International Science Index
Speaker Recognition Using LIRA Neural Networks
This article contains information from our investigation in the field of voice recognition. For this purpose, we created a voice database that contains different phrases in two languages, English and Spanish, for men and women. As a classifier, the LIRA (Limited Receptive Area) grayscale neural classifier was selected. The LIRA grayscale neural classifier was developed for image recognition tasks and demonstrated good results. Therefore, we decided to develop a recognition system using this classifier for voice recognition. From a specific set of speakers, we can recognize the speaker’s voice. For this purpose, the system uses spectrograms of the voice signals as input to the system, extracts the characteristics and identifies the speaker. The results are described and analyzed in this article. The classifier can be used for speaker identification in security system or smart buildings for different types of intelligent devices.
Lung Cancer Detection and Multi Level Classification Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung in the form of tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Patients with Lung Cancer (LC) have an average of five years life span expectancy provided diagnosis, detection and prediction, which reduces many treatment options to risk of invasive surgery increasing survival rate. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for earlier detection of cancer are common. Gaussian filter along with median filter used for smoothing and noise removal, Histogram Equalization (HE) for image enhancement gives the best results without inviting further opinions. Lung cavities are extracted and the background portion other than two lung cavities is completely removed with right and left lungs segmented separately. Region properties measurements area, perimeter, diameter, centroid and eccentricity measured for the tumor segmented image, while texture is characterized by Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) functions, feature extraction provides Region of Interest (ROI) given as input to classifier. Two levels of classifications, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is used for determining patient condition as normal or abnormal, while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used for identifying the cancer stage is employed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithm is used for the main feature extraction leading to best efficiency. The developed technology finds encouraging results for real time information and on line detection for future research.
A Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Applied to the Synthesis of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels
The Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) algorithm is inspired by the behavior of bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Myxococcus xanthus when searching for food, more precisely the chemotaxis behavior. Bacteria perceive chemical gradients in the environment, such as nutrients, and also other individual bacteria, and move toward or in the opposite direction to those signals. The application example considered as a case study consists in establishing the dependency between the reaction yield of hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and the working conditions such as time, temperature, monomer, initiator, crosslinking agent and inclusion polymer concentrations, as well as type of the polymer added. This process is modeled with a neural network which is included in an optimization procedure based on BFO. An experimental study of BFO parameters is performed. The results show that the algorithm is quite robust and can obtain good results for diverse combinations of parameter values.
Fast Adjustable Threshold for Uniform Neural Network Quantization
The neural network quantization is highly desired
procedure to perform before running neural networks on mobile
devices. Quantization without fine-tuning leads to accuracy drop of
the model, whereas commonly used training with quantization is done
on the full set of the labeled data and therefore is both time- and
resource-consuming. Real life applications require simplification and
acceleration of quantization procedure that will maintain accuracy of
full-precision neural network, especially for modern mobile neural
network architectures like Mobilenet-v1, MobileNet-v2 and MNAS. Here we present a method to significantly optimize training with
quantization procedure by introducing the trained scale factors for
discretization thresholds that are separate for each filter. Using the
proposed technique, we quantize the modern mobile architectures of
neural networks with the set of train data of only ∼ 10% of the
total ImageNet 2012 sample. Such reduction of train dataset size and
small number of trainable parameters allow to fine-tune the network
for several hours while maintaining the high accuracy of quantized
model (accuracy drop was less than 0.5%). Ready-for-use models and
code are available in the GitHub repository.
Amelioration of Cardiac Arrythmias Classification Performance Using Artificial Neural Network, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy and Fuzzy Inference Systems Classifiers
This paper aims at bringing a scientific contribution to the cardiac arrhythmia biomedical diagnosis systems; more precisely to the study of the amelioration of cardiac arrhythmia classification performance using artificial neural network, adaptive neuro-fuzzy and fuzzy inference systems classifiers. The purpose of this amelioration is to enable cardiologists to make reliable diagnosis through automatic cardiac arrhythmia analyzes and classifications based on high confidence classifiers. In this study, six classes of the most commonly encountered arrhythmias are considered: the Right Bundle Branch Block, the Left Bundle Branch Block, the Ventricular Extrasystole, the Auricular Extrasystole, the Atrial Fibrillation and the Normal Cardiac rate beat. From the electrocardiogram (ECG) extracted parameters, we constructed a matrix (360x360) serving as an input data sample for the classifiers based on neural networks and a matrix (1x6) for the classifier based on fuzzy logic. By varying three parameters (the quality of the neural network learning, the data size and the quality of the input parameters) the automatic classification permitted us to obtain the following performances: in terms of correct classification rate, 83.6% was obtained using the fuzzy logic based classifier, 99.7% using the neural network based classifier and 99.8% for the adaptive neuro-fuzzy based classifier. These results are based on signals containing at least 360 cardiac cycles. Based on the comparative analysis of the aforementioned three arrhythmia classifiers, the classifiers based on neural networks exhibit a better performance.
From Electroencephalogram to Epileptic Seizures Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks
Seizure is the main factor that affects the quality of life of epileptic patients. The diagnosis of epilepsy, and hence the identification of epileptogenic zone, is commonly made by using continuous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal monitoring. Seizure identification on EEG signals is made manually by epileptologists and this process is usually very long and error prone. The aim of this paper is to describe an automated method able to detect seizures in EEG signals, using knowledge discovery in database process and data mining methods and algorithms, which can support physicians during the seizure detection process. Our detection method is based on Artificial Neural Network classifier, trained by applying the multilayer perceptron algorithm, and by using a software application, called Training Builder that has been developed for the massive extraction of features from EEG signals. This tool is able to cover all the data preparation steps ranging from signal processing to data analysis techniques, including the sliding window paradigm, the dimensionality reduction algorithms, information theory, and feature selection measures. The final model shows excellent performances, reaching an accuracy of over 99% during tests on data of a single patient retrieved from a publicly available EEG dataset.
Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment
2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.
Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals
In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction
accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings
mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which
are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating
signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following
two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features
have the different contributions to construct the health indicators,
the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When
convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency
features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered.
To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining
convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to
extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are
utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life
of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency
images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the
original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers
of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of
time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets.
Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit
to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed
method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which
have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.
Foot Recognition Using Deep Learning for Knee Rehabilitation
The use of foot recognition can be applied in many medical fields such as the gait pattern analysis and the knee exercises of patients in rehabilitation. Generally, a camera-based foot recognition system is intended to capture a patient image in a controlled room and background to recognize the foot in the limited views. However, this system can be inconvenient to monitor the knee exercises at home. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes to use the deep learning method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for foot recognition. The results are compared with the traditional classification method using LBP and HOG features with kNN and SVM classifiers. According to the results, deep learning method provides better accuracy but with higher complexity to recognize the foot images from online databases than the traditional classification method.
Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model
Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.
Optimizing the Probabilistic Neural Network Training Algorithm for Multi-Class Identification
In this work, a training algorithm for probabilistic neural networks (PNN) is presented. The algorithm addresses one of the major drawbacks of PNN, which is the size of the hidden layer in the network. By using a cross-validation training algorithm, the number of hidden neurons is shrunk to a smaller number consisting of the most representative samples of the training set. This is done without affecting the overall architecture of the network. Performance of the network is compared against performance of standard PNN for different databases from the UCI database repository. Results show an important gain in network size and performance.
Prediction of the Lateral Bearing Capacity of Short Piles in Clayey Soils Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm-Based Artificial Neural Networks
Prediction of the ultimate bearing capacity of piles (Qu) is one of the basic issues in geotechnical engineering. So far, several methods have been used to estimate Qu, including the recently developed artificial intelligence methods. In recent years, optimization algorithms have been used to minimize artificial network errors, such as colony algorithms, genetic algorithms, imperialist competitive algorithms, and so on. In the present research, artificial neural networks based on colonial competition algorithm (ANN-ICA) were used, and their results were compared with other methods. The results of laboratory tests of short piles in clayey soils with parameters such as pile diameter, pile buried length, eccentricity of load and undrained shear resistance of soil were used for modeling and evaluation. The results showed that ICA-based artificial neural networks predicted lateral bearing capacity of short piles with a correlation coefficient of 0.9865 for training data and 0.975 for test data. Furthermore, the results of the model indicated the superiority of ICA-based artificial neural networks compared to back-propagation artificial neural networks as well as the Broms and Hansen methods.
Vision-Based Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Recurrent Neural Networks
Due to the sensor technology, video surveillance has become the main way for security control in every big city in the world. Surveillance is usually used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or the investigation of crime. Many surveillance systems based on computer vision technology have been developed in recent years. Moving target tracking is the most common task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to find and track objects of interest in mobile aerial surveillance for civilian applications. The paper is focused on vision-based collision avoidance for UAVs by recurrent neural networks. First, images from cameras on UAV were fused based on deep convolutional neural network. Then, a recurrent neural network was constructed to obtain high-level image features for object tracking and extracting low-level image features for noise reducing. The system distributed the calculation of the whole system to local and cloud platform to efficiently perform object detection, tracking and collision avoidance based on multiple UAVs. The experiments on several challenging datasets showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
An IM-COH Algorithm Neural Network Optimization with Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Time Series Samples
Back propagation algorithm (BP) is a widely used
technique in artificial neural network and has been used as a tool
for solving the time series problems, such as decreasing training
time, maximizing the ability to fall into local minima, and optimizing
sensitivity of the initial weights and bias. This paper proposes an
improvement of a BP technique which is called IM-COH algorithm
(IM-COH). By combining IM-COH algorithm with cuckoo search
algorithm (CS), the result is cuckoo search improved control output
hidden layer algorithm (CS-IM-COH). This new algorithm has a
better ability in optimizing sensitivity of the initial weights and bias
than the original BP algorithm. In this research, the algorithm of
CS-IM-COH is compared with the original BP, the IM-COH, and the
original BP with CS (CS-BP). Furthermore, the selected benchmarks,
four time series samples, are shown in this research for illustration.
The research shows that the CS-IM-COH algorithm give the best
forecasting results compared with the selected samples.
Comparison of Machine Learning Models for the Prediction of System Marginal Price of Greek Energy Market
The Greek Energy Market is structured as a mandatory pool where the producers make their bid offers in day-ahead basis. The System Operator solves an optimization routine aiming at the minimization of the cost of produced electricity. The solution of the optimization problem leads to the calculation of the System Marginal Price (SMP). Accurate forecasts of the SMP can lead to increased profits and more efficient portfolio management from the producer`s perspective. Aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of various machine learning models such as artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy models for the prediction of the SMP of the Greek market. Machine learning algorithms are favored in predictions problems since they can capture and simulate the volatilities of complex time series.
Memristor-A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems
The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology has led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having the computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor are a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS. Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analog and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.
Investigation of Improved Chaotic Signal Tracking by Echo State Neural Networks and Multilayer Perceptron via Training of Extended Kalman Filter Approach
This paper presents a prediction performance of
feedforward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Echo State Networks
(ESN) trained with extended Kalman filter. Feedforward neural
networks and ESN are powerful neural networks which can track and
predict nonlinear signals. However, their tracking performance
depends on the specific signals or data sets, having the risk of
instability accompanied by large error. In this study we explore this
process by applying different network size and leaking rate for
prediction of nonlinear or chaotic signals in MLP neural networks.
Major problems of ESN training such as the problem of initialization
of the network and improvement in the prediction performance are
tackled. The influence of coefficient of activation function in the
hidden layer and other key parameters are investigated by simulation
results. Extended Kalman filter is employed in order to improve the
sequential and regulation learning rate of the feedforward neural
networks. This training approach has vital features in the training of
the network when signals have chaotic or non-stationary sequential
pattern. Minimization of the variance in each step of the computation
and hence smoothing of tracking were obtained by examining the
results, indicating satisfactory tracking characteristics for certain
conditions. In addition, simulation results confirmed satisfactory
performance of both of the two neural networks with modified
parameterization in tracking of the nonlinear signals.
Active Control Improvement of Smart Cantilever Beam by Piezoelectric Materials and On-Line Differential Artificial Neural Networks
The main goal of this study is to test differential
neural network as a controller of smart structure and is to enumerate
its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other
controllers. In this study, the smart structure has been considered as a
Euler Bernoulli cantilever beam and it has been tried that it be under
control with the use of vibration neural network resulting from
movement. Also, a linear observer has been considered as a reference
controller and has been compared its results. The considered
vibration charts and the controlled state have been recounted in the
final part of this text. The obtained result show that neural observer
has better performance in comparison to the implemented linear
Early Recognition and Grading of Cataract Using a Combined Log Gabor/Discrete Wavelet Transform with ANN and SVM
Eyes are considered to be the most sensitive and
important organ for human being. Thus, any eye disorder will affect
the patient in all aspects of life. Cataract is one of those eye disorders
that lead to blindness if not treated correctly and quickly. This paper
demonstrates a model for automatic detection, classification, and
grading of cataracts based on image processing techniques and
artificial intelligence. The proposed system is developed to ease the
cataract diagnosis process for both ophthalmologists and patients.
The wavelet transform combined with 2D Log Gabor Wavelet
transform was used as feature extraction techniques for a dataset of
120 eye images followed by a classification process that classified the
image set into three classes; normal, early, and advanced stage. A
comparison between the two used classifiers, the support vector
machine SVM and the artificial neural network ANN were done for
the same dataset of 120 eye images. It was concluded that SVM gave
better results than ANN. SVM success rate result was 96.8%
accuracy where ANN success rate result was 92.3% accuracy.
Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem
High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.
Prediction of Rubberised Concrete Strength by Using Artificial Neural Networks
In recent years, waste tyre problem is considered as one of the most crucial environmental pollution problems facing the world. Thus, reusing waste rubber crumb from recycled tyres to develop highly damping concrete is technically feasible and a viable alternative to landfill or incineration. The utilization of waste rubber in concrete generally enhances the ductility, toughness, thermal insulation, and impact resistance. However, the mechanical properties decrease with the amount of rubber used in concrete. The aim of this paper is to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict the compressive strength of rubberised concrete (RuC). A trained and tested ANN was developed using a comprehensive database collected from different sources in the literature. The ANN model developed used 5 input parameters that include: coarse aggregate (CA), fine aggregate (FA), w/c ratio, fine rubber (Fr), and coarse rubber (Cr), whereas the ANN outputs were the corresponding compressive strengths. A parametric study was also conducted to study the trend of various RuC constituents on the compressive strength of RuC.
Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.
MITOS-RCNN: Mitotic Figure Detection in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images Using Region Based Convolutional Neural Networks
Studies estimate that there will be 266,120 new cases
of invasive breast cancer and 40,920 breast cancer induced deaths
in the year of 2018 alone. Despite the pervasiveness of this
affliction, the current process to obtain an accurate breast cancer
prognosis is tedious and time consuming. It usually requires a
trained pathologist to manually examine histopathological images and
identify the features that characterize various cancer severity levels.
We propose MITOS-RCNN: a region based convolutional neural
network (RCNN) geared for small object detection to accurately
grade one of the three factors that characterize tumor belligerence
described by the Nottingham Grading System: mitotic count. Other
computational approaches to mitotic figure counting and detection
do not demonstrate ample recall or precision to be clinically viable.
Our models outperformed all previous participants in the ICPR 2012
challenge, the AMIDA 2013 challenge and the MITOS-ATYPIA-14
challenge along with recently published works. Our model achieved
an F- measure score of 0.955, a 6.11% improvement in accuracy from
the most accurate of the previously proposed models.
Real Time Classification of Political Tendency of Twitter Spanish Users based on Sentiment Analysis
What people say on social media has turned into a
rich source of information to understand social behavior. Specifically,
the growing use of Twitter social media for political communication
has arisen high opportunities to know the opinion of large numbers
of politically active individuals in real time and predict the global
political tendencies of a specific country. It has led to an increasing
body of research on this topic. The majority of these studies have
been focused on polarized political contexts characterized by only
two alternatives. Unlike them, this paper tackles the challenge
of forecasting Spanish political trends, characterized by multiple
political parties, by means of analyzing the Twitters Users political
tendency. According to this, a new strategy, named Tweets Analysis
Strategy (TAS), is proposed. This is based on analyzing the users
tweets by means of discovering its sentiment (positive, negative or
neutral) and classifying them according to the political party they
support. From this individual political tendency, the global political
prediction for each political party is calculated. In order to do this,
two different strategies for analyzing the sentiment analysis are
proposed: one is based on Positive and Negative words Matching
(PNM) and the second one is based on a Neural Networks Strategy
(NNS). The complete TAS strategy has been performed in a Big-Data
environment. The experimental results presented in this paper reveal
that NNS strategy performs much better than PNM strategy to analyze
the tweet sentiment. In addition, this research analyzes the viability
of the TAS strategy to obtain the global trend in a political context
make up by multiple parties with an error lower than 23%.
Tools for Analysis and Optimization of Standalone Green Microgrids
Green microgrids using mostly renewable energy (RE) for generation, are complex systems with inherent nonlinear dynamics. Among a variety of different optimization tools there are only a few ones that adequately consider this complexity. This paper evaluates applicability of two somewhat similar optimization tools tailored for standalone RE microgrids and also assesses a machine learning tool for performance prediction that can enhance the reliability of any chosen optimization tool. It shows that one of these microgrid optimization tools has certain advantages over another and presents a detailed routine of preparing input data to simulate RE microgrid behavior. The paper also shows how neural-network-based predictive modeling can be used to validate and forecast solar power generation based on weather time series data, which improves the overall quality of standalone RE microgrid analysis.
Deep Learning for Renewable Power Forecasting: An Approach Using LSTM Neural Networks
Load forecasting has become crucial in recent years
and become popular in forecasting area. Many different power
forecasting models have been tried out for this purpose. Electricity
load forecasting is necessary for energy policies, healthy and reliable
grid systems. Effective power forecasting of renewable energy load
leads the decision makers to minimize the costs of electric utilities
and power plants. Forecasting tools are required that can be used
to predict how much renewable energy can be utilized. The purpose
of this study is to explore the effectiveness of LSTM-based neural
networks for estimating renewable energy loads. In this study, we
present models for predicting renewable energy loads based on
deep neural networks, especially the Long Term Memory (LSTM)
algorithms. Deep learning allows multiple layers of models to learn
representation of data. LSTM algorithms are able to store information
for long periods of time. Deep learning models have recently been
used to forecast the renewable energy sources such as predicting
wind and solar energy power. Historical load and weather information
represent the most important variables for the inputs within the
power forecasting models. The dataset contained power consumption
measurements are gathered between January 2016 and December
2017 with one-hour resolution. Models use publicly available data
from the Turkish Renewable Energy Resources Support Mechanism.
Forecasting studies have been carried out with these data via deep
neural networks approach including LSTM technique for Turkish
electricity markets. 432 different models are created by changing
layers cell count and dropout. The adaptive moment estimation
(ADAM) algorithm is used for training as a gradient-based optimizer
instead of SGD (stochastic gradient). ADAM performed better than
SGD in terms of faster convergence and lower error rates. Models
performance is compared according to MAE (Mean Absolute Error)
and MSE (Mean Squared Error). Best five MAE results out of
432 tested models are 0.66, 0.74, 0.85 and 1.09. The forecasting
performance of the proposed LSTM models gives successful results
compared to literature searches.
Electricity Price Forecasting: A Comparative Analysis with Shallow-ANN and DNN
Electricity prices have sophisticated features such as
high volatility, nonlinearity and high frequency that make forecasting
quite difficult. Electricity price has a volatile and non-random
character so that, it is possible to identify the patterns based on the
historical data. Intelligent decision-making requires accurate price
forecasting for market traders, retailers, and generation companies.
So far, many shallow-ANN (artificial neural networks) models have
been published in the literature and showed adequate forecasting
results. During the last years, neural networks with many hidden
layers, which are referred to as DNN (deep neural networks) have
been using in the machine learning community. The goal of this
study is to investigate electricity price forecasting performance of the
shallow-ANN and DNN models for the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. The forecasting accuracy of the models has been evaluated
with publicly available data from the Turkish day-ahead electricity
market. Both shallow-ANN and DNN approach would give successful
result in forecasting problems. Historical load, price and weather
temperature data are used as the input variables for the models.
The data set includes power consumption measurements gathered
between January 2016 and December 2017 with one-hour resolution.
In this regard, forecasting studies have been carried out comparatively
with shallow-ANN and DNN models for Turkish electricity markets
in the related time period. The main contribution of this study
is the investigation of different shallow-ANN and DNN models
in the field of electricity price forecast. All models are compared
regarding their MAE (Mean Absolute Error) and MSE (Mean Square)
results. DNN models give better forecasting performance compare to
shallow-ANN. Best five MAE results for DNN models are 0.346,
0.372, 0.392, 0,402 and 0.409.
Evaluation of NH3-Slip from Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems by Neural Networks Approach
Selective catalytic reduction systems for nitrogen oxides reduction by ammonia has been the chosen technology by most of diesel vehicle (i.e. bus and truck) manufacturers in Brazil, as also in Europe. Furthermore, at some conditions, over-stoichiometric ammonia availability is also needed that increases the NH3 slips even more. Ammonia (NH3) by this vehicle exhaust aftertreatment system provides a maximum efficiency of NOx removal if a significant amount of NH3 is stored on its catalyst surface. In the other words, the practice shows that slightly less than 100% of the NOx conversion is usually targeted, so that the aqueous urea solution hydrolyzes to NH3 via other species formation, under relatively low temperatures. This paper presents a model based on neural networks integrated with a road vehicle simulator that allows to estimate NH3-slip emission factors for different driving conditions and patterns. The proposed model generates high NH3slips which are not also limited in Brazil, but more efforts needed to be made to elucidate the contribution of vehicle-emitted NH3 to the urban atmosphere.
Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices
In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.
Presentation of a Mix Algorithm for Estimating the Battery State of Charge Using Kalman Filter and Neural Networks
Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.