International Science Index
Constant Factor Approximation Algorithm for p-Median Network Design Problem with Multiple Cable Types
This research presents the first constant approximation
algorithm to the p-median network design problem with multiple
cable types. This problem was addressed with a single cable type and
there is a bifactor approximation algorithm for the problem. To the
best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this paper is the first
constant approximation algorithm for the p-median network design
with multiple cable types. The addressed problem is a combination of
two well studied problems which are p-median problem and network
design problem. The introduced algorithm is a random sampling
approximation algorithm of constant factor which is conceived by
using some random sampling techniques form the literature. It is
based on a redistribution Lemma from the literature and a steiner tree
problem as a subproblem. This algorithm is simple, and it relies on the
notions of random sampling and probability. The proposed approach
gives an approximation solution with one constant ratio without
violating any of the constraints, in contrast to the one proposed in the
literature. This paper provides a (21 + 2)-approximation algorithm
for the p-median network design problem with multiple cable types
using random sampling techniques.
A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks
The Internet of Everything (IoE) presents today a very attractive and motivating field of research. It is basically based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in which the routing task is the major analysis topic. In fact, it directly affects the effectiveness and the lifetime of the network. This paper, developed from recent works and based on extensive researches, proposes a taxonomy of routing protocols in WSNs. Our main contribution is that we propose a classification model based on nine classes namely application type, delivery mode, initiator of communication, network architecture, path establishment (route discovery), network topology (structure), protocol operation, next hop selection and latency-awareness and energy-efficient routing protocols. In order to provide a total classification pattern to serve as reference for network designers, each class is subdivided into possible subclasses, presented, and discussed using different parameters such as purposes and characteristics.
Integer Programming Model for the Network Design Problem with Facility Dependent Shortest Path Routing
We consider a network design problem which has
shortest routing restriction based on the values determined by the
installed facilities on each arc. In conventional multicommodity
network design problem, a commodity can be routed through any
possible path when the capacity is available. But, we consider
a problem in which the commodity between two nodes must be
routed on a path which has shortest metric value and the link
metric value is determined by the installed facilities on the link.
By this routing restriction, the problem has a distinct characteristic.
We present an integer programming formulation containing the
primal-dual optimality conditions to the shortest path routing. We
give some computational results for the model.
A Performance Model for Designing Network in Reverse Logistic
In this paper, a reverse supply chain network is investigated for a decision making. This decision is surrounded by complex flows of returned products, due to the increasing quantity, the type of returned products and the variety of recovery option products (reuse, recycling, and refurbishment). The most important problem in the reverse logistic network (RLN) is to orient returned products to the suitable type of recovery option. However, returned products orientations from collect sources to the recovery disposition have not well considered in performance model. In this study, we propose a performance model for designing a network configuration on reverse logistics. Conceptual and analytical models are developed with taking into account operational, economic and environmental factors on designing network.
A Novel Solution Methodology for Transit Route Network Design Problem
Transit route Network Design Problem (TrNDP) is the most important component in Transit planning, in which the overall cost of the public transportation system highly depends on it. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel solution methodology for the TrNDP, which goes beyond pervious traditional sophisticated approaches. The novelty of the solution methodology, adopted in this paper, stands on the deterministic operators which are tackled to construct bus routes. The deterministic manner of the TrNDP solution relies on using linear and integer mathematical formulations that can be solved exactly with their standard solvers. The solution methodology has been tested through Mandl’s benchmark network problem. The test results showed that the methodology developed in this research is able to improve the given network solution in terms of number of constructed routes, direct transit service coverage, transfer directness and solution reliability. Although the set of routes resulted from the methodology would stand alone as a final efficient solution for TrNDP, it could be used as an initial solution for meta-heuristic procedures to approach global optimal. Based on the presented methodology, a more robust network optimization tool would be produced for public transportation planning purposes.
Microgrid: Low Power Network Topology and Control
The network designing and data modeling developments which are the two significant research tasks in direction to tolerate power control of Microgrid concluded using IEC 61850 data models and facilities. The current casing areas of IEC 61580 include infrastructures in substation automation systems, among substations and to DERs. So, for LV microgrid power control, previously using the IEC 61850 amenities to control the smart electrical devices, we have to model those devices as IEC 61850 data models and design a network topology to maintenance all-in-one communiqué amid those devices. In adding, though IEC 61850 assists modeling a portion by open-handed several object models for common functions similar measurement, metering, monitoring…etc., there are motionless certain missing smithereens for building a multiplicity of functions for household appliances like tuning the temperature of an electric heater or refrigerator.
Economic Evaluations Using Genetic Algorithms to Determine the Territorial Impact Caused by High Speed Railways
The evolution of technology and construction techniques has enabled the upgrading of transport networks. In particular, the high-speed rail networks allow convoys to peak at above 300 km/h. These structures, however, often significantly impact the surrounding environment. Among the effects of greater importance are the ones provoked by the soundwave connected to train transit. The wave propagation affects the quality of life in areas surrounding the tracks, often for several hundred metres. There are substantial damages to properties (buildings and land), in terms of market depreciation. The present study, integrating expertise in acoustics, computering and evaluation fields, outlines a useful model to select project paths so as to minimize the noise impact and reduce the causes of possible litigation. It also facilitates the rational selection of initiatives to contain the environmental damage to the already existing railway tracks. The research is developed with reference to the Italian regulatory framework (usually more stringent than European and international standards) and refers to a case study concerning the high speed network in Italy.
A Bi-Objective Preventive Healthcare Facility Network Design with Incorporating Cost and Time Saving
Main goal of preventive healthcare problems are at
decreasing the likelihood and severity of potentially life-threatening
illnesses by protection and early detection. The levels of
establishment and staffing costs along with summation of the travel
and waiting time that clients spent are considered as objectives
functions of the proposed nonlinear integer programming model. In
this paper, we have proposed a bi-objective mathematical model for
designing a network of preventive healthcare facilities so as to
minimize aforementioned objectives, simultaneously. Moreover, each
facility acts as M/M/1 queuing system. The number of facilities to be
established, the location of each facility, and the level of technology
for each facility to be chosen are provided as the main determinants
of a healthcare facility network. Finally, to demonstrate performance
of the proposed model, four multi-objective decision making
techniques are presented to solve the model.
A Multi-Objective Model for Supply Chain Network Design under Stochastic Demand
In this article, the design of a Supply Chain Network
(SCN) consisting of several suppliers, production plants, distribution
centers and retailers, is considered. Demands of retailers are
considered stochastic parameters, so we generate amounts of data via
simulation to extract a few demand scenarios. Then a mixed integer
two-stage programming model is developed to optimize
simultaneously two objectives: (1) minimization the fixed and
variable cost, (2) maximization the service level. A weighting method
is utilized to solve this two objective problem and a numerical
example is made to show the performance of the model.
Spacecraft Neural Network Control System Design using FPGA
Designing and implementing intelligent systems has become a crucial factor for the innovation and development of better products of space technologies. A neural network is a parallel system, capable of resolving paradigms that linear computing cannot. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device that owns reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application, conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffers the limitation in time and cost. With low precision artificial neural network design, FPGAs have higher speed and smaller size for real time application than the VLSI and DSP chips. So, many researchers have made great efforts on the realization of neural network (NN) using FPGA technique. In this paper, an introduction of ANN and FPGA technique are briefly shown. Also, Hardware Description Language (VHDL) code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic. Synthesis results for ANN controller are developed using Precision RTL. Proposed VHDL implementation creates a flexible, fast method and high degree of parallelism for implementing ANN. The implementation of multi-layer NN using lookup table LUT reduces the resource utilization for implementation and time for execution.
Error Correction Codes in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Aware Approach
Link reliability and transmitted power are two important design constraints in wireless network design. Error control coding (ECC) is a classic approach used to increase link reliability and to lower the required transmitted power. It provides coding gain, resulting in transmitter energy savings at the cost of added decoder power consumption. But the choice of ECC is very critical in the case of wireless sensor network (WSN). Since the WSNs are energy constraint in nature, both the BER and power consumption has to be taken into count. This paper develops a step by step approach in finding suitable error control codes for WSNs. Several simulations are taken considering different error control codes and the result shows that the RS(31,21) fits both in BER and power consumption criteria.
A Performance Appraisal of Neural Networks Developed for Response Prediction across Heterogeneous Domains
Deciding the numerous parameters involved in
designing a competent artificial neural network is a complicated task.
The existence of several options for selecting an appropriate
architecture for neural network adds to this complexity, especially
when different applications of heterogeneous natures are concerned.
Two completely different applications in engineering and medical
science were selected in the present study including prediction of
workpiece's surface roughness in ultrasonic-vibration assisted turning
and papilloma viruses oncogenicity. Several neural network
architectures with different parameters were developed for each
application and the results were compared. It was illustrated in this
paper that some applications such as the first one mentioned above
are apt to be modeled by a single network with sufficient accuracy,
whereas others such as the second application can be best modeled
by different expert networks for different ranges of output.
Development of knowledge about the essentials of neural networks
for different applications is regarded as the cornerstone of
multidisciplinary network design programs to be developed as a
means of reducing inconsistencies and the burden of the user
Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks
Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements
of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have
to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be
treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality
of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many
interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing
the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The
forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay
and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the
next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a
very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups
are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the
routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related
to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose
solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely
a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a
fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay
at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on
realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.
Reliability Optimization for 3G Cellular Access Networks
This paper address the network reliability optimization
problem in the optical access network design for the 3G cellular
systems. We presents a novel 0-1 integer programming model for
designing optical access network topologies comprised of multi-rings
with common-edge in order to guarantee always-on services. The
results show that the proposed model yields access network
topologies with the optimal reliablity and satisfies both network cost
limitations and traffic demand requirements.
Addressing Security Concerns of Data Exchange in AODV Protocol
The Ad Hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). AODV offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions; it is characterized by low memory overhead and low network utilization. The security issues related to the protocol remain challenging for the wireless network designers. Numerous schemes have been proposed for establishing secure communication between end users, these schemes identify that the secure operation of AODV is a bi tier task (routing and secure exchange of information at separate levels). Our endeavor in this paper would focus on achieving the routing and secure data exchange in a single step. This will facilitate the user nodes to perform routing, mutual authentications, generation and secure exchange of session key in one step thus ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authentication of data exchange in a more suitable way.