International Science Index
Designing a Pre-Assessment Tool to Support the Achievement of Green Building Certifications
The impact of common buildings on climate and environment has prompted people to get involved in the green building standards aimed at implementing rating tools or certifications. Thus, green building rating systems were introduced to the construction industry, and the demand for certified green buildings has increased gradually and succeeded considerably in enhancing people’s environmental awareness. However, the existing certification process has been unsatisfactory in attracting stakeholders and/or professionals who are actively engaged in adopting a rating system. It is because they have faced recurring barriers regarding limited information in understanding the rating process, time-consuming procedures and higher costs, which have a direct influence on pursuing green building rating systems. To promote the achievement of green building certifications within the building industry more successfully, this paper aims at designing a Pre-Assessment Tool (PAT) framework that can help stakeholders and/or professionals engaged in the construction industry to clarify their basic knowledge, timeframe and extra costs needed to activate a green building certification. First, taking the first steps towards the rating tool seems to be complicated because of upfront commitment to understanding the overall rating procedure is required. This conceptual PAT framework can increase basic knowledge of the rating tool and the certification process, mainly in terms of all resources or information of each credit requirements. Second, the assessment process of rating tools is generally known as a “lengthy and time-consuming system”, contributing to unenthusiastic reactions concerning green building projects. The proposed framework can predict the timeframe needed to identify how long it will take for a green project to process each credit requirement and the documentation required from the beginning of the certification process to final approval. Finally, most people often have the initial perception that pursuing green building certification costs more than constructing a non-green building, which makes it more difficult to execute rating tools. To overcome this issue, this PAT will help users to estimate the extra expenses such as certification fees and third-party contributions based on the track of the amount of time it takes to implement the rating tool throughout all the related stages. Also, it can prevent unexpected or hidden costs occurring in the process of assessment. Therefore, this proposed PAT framework can be recommended as an effective method to support the decision-making of inexperienced users and play an important role in promoting green building certification.
Development of a Roadmap for Assessment the Sustainability of Buildings in Saudi Arabia Using Building Information Modeling
Achieving environmental sustainability is one of the important issues considered in many countries’ vision. Green/Sustainable building is widely used terminology for describing a friendly environmental construction. Applying sustainable practices has a significant importance in various fields, including construction field that consumes an enormous amount of resource and causes a considerable amount of waste. The need for sustainability is increased in the regions that suffering from the limitation of natural resource and extreme weather conditions such as Saudi Arabia. Since buildings designs are getting sophisticated, the need for tools, which support decision-making for sustainability issues, is increasing, especially in the design and preconstruction stages. In this context, Building Information Modeling (BIM) can aid in performing complex building performance analyses to ensure an optimized sustainable building design. Accordingly, this paper introduces a roadmap towards developing a systematic approach for presenting the sustainability of buildings using BIM. The approach includes set of main processes including; identifying the sustainability parameters that can be used for sustainability assessment in Saudi Arabia, developing sustainability assessment method that fits the special circumstances in the Kingdom, identifying the sustainability requirements and BIM functions that can be used for satisfying these requirements, and integrating these requirements with identified functions. As a result, the sustainability-BIM approach can be developed which helps designers in assessing the sustainability and exploring different design alternatives at the early stage of the construction project.
Effect of Political and Social Context in Libya on Accounting Information System to Meet Development Needs
The aim of this paper is to show how Libya’s legal, economic, political, social, and cultural systems have shaped Libyan development. This will provide a background to develop an understanding of the current role of the accounting information system in Libya and the challenges facing the design of the aeronautical information system to meet the development needs of Libya. Our knowledge of the unified economic operating systems of the world paves the way for the economic development of every developing country. In order to achieve this understanding, every developing country should be provided with a high-efficiency communications system in order to be able to interact globally. From the point of view of the theory of globalization, Libya's understanding of its socio-economic and political systems is vital in order to be able to adopt and apply accounting techniques that will assist in the economic development of Libya.
Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System
Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for
correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short
lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic
architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected.
Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to
neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built
environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more
consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by
using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin,
Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental
damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally
well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE
Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities
and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental
Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed
that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for
Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs,
whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to
the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating
system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area +
Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design,
neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bioclimatic
and passive solar aspects.
The Influence of Architectural-Planning Structure of Cities on Their Sustainable Development
Existing indicators for sustainable urban development do not identify the features of cities’ planning structures and their architecture. Iranian city has special relevance problem of assessing the conformity of their planning and development of the concept of sustainable development. Based on theoretical sources, the author concludes that, despite the existence of common indicators for sustainable development of settlements, specialized evaluation criteria city structure planning has not been developed. He is trying to fill this gap and put forward a system of indicators characterizing the level of development of the architectural-planning structure of the city. The proposed system of indicators is designed based on technical and economic urban standard indicators from different countries. Alternative designing systems and requirements of modern rating systems like LEED-ND comprise a criterion for evaluation of urban structures in accordance with principles of "Green" building and New Urbanism. Urban development trends are close in spirit of sustainable development and developed under its influence. The study allowed concluding that a system of indicators to identify the relevant architectural-planning structure of the city, requirements of sustainable development, should be adapted to the conditions of each country, particularly in Iran. The article attempts typology proposed indicators, which are presented in tabular form and are divided into two types: planning and spatial. This article discusses the known indicators of sustainable development and proposed specific system of indicators characterizing the level of development of architectural-planning structure of the city. This article examines indicators for evaluating level of city' planning structure development. The proposed system of indicators is derived from the urban planning standards and rating systems such as LEED-ND, BREEAM Community and CASBEE-UD.
Investigation of Optimal Parameter Settings in Super Duplex Welding
Super steel materials play a vital role in the
construction and fabrication of structural, piping and pipeline
components. In assuring the integrity of onshore and offshore
operating systems, they enable life cycle costs to be minimized. In
this context, Duplex stainless steel (DSS) material related welding on
constructions and fabrications plays a significant role in maintaining
and assuring integrity at an optimal expenditure over the life cycle of
production and process systems as well as associated structures. In
DSS welding, factors such as gap geometry, shielding gas supply
rate, welding current, and type of the welding process are vital to the
final joint performance. Hence, an experimental investigation has
been performed using an engineering robust design approach
(ERDA) to investigate the optimal settings that generate optimal
super DSS (i.e. UNS S32750) joint performance. This manuscript
illustrates the mathematical approach and experimental design,
optimal parameter settings and results of the verification experiment.
Sustainable Urban Waterfronts Using Sustainability Assessment Rating System
Sustainable urban waterfront development is one of the
most interesting phenomena of urban renewal in the last decades.
However, there are still many cities whose visual image is
compromised due to the lack of a sustainable urban waterfront
development, which consequently affects the place of those cities
globally. This paper aims to reimagine the role of waterfront areas in
city design, with a particular focus on Egypt, so that they provide
attractive, sustainable urban environments while promoting the
continued aesthetic development of the city overall. This aim will be
achieved by determining the main principles of a sustainable urban
waterfront and its applications. This paper concentrates on
sustainability assessment rating systems. A number of international
case-studies, wherein a city has applied the basic principles for a
sustainable urban waterfront and have made use of sustainability
assessment rating systems, have been selected as examples which can
be applied to the urban waterfronts in Egypt. This paper establishes the
importance of developing the design of urban environments in Egypt,
as well as identifying the methods of sustainability application for
CVOIP-FRU: Comprehensive VoIP Forensics Report Utility
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) products is an emerging technology that can contain forensically important information for a criminal activity. Without having the user name and passwords, this forensically important information can still be gathered by the investigators. Although there are a few VoIP forensic investigative applications available in the literature, most of them are particularly designed to collect evidence from the Skype product. Therefore, in order to assist law enforcement with collecting forensically important information from variety of Betamax VoIP tools, CVOIP-FRU framework is developed. CVOIP-FRU provides a data gathering solution that retrieves usernames, contact lists, as well as call and SMS logs from Betamax VoIP products. It is a scripting utility that searches for data within the registry, logs and the user roaming profiles in Windows and Mac OSX operating systems. Subsequently, it parses the output into readable text and html formats. One superior way of CVOIP-FRU compared to the other applications that due to intelligent data filtering capabilities and cross platform scripting back end of CVOIP-FRU, it is expandable to include other VoIP solutions as well. Overall, this paper reveals the exploratory analysis performed in order to find the key data paths and locations, the development stages of the framework, and the empirical testing and quality assurance of CVOIP-FRU.
A General Mandatory Access Control Framework in Distributed Environments
In this paper, we propose a general mandatory access framework for distributed systems. The framework can be applied into multiple operating systems and can handle multiple stakeholders. Despite considerable advancements in the area of mandatory access control, a certain approach to enforcing mandatory access control can only be applied in a specific operating system. Other than PC market in which windows captures the overwhelming shares, there are a number of popular operating systems in the emerging smart phone environment, i.e. Android, Windows mobile, Symbian, RIM. It should be noted that more and more stakeholders are involved in smartphone software, such as devices owners, service providers and application providers. Our framework includes three parts—local decision layer, the middle layer and the remote decision layer. The middle layer takes charge of managing security contexts, OS API, operations and policy combination. The design of the remote decision layer doesn’t depend on certain operating systems because of the middle layer’s existence. We implement the framework in windows, linux and other popular embedded systems.
Piezomechanical Systems for Algae Cell Ultrasonication
Nowadays for algae cell ultrasonication the
longitudinal ultrasonic piezosystems are used. In this paper a
possibility of creating unique ultrasonic piezoelectric system, which
would allow reducing energy losses and concentrating this energy to
a small closed volume are proposed. The current vibrating systems
whose ultrasonic energy is concentrated inside of hollow cylinder in
which water-algae mixture is flowing. Two, three or multiply
ultrasonic composite systems to concentrate total energy into a
hollow cylinder to creating strong algae cell ultrasonication are used.
The experiments and numerical FEM analysis results using diskshaped
transducer and the first biological test results on algae cell
disruption by ultrasonication are presented as well.
Automation of the Maritime UAV Command, Control, Navigation Operations, Simulated in Real-Time Using Kinect Sensor: A Feasibility Study
This paper describes the process used in the
automation of the Maritime UAV commands using the Kinect sensor.
The AR Drone is a Quadrocopter manufactured by Parrot  to be
controlled using the Apple operating systems such as iPhones and
Ipads. However, this project uses the Microsoft Kinect SDK and
Microsoft Visual Studio C# (C sharp) software, which are compatible
with Windows Operating System for the automation of the navigation
and control of the AR drone.
The navigation and control software for the Quadrocopter runs on
a windows 7 computer. The project is divided into two sections; the
Quadrocopter control system and the Kinect sensor control system.
The Kinect sensor is connected to the computer using a USB cable
from which commands can be sent to and from the Kinect sensors.
The AR drone has Wi-Fi capabilities from which it can be connected
to the computer to enable transfer of commands to and from the
The project was implemented in C#, a programming language that
is commonly used in the automation systems. The language was
chosen because there are more libraries already established in C# for
both the AR drone and the Kinect sensor.
The study will contribute toward research in automation of
systems using the Quadrocopter and the Kinect sensor for navigation
involving a human operator in the loop. The prototype created has
numerous applications among which include the inspection of vessels
such as ship, airplanes and areas that are not accessible by human
Hierarchies Based On the Number of Cooperating Systems of Finite Automata on Four-Dimensional Input Tapes
In theoretical computer science, the Turing machine has played a number of important roles in understanding and exploiting basic concepts and mechanisms in computing and information processing . It is a simple mathematical model of computers . After that, M.Blum and C.Hewitt first proposed two-dimensional automata as a computational model of two-dimensional pattern processing, and investigated their pattern recognition abilities in 1967 . Since then, a lot of researchers in this field have been investigating many properties about automata on a two- or three-dimensional tape. On the other hand, the question of whether processing fourdimensional digital patterns is much more difficult than two- or threedimensional ones is of great interest from the theoretical and practical standpoints. Thus, the study of four-dimensional automata as a computasional model of four-dimensional pattern processing has been meaningful -,. This paper introduces a cooperating system of four-dimensional finite automata as one model of four-dimensional automata. A cooperating system of four-dimensional finite automata consists of a finite number of four-dimensional finite automata and a four-dimensional input tape where these finite automata work independently (in parallel). Those finite automata whose input heads scan the same cell of the input tape can communicate with each other, that is, every finite automaton is allowed to know the internal states of other finite automata on the same cell it is scanning at the moment. In this paper, we mainly investigate some accepting powers of a cooperating system of eight- or seven-way four-dimensional finite automata. The seven-way four-dimensional finite automaton is an eight-way four-dimensional finite automaton whose input head can move east, west, south, north, up, down, or in the fu-ture, but not in the past on a four-dimensional input tape.
A Mapping Approach of Code Generation for Arinc653-Based Avionics Software
Avionic software architecture has transit from a
federated avionics architecture to an integrated modular avionics
(IMA) .ARINC 653 (Avionics Application Standard Software Interface) is a software specification for space and time partitioning in
Safety-critical avionics Real-time operating systems. Methods to transform the abstract avionics application logic function to the
executable model have been brought up, however with less
consideration about the code generating input and output model specific for ARINC 653 platform and inner-task synchronous dynamic
interaction order sequence. In this paper, we proposed an
AADL-based model-driven design methodology to fulfill the purpose
to automatically generating Cµ executable model on ARINC 653 platform from the ARINC653 architecture which defined as AADL653 in order to facilitate the development of the avionics software constructed on ARINC653 OS. This paper presents the
mapping rules between the AADL653 elements and the elements in
Cµ language, and define the code generating rules , designs an automatic C µ code generator .Then, we use a case to illustrate our
approach. Finally, we give the related work and future research directions.
Studying on ARINC653 Partition Run-time Scheduling and Simulation
Avionics software is safe-critical embedded software
and its architecture is evolving from traditional federated architectures
to Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) to improve resource usability.
ARINC 653 (Avionics Application Standard Software Interface) is a
software specification for space and time partitioning in Safety-critical
avionics Real-time operating systems. Arinc653 uses two-level
scheduling strategies, but current modeling tools only apply to simple
problems of Arinc653 two-level scheduling, which only contain time
property. In avionics industry, we are always manually allocating
tasks and calculating the timing table of a real-time system to ensure
it-s running as we design. In this paper we represent an automatically
generating strategy which applies to the two scheduling problems with
dependent constraints in Arinc653 partition run-time environment. It
provides the functionality of automatic generation from the task and partition models to scheduling policy through allocating the tasks to the partitions while following the constraints, and then we design a simulating mechanism to check whether our policy is schedulable or
Server Virtualization Using User Behavior Model Focus on Provisioning Concept
Server provisioning is one of the most attractive topics in virtualization systems. Virtualization is a method of running multiple independent virtual operating systems on a single physical computer. It is a way of maximizing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware. Additionally, it can help to consolidate servers, improve hardware utilization and reduce the consumption of power and physical space in the data center. However, management of heterogeneous workloads, especially for resource utilization of the server, or so called provisioning becomes a challenge. In this paper, a new concept for managing workloads based on user behavior is presented. The experimental results show that user behaviors are different in each type of service workload and time. Understanding user behaviors may improve the efficiency of management in provisioning concept. This preliminary study may be an approach to improve management of data centers running heterogeneous workloads for provisioning in virtualization system.
A Software of Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Virtual Platforms
Security is an interesting and significance issue for
popular virtual platforms, such as virtualization cluster and cloud
platforms. Virtualization is the powerful technology for cloud
computing services, there are a lot of benefits by using virtual machine
tools which be called hypervisors, such as it can quickly deploy all
kinds of virtual Operating Systems in single platform, able to control
all virtual system resources effectively, cost down for system platform
deployment, ability of customization, high elasticity and high
reliability. However, some important security problems need to take
care and resolved in virtual platforms that include terrible viruses, evil
programs, illegal operations and intrusion behavior. In this paper, we
present useful Intrusion Detection Mechanism (IDM) software that not
only can auto to analyze all system-s operations with the accounting
journal database, but also is able to monitor the system-s state for
Developing a Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework for the National University of Malaysia
Campus sustainability is the goal of a university striving for sustainable development. This study found that of 17 popular approaches, two comprehensive campus sustainability assessment frameworks were developed in the context of Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE), and used by many university campuses around the world. Sustainability Tracking Assessment and Rating Systems (STARS) and the Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework (CSAF) approaches are more comprehensive than others. Therefore, the researchers examined aspects and elements used by CSAF and STARS in the approach to develop a campus sustainability assessment framework for Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). Documents analysis found that CSAF and STARS do not focus on physical development, especially the construction industry, as key elements of campus sustainability assessment. This finding is in accordance with the Sustainable UKM Programme which consists of three main components of sustainable community, ecosystem and physical development.
Statistical Reliability Based Modeling of Series and Parallel Operating Systems using Extreme Value Theory
This paper tries to represent a new method for
computing the reliability of a system which is arranged in series or
parallel model. In this method we estimate life distribution function
of whole structure using the asymptotic Extreme Value (EV)
distribution of Type I, or Gumbel theory. We use EV distribution in
minimal mode, for estimate the life distribution function of series
structure and maximal mode for parallel system. All parameters also
are estimated by Moments method. Reliability function and failure
(hazard) rate and p-th percentile point of each function are
determined. Other important indexes such as Mean Time to Failure
(MTTF), Mean Time to repair (MTTR), for non-repairable and
renewal systems in both of series and parallel structure will be
Formosa3: A Cloud-Enabled HPC Cluster in NCHC
This paper proposes a new approach to offer a private
cloud service in HPC clusters. In particular, our approach relies on
automatically scheduling users- customized environment request as a
normal job in batch system. After finishing virtualization request jobs,
those guest operating systems will dismiss so that compute nodes will
be released again for computing. We present initial work on the
innovative integration of HPC batch system and virtualization tools
that aims at coexistence such that they suffice for meeting the
minimizing interference required by a traditional HPC cluster. Given
the design of initial infrastructure, the proposed effort has the potential
to positively impact on synergy model. The results from the
experiment concluded that goal for provisioning customized cluster
environment indeed can be fulfilled by using virtual machines, and
efficiency can be improved with proper setup and arrangements.
The Development of Smart School Condition Assessment Based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP) 1 Matrix: A Literature Review
Building inspection is one of the key components of building maintenance. The primary purpose of performing a building inspection is to evaluate the building-s condition. Without inspection, it is difficult to determine a built asset-s current condition, so failure to inspect can contribute to the asset-s future failure. Traditionally, a longhand survey description has been widely used for property condition reports. Surveys that employ ratings instead of descriptions are gaining wide acceptance in the industry because they cater to the need for numerical analysis output. These kinds of surveys are also in keeping with the new RICS HomeBuyer Report 2009. In this paper, we propose a new assessment method, derived from the current rating systems, for assessing the specifically smart school building-s condition and rating the seriousness of each defect identified. These two assessment criteria are then multiplied to find the building-s score, which we called the Condition Survey Protocol (CSP) 1 Matrix. Instead of a longhand description of a building-s defects, this matrix requires concise explanations about the defects identified, thus saving on-site time during a smart school building inspection. The full score is used to give the building an overall rating: Good, Fair or Dilapidated.
Performance Evaluation of Para-virtualization on Modern Mobile Phone Platform
Emergence of smartphones brings to live the concept
of converged devices with the availability of web amenities. Such
trend also challenges the mobile devices manufactures and service
providers in many aspects, such as security on mobile phones,
complex and long time design flow, as well as higher development
cost. Among these aspects, security on mobile phones is getting more
and more attention. Microkernel based virtualization technology will
play a critical role in addressing these challenges and meeting mobile
market needs and preferences, since virtualization provides essential
isolation for security reasons and it allows multiple operating systems
to run on one processor accelerating development and cutting development
cost. However, virtualization benefits do not come for free.
As an additional software layer, it adds some inevitable virtualization
overhead to the system, which may decrease the system performance.
In this paper we evaluate and analyze the virtualization performance
cost of L4 microkernel based virtualization on a competitive mobile
phone by comparing the L4Linux, a para-virtualized Linux on top of
L4 microkernel, with the native Linux performance using lmbench
and a set of typical mobile phone applications.
FHOJ: A New Java Benchmark Framework
There are some existing Java benchmarks, application benchmarks as well as micro benchmarks or mixture both of them,such as: Java Grande, Spec98, CaffeMark, HBech, etc. But none of them deal with behaviors of multi tasks operating systems. As a result, the achieved outputs are not satisfied for performance evaluation engineers. Behaviors of multi tasks operating systems are based on a schedule management which is employed in these systems. Different processes can have different priority to share the same resources. The time is measured by estimating from applications started to it is finished does not reflect the real time value which the system need for running those programs. New approach to this problem should be done. Having said that, in this paper we present a new Java benchmark, named FHOJ benchmark, which directly deals with multi tasks behaviors of a system. Our study shows that in some cases, results from FHOJ benchmark are far more reliable in comparison with some existing Java benchmarks.
IMLFQ Scheduling Algorithm with Combinational Fault Tolerant Method
Scheduling algorithms are used in operating systems
to optimize the usage of processors. One of the most efficient
algorithms for scheduling is Multi-Layer Feedback Queue (MLFQ)
algorithm which uses several queues with different quanta. The most
important weakness of this method is the inability to define the
optimized the number of the queues and quantum of each queue. This
weakness has been improved in IMLFQ scheduling algorithm.
Number of the queues and quantum of each queue affect the response
time directly. In this paper, we review the IMLFQ algorithm for
solving these problems and minimizing the response time. In this
algorithm Recurrent Neural Network has been utilized to find both
the number of queues and the optimized quantum of each queue.
Also in order to prevent any probable faults in processes' response
time computation, a new fault tolerant approach has been presented.
In this approach we use combinational software redundancy to
prevent the any probable faults. The experimental results show that
using the IMLFQ algorithm results in better response time in
comparison with other scheduling algorithms also by using fault
tolerant mechanism we improve IMLFQ performance.
Client Server System for e-Services Access Using Mobile Communications Networks
The client server systems using mobile
communications networks for data transmission became very
attractive for many economic agents, in the purpose of promoting and
offering electronic services to their clients. E-services are suitable for
business developing and financial benefits increasing. The products
or services can be efficiently delivered to a large number of clients,
using mobile Internet access technologies. The clients can have
access to e-services, anywhere and anytime, with the support of 3G,
GPRS, WLAN, etc., channels bandwidth, data services and protocols.
Based on the mobile communications networks evolution and
development, a convergence of technological and financial interests
of mobile operators, software developers, mobile terminals producers
and e-content providers is established. These will lead to a high level
of integration of IT&C resources and will facilitate the value added
services delivery through the mobile communications networks. In
this paper it is presented a client server system, for e-services access,
with Smartphones and PDA-s mobile software applications, installed
on Symbian and Windows Mobile operating systems.
Data Transformation Services (DTS): Creating Data Mart by Consolidating Multi-Source Enterprise Operational Data
Trends in business intelligence, e-commerce and
remote access make it necessary and practical to store data in
different ways on multiple systems with different operating systems.
As business evolve and grow, they require efficient computerized
solution to perform data update and to access data from diverse
enterprise business applications. The objective of this paper is to
demonstrate the capability of DTS  as a database solution for
automatic data transfer and update in solving business problem. This
DTS package is developed for the sales of variety of plants and
eventually expanded into commercial supply and landscaping
business. Dimension data modeling is used in DTS package to
extract, transform and load data from heterogeneous database
systems such as MySQL, Microsoft Access and Oracle that
consolidates into a Data Mart residing in SQL Server. Hence, the
data transfer from various databases is scheduled to run automatically
every quarter of the year to review the efficient sales analysis.
Therefore, DTS is absolutely an attractive solution for automatic data
transfer and update which meeting today-s business needs.