The prediction of the rheological behavior of concrete is at the center of current concerns of the concrete industry for different reasons. The shortage of good quality standard materials combined with variable properties of available materials imposes to improve existing models to take into account these variations at the design stage of concrete. The main reasons for improving the predictive models are, of course, saving time and cost at the design stage as well as to optimize concrete performances. In this study, we will highlight the different properties of the granular mixtures that affect the rheological properties of concrete. Our objective is to identify the intrinsic parameters of the aggregates which make it possible to predict the yield stress of concrete. The work was done using two typologies of grains: crushed and rolled aggregates. The experimental results have shown that the rheology of concrete is improved by increasing the packing density of the granular mixture using rolled aggregates. The experimental program realized allowed to model the yield stress of concrete by a modified model of Chateau et al. through a dimensionless parameter following Krieger-Dougherty law. The modelling confirms that the yield stress of concrete depends not only on the properties of cement paste but also on the packing density of the granular skeleton and the shape of grains.
A rain cell ratio model is proposed that computes attenuation of the smallest rain cell which represents the maximum rain rate value i.e. the cell size when rainfall rate is exceeded 0.01% of the time, R0.01 and predicts attenuation for other cells as the ratio with this maximum. This model incorporates the dependence of the path factor r on the ellipsoidal path variation of the Fresnel zone at different frequencies. In addition, the inhomogeneity of rainfall is modeled by a rain drop packing density factor. In order to derive the model, two empirical methods that can be used to find rain cell size distribution Dc are presented. Subsequently, attenuation measurements from different climatic zones for terrestrial radio links with frequencies F in the range 7-38 GHz are used to test the proposed model. Prediction results show that the path factor computed from the rain cell ratio technique has improved reliability when compared with other path factor and effective rain rate models, including the current ITU-R 530-15 model of 2013.
A phase diagram of the Ag2SO4 - CaSO4 (Silver sulphate – Calcium Sulphate) binaries system using conductivity, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction Technique) and DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) data is constructed. The eutectic reaction (liquid -» a-Ag2SO4 + CaSO4) is observed at 10 mole% CaSO4 and 645°C. Room temperature solid solubility limit up to 5.27 mole % of Ca 2+ in Ag2SO4 is set using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results. All compositions beyond this limit are two-phase mixtures below and above the transition temperature (≈ 416°C). The bulk conductivity, obtained following complex impedance spectroscopy, is found decreasing with increase in CaSO4 content. Amongst other binary compositions, the 80AgSO4-20CaSO4 gave improved sinterability/packing density.