE equal 0.0048 when using population size equal to 100, number of iterations equal to 150 and 3×3 block. According to the results, we can note that small block size can affect the quality of image watermarking based PSO/GA because small block size can increase the search area of the watermarking image. Better PSO results were obtained when using swarm size equal to 100.
Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms
In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.
Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit
Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.
Detection of Voltage Sag and Voltage Swell in Power Quality Using Wavelet Transforms
Voltage sag, voltage swell, high-frequency noise and voltage transients are kinds of disturbances in power quality. They are also known as power quality events. Equipment used in the industry nowadays has become more sensitive to these events with the increasing complexity of equipment. This leads to the importance of distributing clean power quality to the consumer. To provide better service, the best analysis on power quality is very vital. Thus, this paper presents the events detection focusing on voltage sag and swell. The method is developed by applying time domain signal analysis using wavelet transform approach in MATLAB. Four types of mother wavelet namely Haar, Dmey, Daubechies, and Symlet are used to detect the events. This project analyzed real interrupted signal obtained from 22 kV transmission line in Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. The signals will be decomposed through the wavelet mothers. The best mother is the one that is capable to detect the time location of the event accurately.
Lifting Wavelet Transform and Singular Values Decomposition for Secure Image Watermarking
In this paper, we present a technique of secure watermarking of grayscale and color images. This technique consists in applying the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in LWT (Lifting Wavelet Transform) domain in order to insert the watermark image (grayscale) in the host image (grayscale or color image). It also uses signature in the embedding and extraction steps. The technique is applied on a number of grayscale and color images. The performance of this technique is proved by the PSNR (Pick Signal to Noise Ratio), the MSE (Mean Square Error) and the SSIM (structural similarity) computations.
Wavelet-Based ECG Signal Analysis and Classification
This paper presents the processing and analysis of ECG signals. The study is based on wavelet transform and uses exclusively the MATLAB environment. This study includes removing Baseline wander and further de-noising through wavelet transform and metrics such as signal-to noise ratio (SNR), Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the mean squared error (MSE) are used to assess the efficiency of the de-noising techniques. Feature extraction is subsequently performed whereby signal features such as heart rate, rise and fall levels are extracted and the QRS complex was detected which helped in classifying the ECG signal. The classification is the last step in the analysis of the ECG signals and it is shown that these are successfully classified as Normal rhythm or Abnormal rhythm. The final result proved the adequacy of using wavelet transform for the analysis of ECG signals.
High Sensitivity Crack Detection and Locating with Optimized Spatial Wavelet Analysis
In this study, a spatial wavelet-based crack localization technique for a thick beam is presented. Wavelet scale in spatial wavelet transformation is optimized to enhance crack detection sensitivity. A windowing function is also employed to erase the edge effect of the wavelet transformation, which enables the method to detect and localize cracks near the beam/measurement boundaries. Theoretical model and vibration analysis considering the crack effect are first proposed and performed in MATLAB based on the Timoshenko beam model. Gabor wavelet family is applied to the beam vibration mode shapes derived from the theoretical beam model to magnify the crack effect so as to locate the crack. Relative wavelet coefficient is obtained for sensitivity analysis by comparing the coefficient values at different positions of the beam with the lowest value in the intact area of the beam. Afterward, the optimal wavelet scale corresponding to the highest relative wavelet coefficient at the crack position is obtained for each vibration mode, through numerical simulations. The same procedure is performed for cracks with different sizes and positions in order to find the optimal scale range for the Gabor wavelet family. Finally, Hanning window is applied to different vibration mode shapes in order to overcome the edge effect problem of wavelet transformation and its effect on the localization of crack close to the measurement boundaries. Comparison of the wavelet coefficients distribution of windowed and initial mode shapes demonstrates that window function eases the identification of the cracks close to the boundaries.
Smartphone Video Source Identification Based on Sensor Pattern Noise
An increasing number of mobile devices with integrated
cameras has meant that most digital video comes from these devices.
These digital videos can be made anytime, anywhere and for different
purposes. They can also be shared on the Internet in a short period
of time and may sometimes contain recordings of illegal acts. The
need to reliably trace the origin becomes evident when these videos
are used for forensic purposes. This work proposes an algorithm
to identify the brand and model of mobile device which generated
the video. Its procedure is as follows: after obtaining the relevant
video information, a classification algorithm based on sensor noise
and Wavelet Transform performs the aforementioned identification
process. We also present experimental results that support the validity
of the techniques used and show promising results.