International Science Index
System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids
Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation
power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and
decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid
estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows
of energy have been brought to the power gird. In order to achieve
efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric
power more and more information and communication technologies
are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids.
Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased
and has converged into several standards which will be presented
here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to
satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth
investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in
existing grids on it’s dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a
retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and it’s performance
in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this,
integration of security measures into measurement architectures of
smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.
An Attribute Based Access Control Model with POL Module for Dynamically Granting and Revoking Authorizations
Currently, resource sharing and system security are
critical issues. This paper proposes a POL module composed of
PRIV ILEGE attribute (PA), obligation and log which improves
attribute based access control (ABAC) model in dynamically granting
authorizations and revoking authorizations. The following describes
the new model termed PABAC in terms of the POL module
structure, attribute definitions, policy formulation and authorization
architecture, which demonstrate the advantages of it. The POL
module addresses the problems which are not predicted before and
not described by access control policy. It can be one of the subject
attributes or resource attributes according to the practical application,
which enhances the flexibility of the model compared with ABAC.
A scenario that illustrates how this model is applied to the real world
Improving the Security of Internet of Things Using Encryption Algorithms
Internet of things (IOT) is a kind of advanced information technology which has drawn societies’ attention. Sensors and stimulators are usually recognized as smart devices of our environment. Simultaneously, IOT security brings up new issues. Internet connection and possibility of interaction with smart devices cause those devices to involve more in human life. Therefore, safety is a fundamental requirement in designing IOT. IOT has three remarkable features: overall perception, reliable transmission, and intelligent processing. Because of IOT span, security of conveying data is an essential factor for system security. Hybrid encryption technique is a new model that can be used in IOT. This type of encryption generates strong security and low computation. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid encryption algorithm which has been conducted in order to reduce safety risks and enhancing encryption's speed and less computational complexity. The purpose of this hybrid algorithm is information integrity, confidentiality, non-repudiation in data exchange for IOT. Eventually, the suggested encryption algorithm has been simulated by MATLAB software, and its speed and safety efficiency were evaluated in comparison with conventional encryption algorithm.
Factors Affecting M-Government Deployment and Adoption
Governments constantly seek to offer faster, more secure, efficient and effective services for their citizens. Recent changes and developments to communication services and technologies, mainly due the Internet, have led to immense improvements in the way governments of advanced countries carry out their interior operations Therefore, advances in e-government services have been broadly adopted and used in various developed countries, as well as being adapted to developing countries. The implementation of advances depends on the utilization of the most innovative structures of data techniques, mainly in web dependent applications, to enhance the main functions of governments. These functions, in turn, have spread to mobile and wireless techniques, generating a new advanced direction called m-government. This paper discusses a selection of available m-government applications and several business modules and frameworks in various fields. Practically, the m-government models, techniques and methods have become the improved version of e-government. M-government offers the potential for applications which will work better, providing citizens with services utilizing mobile communication and data models incorporating several government entities. Developing countries can benefit greatly from this innovation due to the fact that a large percentage of their population is young and can adapt to new technology and to the fact that mobile computing devices are more affordable. The use of models of mobile transactions encourages effective participation through the use of mobile portals by businesses, various organizations, and individual citizens. Although the application of m-government has great potential, it does have major limitations. The limitations include: the implementation of wireless networks and relative communications, the encouragement of mobile diffusion, the administration of complicated tasks concerning the protection of security (including the ability to offer privacy for information), and the management of the legal issues concerning mobile applications and the utilization of services.
Contingency Screening Using Risk Factor Considering Transmission Line Outage
Power system security analysis is the most time demanding process due to large number of possible contingencies that need to be analyzed. In a power system, any contingency resulting in security violation such as line overload or low voltage may occur for a number of reasons at any time. To efficiently rank a contingency, both probability and the extent of security violation must be considered so as not to underestimate the risk associated with the contingency. This paper proposed a contingency ranking method that take into account the probabilistic nature of power system and the severity of contingency by using a newly developed method based on risk factor. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 24-bus system.
ATC in Competitive Electricity Market Using TCSC
In a deregulated power system structure, power producers and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. All parties in this open access environment may try to purchase the energy from the cheaper source for greater profit margins, which may lead to overloading and congestion of certain corridors of the transmission network. This may result in violation of line flow, voltage and stability limits and thereby undermine the system security. Utilities therefore need to determine adequately their available transfer capability (ATC) to ensure that system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of bilateral and multilateral transactions. This paper presents power transfer distribution factor based on AC load flow for the determination and enhancement of ATC. The study has been carried out for IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System.
Security Model of a Unified Communications and Integrated Collaborations System in the Health Sector Environment of Developing Countries: A Case of Uganda
Access to information holds the key to the empowerment of everybody despite where they are living. This research has been carried out in respect of the people living in developing countries, considering their plight and complex geographical, demographic, social-economic conditions surrounding the areas they live, which hinder access to information and of professionals providing services such as medical workers, which has led to high death rates and development stagnation. Research on Unified Communications and Integrated Collaborations (UCIC) system in the health sector of developing countries aims at creating a possible solution of bridging the digital canyon among the communities. The system is meant to deliver services in a seamless manner to assist health workers situated anywhere to be accessed easily and access information which will enhance service delivery. The proposed UCIC provides the most immersive telepresence experience for one-to-one or many-to-many meetings. Extending to locations anywhere in the world, the transformative platform delivers Ultra-low operating costs through the use of general purpose networks and using special lenses and track systems. The essence of this study is to create a security model for the deployment of the UCIC system in the health sector of developing countries. The model approach used for building the UCIC system security carefully considers the specific requirements for the health sector environment organization such as data centre, national, regional and district hospitals, and health centers IV, III, II and I and then builds the single best possible secure network to meet their needs. The security model demonstrates on how the components of the UCIC system will be protected physically and logically in the health sector environment. The UCIC system once adopted and implemented correctly will bring enhancement to the speed and quality of services offered by health workers. The capacities of UCIC will help health workers shorten decision cycles, accelerate service delivery and save lives by speeding access to information and by making it possible for all health workers and patients to collaborate ubiquitously.
Information System Security Effectiveness Attributes: A Tanzanian Company Case Study
In today-s highly globalised and competitive world
access to information plays key role in having an upper hand between
business rivals. Hence, proper protection of such crucial resource is
core to any modern business. Implementing a successful information
security system is basically centered around three pillars; technical
solution involving both software and hardware, information security
controls to translate the policies and procedure in the system and the
people to implement. This paper shows that a lot needs to be done for
countries adapting information technology to process, store and
distribute information to secure adequately such core resource.
Variation of Spot Price and Profits of Andhra Pradesh State Grid in Deregulated Environment
In this paper variation of spot price and total profits of
the generating companies- through wholesale electricity trading are
discussed with and without Central Generating Stations (CGS) share
and seasonal variations are also considered. It demonstrates how
proper analysis of generators- efficiencies and capabilities, types of
generators owned, fuel costs, transmission losses and settling price
variation using the solutions of Optimal Power Flow (OPF), can
allow companies to maximize overall revenue. It illustrates how
solutions of OPF can be used to maximize companies- revenue under
different scenarios. And is also extended to computation of Available
Transfer Capability (ATC) is very important to the transmission
system security and market forecasting. From these results it is
observed that how crucial it is for companies to plan their daily
operations and is certainly useful in an online environment of
deregulated power system. In this paper above tasks are demonstrated
on 124 bus real-life Indian utility power system of Andhra Pradesh
State Grid and results have been presented and analyzed.
Reduction of Power Losses in Distribution Systems
Losses reduction initiatives in distribution systems
have been activated due to the increasing cost of supplying
electricity, the shortage in fuel with ever-increasing cost to produce
more power, and the global warming concerns. These initiatives have
been introduced to the utilities in shape of incentives and penalties.
Recently, the electricity distribution companies in Oman have been
incentivized to reduce the distribution technical and non-technical
losses with an equal annual reduction rate for 6 years. In this paper,
different techniques for losses reduction in Mazoon Electricity
Company (MZEC) are addressed. In this company, high numbers of
substation and feeders were found to be non-compliant with the
Distribution System Security Standard (DSSS). Therefore, 33
projects have been suggested to bring non-complying 29 substations
and 28 feeders to meet the planed criteria and to comply with the
DSSS. The largest part of MZEC-s network (South Batinah region)
was modeled by ETAP software package. The model has been
extended to implement the proposed projects and to examine their
effects on losses reduction. Simulation results have shown that the
implementation of these projects leads to a significant improvement
in voltage profile, and reduction in the active and the reactive power
losses. Finally, the economical analysis has revealed that the
implementation of the proposed projects in MZEC leads to an annual
saving of about US$ 5 million.
A New Framework to Model a Secure E-Commerce System
The existing information system (IS) developments
methods are not met the requirements to resolve the security related
IS problems and they fail to provide a successful integration of
security and systems engineering during all development process
stages. Hence, the security should be considered during the whole
software development process and identified with the requirements
specification. This paper aims to propose an integrated security and
IS engineering approach in all software development process stages
by using i* language. This proposed framework categorizes into three
separate parts: modelling business environment part, modelling
information technology system part and modelling IS security part.
The results show that considering security IS goals in the whole
system development process can have a positive influence on system
implementation and better meet business expectations.
Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis
This paper focuses on PSS/E modeling of wind farms
of Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type and their impact on
issues of power system operation. Since Wind Turbine Generators
(WTG) don-t have the same characteristics as synchronous
generators, the appropriate modeling of wind farms is essential for
transmission system operators to analyze the best options of
transmission grid reinforcements as well as to evaluate the wind
power impact on reliability and security of supply. With the high
excepted penetration of wind power into the power system a
simultaneous loss of Wind Farm generation will put at risk power
system security and reliability. Therefore, the main wind grid code
requirements concern the fault ride through capability and frequency
operation range of wind turbines. In case of grid faults wind turbines
have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the
instantaneous voltage and to return quickly to normal operation.
The implementation of IHE ATNA for the EHR system
The health record in the Electronic Health Record
(EHR) system is more sensitive than demographic. It raises the
important issue for the EHR requirement in privacy, security, audit
trail, patient access, and archiving and data retention. The studies
about the EHR system security are deficient. The aim of this study is to
build a security environment for the EHR system by Integrating the
Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Audit Trail and Node Authentication
Security (ATNA) profile. The CDAs can be access in a secure EHR
Power System Security Assessment using Binary SVM Based Pattern Recognition
Power System Security is a major concern in real time
operation. Conventional method of security evaluation consists of
performing continuous load flow and transient stability studies by
simulation program. This is highly time consuming and infeasible
for on-line application. Pattern Recognition (PR) is a promising
tool for on-line security evaluation. This paper proposes a Support
Vector Machine (SVM) based binary classification for static and
transient security evaluation. The proposed SVM based PR approach
is implemented on New England 39 Bus and IEEE 57 Bus systems.
The simulation results of SVM classifier is compared with the other
classifier algorithms like Method of Least Squares (MLS), Multi-
Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
Power Generation Scheduling of Thermal Units Considering Gas Pipelines Constraints
With the growth of electricity generation from gas
energy gas pipeline reliability can substantially impact the electric
generation. A physical disruption to pipeline or to a compressor
station can interrupt the flow of gas or reduce the pressure and lead
to loss of multiple gas-fired electric generators, which could
dramatically reduce the supplied power and threaten the power
system security. Gas pressure drops during peak loading time on
pipeline system, is a common problem in network with no enough
transportation capacity which limits gas transportation and causes
many problem for thermal domain power systems in supplying their
demand. For a feasible generation scheduling planning in networks
with no sufficient gas transportation capacity, it is required to
consider gas pipeline constraints in solving the optimization problem
and evaluate the impacts of gas consumption in power plants on gas
pipelines operating condition. This paper studies about operating of
gas fired power plants in critical conditions when the demand of gas
and electricity peak together. An integrated model of gas and electric
model is used to consider the gas pipeline constraints in the economic
dispatch problem of gas-fueled thermal generator units.
Optimal Location of Multi Type Facts Devices for Multiple Contingencies Using Particle Swarm Optimization
In deregulated operating regime power system security is an issue that needs due thoughtfulness from researchers in the horizon of unbundling of generation and transmission. Electric power systems are exposed to various contingencies. Network contingencies often contribute to overloading of branches, violation of voltages and also leading to problems of security/stability. To maintain the security of the systems, it is desirable to estimate the effect of contingencies and pertinent control measurement can be taken on to improve the system security. This paper presents the application of particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal location of multi type FACTS devices in a power system in order to eliminate or alleviate the line over loads. The optimizations are performed on the parameters, namely the location of the devices, their types, their settings and installation cost of FACTS devices for single and multiple contingencies. TCSC, SVC and UPFC are considered and modeled for steady state analysis. The selection of UPFC and TCSC suitable location uses the criteria on the basis of improved system security. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested for IEEE 6 bus and IEEE 30 bus test systems.
Transient Stability Assessment Using Fuzzy SVM and Modified Preventive Control
Transient Stability is an important issue in power systems planning, operation and extension. The objective of transient stability analysis problem is not satisfied with mere transient instability detection or evaluation and it is most important to complement it by defining fast and efficient control measures in order to ensure system security. This paper presents a new Fuzzy Support Vector Machines (FSVM) to investigate the stability status of power systems and a modified generation rescheduling scheme to bring back the identified unstable cases to a more economical and stable operating point. FSVM improves the traditional SVM (Support Vector Machines) by adding fuzzy membership to each training sample to indicate the degree of membership of this sample to different classes. The preventive control based on economic generator rescheduling avoids the instability of the power systems with minimum change in operating cost under disturbed conditions. Numerical results on the New England 39 bus test system show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Zero-knowledge-like Proof of Cryptanalysis of Bluetooth Encryption
This paper presents a protocol aiming at proving that an encryption system contains structural weaknesses without disclosing any information on those weaknesses. A verifier can check in a polynomial time that a given property of the cipher system output has been effectively realized. This property has been chosen by the prover in such a way that it cannot been achieved by known attacks or exhaustive search but only if the prover indeed knows some undisclosed weaknesses that may effectively endanger the cryptosystem security. This protocol has been denoted zero-knowledge-like proof of cryptanalysis. In this paper, we apply this protocol to the Bluetooth core encryption algorithm E0, used in many mobile environments and thus we suggest that its security can seriously be put into question.
Power System Security Constrained Economic Dispatch Using Real Coded Quantum Inspired Evolution Algorithm
This paper presents a new optimization technique based on quantum computing principles to solve a security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED). The proposed technique is a population-based algorithm, which uses some quantum computing elements in coding and evolving groups of potential solutions to reach the optimum following a partially directed random approach. The SCED problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in a way that insures a secure-economic system operation. Real Coded Quantum-Inspired Evolution Algorithm (RQIEA) is then applied to solve the constrained optimization formulation. Simulation results of the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature. The outcome is very encouraging and proves that RQIEA is very applicable for solving security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED).
An Online Evaluation of Operating Reserve for System Security
Utilities use operating reserve for frequency regulation.To ensure that the operating frequency and system security are well maintained, the operating grid codes always specify that the reserve quantity and response rate should meet some prescribed levels. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate system's contingency reserve for an isolated power network. With the presented algorithm to estimate system's frequency response characteristic, an online allocation of contingency reserve would be feasible to meet the grid codes for contingency operation. Test results from the simulated conditions, and from the actual operating data verify the merits of the proposed methodology to system's frequency control, and security.
Application of Pattern Search Method to Power System Security Constrained Economic Dispatch
Direct search methods are evolutionary algorithms used to solve optimization problems. (DS) methods do not require any information about the gradient of the objective function at hand while searching for an optimum solution. One of such methods is Pattern Search (PS) algorithm. This paper presents a new approach based on a constrained pattern search algorithm to solve a security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED). Operation of power systems demands a high degree of security to keep the system satisfactorily operating when subjected to disturbances, while and at the same time it is required to pay attention to the economic aspects. Pattern recognition technique is used first to assess dynamic security. Linear classifiers that determine the stability of electric power system are presented and added to other system stability and operational constraints. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in a way that insures a secure-economic system operation. Pattern search method is then applied to solve the constrained optimization formulation. In particular, the method is tested using one system. Simulation results of the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature. The outcome is very encouraging and proves that pattern search (PS) is very applicable for solving security constrained power system economic dispatch problem (SCED).