International Science Index

12
10011337
Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-element Probe for Wearable Human-machine Interface
Abstract:
Shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles can be obtained by shear wave elastography (SWE) and has been linearly related to muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented using array probes. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable human-machine interfaces (HMI). Moreover, beamforming processing for array probes reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMIs, a customized three-element probe is adopted in this work, with one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation are adopted to estimate velocities of tissues on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds are calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by changing the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06 and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm respectively. This work verifies the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable devices.
Paper Detail
36
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11
10010635
Evaluation of Bone and Body Mineral Profile in Association with Protein Content, Fat, Fat-Free, Skeletal Muscle Tissues According to Obesity Classification among Adult Men
Abstract:

Obesity is associated with increased fat mass as well as fat percentage. Minerals are the elements, which are of vital importance. In this study, the relationships between body as well as bone mineral profile and the percentage as well as mass values of fat, fat-free portion, protein, skeletal muscle were evaluated in adult men with normal body mass index (N-BMI), and those classified according to different stages of obesity. A total of 103 adult men classified into five groups participated in this study. Ages were within 19-79 years range. Groups were N-BMI (Group 1), overweight (OW) (Group 2), first level of obesity (FLO) (Group 3), second level of obesity (SLO) (Group 4) and third level of obesity (TLO) (Group 5). Anthropometric measurements were performed. BMI values were calculated. Obesity degree, total body fat mass, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral adiposity, body mineral mass, body mineral percentage, bone mineral mass, bone mineral percentage, fat-free mass, fat-free percentage, protein mass, protein percentage, skeletal muscle mass and skeletal muscle percentage were determined by TANITA body composition monitor using bioelectrical impedance analysis technology. Statistical package (SPSS) for Windows Version 16.0 was used for statistical evaluations. The values below 0.05 were accepted as statistically significant. All the groups were matched based upon age (p > 0.05). BMI values were calculated as 22.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2, 27.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2, 32.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2, 37.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2, and 47.1 ± 6.1 kg/m2 for groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Visceral adiposity and BMR values were also within an increasing trend. Percentage values of mineral, protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle masses were decreasing going from normal to TLO. Upon evaluation of the percentages of protein, fat-free portion and skeletal muscle, statistically significant differences were noted between NW and OW as well as OW and FLO (p < 0.05). However, such differences were not observed for body and bone mineral percentages. Correlation existed between visceral adiposity and BMI was stronger than that detected between visceral adiposity and obesity degree. Correlation between visceral adiposity and BMR was significant at the 0.05 level. Visceral adiposity was not correlated with body mineral mass but correlated with bone mineral mass whereas significant negative correlations were observed with percentages of these parameters (p < 0.001). BMR was not correlated with body mineral percentage whereas a negative correlation was found between BMR and bone mineral percentage (p < 0.01). It is interesting to note that mineral percentages of both body as well as bone are highly affected by the visceral adiposity. Bone mineral percentage was also associated with BMR. From these findings, it is plausible to state that minerals are highly associated with the critical stages of obesity as prominent parameters.

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Paper Detail
187
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10
10009532
The Role of Chemerin and Myostatin after Physical Activity
Abstract:

Obesity and overweight is one of the most common metabolic disorders in industrialized countries and in developing countries. One consequence of pathological obesity is cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Chemerin is an adipocyne that plays a role in the regulation of the adipocyte function and the metabolism of glucose in the liver and musculoskeletal system. Most likely, chemerin is involved in obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercises reduce the level of chemerin and cause macrophage penetration into fat cells and inflammatory factors. Several efforts have been made to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. Myostatin, a new member of the TGF-β family, is a transforming growth factor β that its expression negatively regulates the growth of the skeletal muscle; and the increase of this hormone has been observed in conditions of muscular atrophy. While in response to muscle overload, its levels decrease after the atrophy period, TGF-β is the most important cytokine in the development of skeletal muscle. Myostatin plays an important role in muscle control, and animal and human studies show a negative role of myostatin in the growth of skeletal muscle. Separation of myostatin from Golgi begins on the ninth day of the onset period and continues until birth at all times of muscle growth. Higher levels of myostatin are found in obese people. Resistance training for 10 weeks could reduce levels of plasma myostatin.

Paper Detail
324
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9
10006452
The Effect of Physical Exercise to Level of Nuclear Factor Kappa B on Serum, Macrophages and Myocytes
Abstract:

Background: Physical exercise induces a pattern of hormonal and immunological responses that prevent endothelial dysfunction by maintaining the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Regular and moderate exercise stimulates NO release, that can be considered as protective factor of cardiovascular diseases, while strenuous exercise induces increased levels in a number of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) triggers endothelial activation which results in an increased vascular permeability. Nuclear gene factor kappa B (NF-κB) activates biological effect of TNF-α. Aim of Study: To determine the effect of physical exercise on the endothelial and skeletal muscle, we measured the level of NF-κB on rats’ serum, macrophages, and myocytes after strenuous physical exercise. Methods: 30 male Rattus norvegicus in the age of eight weeks were randomly divided into five groups (each containing six), and there were treated groups (T) and control group (C). The treated groups obtain strenuous physical exercise by ran on treadmill at 32 m/minutes for 1 hour or until exhaustion. Blood samples, myocytes of gastrocnemius muscle, and intraperitoneal macrophages were collected sequentially. There were investigated immediately, 2 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours (T1, T2, T3, and T4) after sacrifice. The levels of NF-κB were measured by ELISA methods. Results: From our study, we found that the levels of NF-κB on myocytes in treated group from which its specimen was taken immediately (T1), 2 hours after treadmill (T2), and 6 hours after treadmill (T3) were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), while the group from which its specimen was taken 24 hours after treadmill, was no significantly different (p>0.05). Also on macrophages, NF-κB in treated groups T1, T2, and T3 was significantly higher than control group (p<0.05), but there was no difference between T4 and control group (p>0.05). The level of serum NF-κB was not significantly different between treatment group as well as compared to control group (p>0.05). Serum NF-κB was significantly higher than the level on macrophages and myocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that strenuous physical exercise stimulates the activation of NF-κB that plays a role in vascular inflammation and muscular damage, and may be recovered after resting period.

Paper Detail
680
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8
10006372
Effect of Aging on the Second Law Efficiency, Exergy Destruction and Entropy Generation in the Skeletal Muscles during Exercise
Abstract:
The second law muscle work efficiency is obtained by multiplying the metabolic and mechanical work efficiencies. Thermodynamic analyses are carried out with 19 sets of arms and legs exercise data which were obtained from the healthy young people. These data are used to simulate the changes occurring during aging. The muscle work efficiency decreases with aging as a result of the reduction of the metabolic energy generation in the mitochondria. The reduction of the mitochondrial energy efficiency makes it difficult to carry out the maintenance of the muscle tissue, which in turn causes a decline of the muscle work efficiency. When the muscle attempts to produce more work, entropy generation and exergy destruction increase. Increasing exergy destruction may be regarded as the result of the deterioration of the muscles. When the exergetic efficiency is 0.42, exergy destruction becomes 1.49 folds of the work performance. This proportionality becomes 2.50 and 5.21 folds when the exergetic efficiency decreases to 0.30 and 0.17 respectively.
Paper Detail
942
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7
10004261
Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue
Abstract:

This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Paper Detail
1296
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6
10003143
Study of Human Upper Arm Girth during Elbow Isokinetic Contractions Based on a Smart Circumferential Measuring System
Abstract:
As one of the convenient and noninvasive sensing approaches, the automatic limb girth measurement has been applied to detect intention behind human motion from muscle deformation. The sensing validity has been elaborated by preliminary researches but still need more fundamental studies, especially on kinetic contraction modes. Based on the novel fabric strain sensors, a soft and smart limb girth measurement system was developed by the authors’ group, which can measure the limb girth in-motion. Experiments were carried out on elbow isometric flexion and elbow isokinetic flexion (biceps’ isokinetic contractions) of 90°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s for 10 subjects (2 canoeists and 8 ordinary people). After removal of natural circumferential increments due to elbow position, the joint torque is found not uniformly sensitive to the limb circumferential strains, but declining as elbow joint angle rises, regardless of the angular speed. Moreover, the maximum joint torque was found as an exponential function of the joint’s angular speed. This research highly contributes to the application of the automatic limb girth measuring during kinetic contractions, and it is useful to predict the contraction level of voluntary skeletal muscles.
Paper Detail
1748
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5
10003368
The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass
Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced and globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. Continuous application of EMS may lead to the increment of muscle mass and indirectly will increase the strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training program in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasiexperimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Paper Detail
4867
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4
9996852
Variations in % Body Fat, the Amount of Skeletal Muscle and the Index of Physical Fitness in Relation to Sports Activity/Inactivity in Different Age Groups of the Adult Population in the Czech Republic
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.

Paper Detail
1378
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3
5676
Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens and Ducks in Egypt: Pathological Study
Abstract:
Clinically, chickens showed progressively developed clinical signs represented by sever cyanosis of the comb and wattles with hemorrhage at the shanks, depression, and ruffling feathers with loss of appetite and high daily mortalities. The ducks showed severe neurological signs as torticollus, seizures and inability to stand with mild signs of diarrhea and depression. Grossly, chickens showed hemorrhages and congestion in most of the organs particularly lung, liver, spleen, trachea and kidney. The examined ducks showed multiple petechial hemorrhages, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage in meninges and congestion in the skeletal muscles. Histopathology revealed severe congestion and hemorrhages in most of the organs particularly lung, liver and kidney. Microscopic erosive tracheitis, sever pulmonary congestion and perivascular oedema and lymphogranulocytic pneumonia were constant. The liver showed hepatocyts necrosis and lympho-granulocytic infiltration. The kidney showed renal tubular necrosis and diffuse congestion. Multifocal, neuronal necrosis, hemorrhages, multifocal glial nodules, lympho- histiocytic perivascular cuffing, and occasional neuronophagia were observed in the cerebrum. Other organs showed moderate changes.
Paper Detail
2125
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2
10654
Effect of L-Arginine on Neuromuscular Transmission of the Chick Biventer Cervicis Muscle
Abstract:

In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle. LArginine at 500 μg/ ml, decreased twitch response to electerical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose- response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-Arginine at 1000μg/ ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose – response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in the efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200μg/ ml). NO levels were also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometric method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite + nitrate) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000μg/ ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p<0.001). These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginine on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post- junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca+2 releases.

Paper Detail
1401
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1
4505
Heat Treatment and Rest-Inserted Exercise Enhances EMG Activity of the Lower Limb
Abstract:
Prolonged immobilization leads to significant weakness and atrophy of the skeletal muscle and can also impair the recovery of muscle strength following injury. Therefore, it is important to minimize the period under immobilization and accelerate the return to normal activity. This study examined the effects of heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise on the muscle activity of the lower limb during knee flexion/extension. Twelve healthy subjects were assigned to 4 groups that included: (1) heat treatment + rest-inserted exercise; (2) heat + continuous exercise; (3) no heat + rest-inserted exercise; and (4) no heat + continuous exercise. Heat treatment was applied for 15 mins prior to exercise. Continuous exercise groups performed knee flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz for 300 cycles without rest whereas rest-inserted exercise groups performed the same exercise but with 2 mins rest inserted every 60 cycles of continuous exercise. Changes in the rectus femoris and hamstring muscle activities were assessed at 0, 1, and 2 weeks of treatment by measuring the electromyography signals of isokinetic maximum voluntary contraction. Significant increases in both the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were observed after 2 weeks of treatment only when both heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise were performed. These results suggest that combination of various treatment techniques, such as heat treatment and rest-inserted exercise, may expedite the recovery of muscle strength following immobilization.
Paper Detail
1556
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