International Science Index
Game-Theory-Based on Downlink Spectrum Allocation in Two-Tier Networks
The capacity of conventional cellular networks has
reached its upper bound and it can be well handled by introducing
femtocells with low-cost and easy-to-deploy. Spectrum interference
issue becomes more critical in peace with the value-added multimedia
services growing up increasingly in two-tier cellular networks.
Spectrum allocation is one of effective methods in interference
mitigation technology. This paper proposes a game-theory-based on
OFDMA downlink spectrum allocation aiming at reducing co-channel
interference in two-tier femtocell networks. The framework is
formulated as a non-cooperative game, wherein the femto base
stations are players and frequency channels available are strategies.
The scheme takes full account of competitive behavior and
fairness among stations. In addition, the utility function reflects
the interference from the standpoint of channels essentially. This
work focuses on co-channel interference and puts forward a negative
logarithm interference function on distance weight ratio aiming
at suppressing co-channel interference in the same layer network.
This scenario is more suitable for actual network deployment and
the system possesses high robustness. According to the proposed
mechanism, interference exists only when players employ the same
channel for data communication. This paper focuses on implementing
spectrum allocation in a distributed fashion. Numerical results show
that signal to interference and noise ratio can be obviously improved
through the spectrum allocation scheme and the users quality of
service in downlink can be satisfied. Besides, the average spectrum
efficiency in cellular network can be significantly promoted as
simulations results shown.
Engineering of E-Learning Content Creation: Case Study for African Countries
This research addresses the use of an e-Learning creation methodology for learning objects. Throughout the process, indicators are being gathered, to determine if it responds to the main objectives of an engineering discipline. These parameters will also indicate if it is necessary to review the creation cycle and readjust any phase. Within the project developed for this study, apart from the use of structured methods, there has been a central objective: the establishment of a learning atmosphere. A place where all the professionals involved are able to collaborate, plan, solve problems and determine guides to follow in order to develop creative and innovative solutions. It has been outlined as a blended learning program with an assessment plan that proposes face to face lessons, coaching, collaboration, multimedia and web based learning objects as well as support resources. The project has been drawn as a long term task, the pilot teaching actions designed provide the preliminary results object of study. This methodology is been used in the creation of learning content for the African countries of Senegal, Mauritania and Cape Verde. It has been developed within the framework of the MACbioIDi, an Interreg European project for the International cooperation and development. The educational area of this project is focused in the training and advice of professionals of the medicine as well as engineers in the use of applications of medical imaging technology, specifically the 3DSlicer application and the Open Anatomy Browser.
An Intelligent Scheme Switching for MIMO Systems Using Fuzzy Logic Technique
Link adaptation is an important strategy for achieving robust wireless multimedia communications based on quality of service (QoS) demand. Scheme switching in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is an aspect of link adaptation, and it involves selecting among different MIMO transmission schemes or modes so as to adapt to the varying radio channel conditions for the purpose of achieving QoS delivery. However, finding the most appropriate switching method in MIMO links is still a challenge as existing methods are either computationally complex or not always accurate. This paper presents an intelligent switching method for the MIMO system consisting of two schemes - transmit diversity (TD) and spatial multiplexing (SM) - using fuzzy logic technique. In this method, two channel quality indicators (CQI) namely average received signal-to-noise ratio (RSNR) and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) are measured and are passed as inputs to the fuzzy logic system which then gives a decision – an inference. The switching decision of the fuzzy logic system is fed back to the transmitter to switch between the TD and SM schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed fuzzy logic – based switching technique outperforms conventional static switching technique in terms of bit error rate and spectral efficiency.
Digital Image Forensics: Discovering the History of Digital Images
Digital multimedia contents such as image, video, and audio can be tampered easily due to the availability of powerful editing softwares. Multimedia forensics is devoted to analyze these contents by using various digital forensic techniques in order to validate their authenticity. Digital image forensics is dedicated to investigate the reliability of digital images by analyzing the integrity of data and by reconstructing the historical information of an image related to its acquisition phase. In this paper, a survey is carried out on the forgery detection by considering the most recent and promising digital image forensic techniques.
The Attitude of Second Year Pharmacy Students towards Lectures, Exams and E-Learning
There is an increasing trend toward student-centred interactive e-learning methods and students’ feedback is a valuable tool for improving learning methods. The aim of this study was to explore the attitude of second year pharmacy students at the University of Babylon, Iraq, towards lectures, exams and e-learning. Materials and methods: Ninety pharmacy students were surveyed by paper questionnaire about their preference for lecture format, use of e-files, theoretical lectures versus practical experiments, lecture and lab time. Students were also asked about their predilection for Moodle-based online exams, different types of exam questions, exam time and other extra academic activities. Results: Students prefer to read lectures on paper (73.3%), use of PowerPoint file (76.7%), short lectures of less than 10 pages (94.5%), practical experiments (66.7%), lectures and lab time of less than two hours (89.9% and 96.6 respectively) and intra-lecture discussions (68.9%). Students also like to have paper-based exam (73.3%), short essay (40%) or MCQ (34.4%) questions and also prefer to do extra activities like reports (22.2%), seminars (18.6%) and posters (10.8%). Conclusion: Second year pharmacy students have different attitudes toward traditional and electronic leaning and assessment methods. Using multimedia, e-learning and Moodle are increasingly preferred methods among some students.
Improved Processing Speed for Text Watermarking Algorithm in Color Images
Copyright protection and ownership proof of digital multimedia are achieved nowadays by digital watermarking techniques. A text watermarking algorithm for protecting the property rights and ownership judgment of color images is proposed in this paper. Embedding is achieved by inserting texts elements randomly into the color image as noise. The YIQ image processing model is found to be faster than other image processing methods, and hence, it is adopted for the embedding process. An optional choice of encrypting the text watermark before embedding is also suggested (in case required by some applications), where, the text can is encrypted using any enciphering technique adding more difficulty to hackers. Experiments resulted in embedding speed improvement of more than double the speed of other considered systems (such as least significant bit method, and separate color code methods), and a fairly acceptable level of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with low mean square error values for watermarking purposes.
Animation of Objects on the Website by Application of CSS3 Language
Scientific work analytically explores and demonstrates techniques that can animate objects and geometric characters using CSS3 language by applying proper formatting and positioning of elements. This paper presents examples of optimum application of the CSS3 descriptive language when generating general web animations (e.g., billiards and movement of geometric characters, etc.). The paper presents analytically, the optimal development and animation design with the frames within which the animated objects are. The originally developed content is based on the upgrading of existing CSS3 descriptive language animations with more complex syntax and project-oriented work. The purpose of the developed animations is to provide an overview of the interactive features of CSS3 descriptive language design for computer games and the animation of important analytical data based on the web view. It has been analytically demonstrated that CSS3 as a descriptive language allows inserting of various multimedia elements into websites for public and internal sites.
An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload
The global coverage of broadband multimedia and
internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand
particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services
with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In
particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source
of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded
for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this
paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an
agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays.
In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is
carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite
in order to define a discretization function for determining that
delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the
development of a delay discretization function are together validated
by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation
results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial
data points of processing delay for Ku bands.
Towards an Enhanced Quality of IPTV Media Server Architecture over Software Defined Networking
The aim of this paper is to present the QoE (Quality of Experience) IPTV SDN-based media streaming server enhanced architecture for configuring, controlling, management and provisioning the improved delivery of IPTV service application with low cost, low bandwidth, and high security. Furthermore, it is given a virtual QoE IPTV SDN-based topology to provide an improved IPTV service based on QoE Control and Management of multimedia services functionalities. Inside OpenFlow SDN Controller there are enabled in high flexibility and efficiency Service Load-Balancing Systems; based on the Loading-Balance module and based on GeoIP Service. This two Load-balancing system improve IPTV end-users Quality of Experience (QoE) with optimal management of resources greatly. Through the key functionalities of OpenFlow SDN controller, this approach produced several important features, opportunities for overcoming the critical QoE metrics for IPTV Service like achieving incredible Fast Zapping time (Channel Switching time) < 0.1 seconds. This approach enabled Easy and Powerful Transcoding system via FFMPEG encoder. It has the ability to customize streaming dimensions bitrates, latency management and maximum transfer rates ensuring delivering of IPTV streaming services (Audio and Video) in high flexibility, low bandwidth and required performance. This QoE IPTV SDN-based media streaming architecture unlike other architectures provides the possibility of Channel Exchanging between several IPTV service providers all over the word. This new functionality brings many benefits as increasing the number of TV channels received by end –users with low cost, decreasing stream failure time (Channel Failure time < 0.1 seconds) and improving the quality of streaming services.
Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse
Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.
Hacking the Spatial Limitations in Bridging Virtual and Traditional Teaching Methodologies in Sri Lanka
Having moved into the 21st century, it is way past being arguable that innovative technology needs to be incorporated into conventional classroom teaching. Though the Western world has found presumable success in achieving this, it is still a concept under battle in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Reaching the acme of implementing interactive virtual learning within classrooms is a struggling idealistic fascination within the island. In order to overcome this problem, this study is set to reveal facts that limit the implementation of virtual, interactive learning within the school classrooms and provide hacks that could prove the augmented use of the Virtual World to enhance teaching and learning experiences. As each classroom moves along with the usage of technology to fulfill its functionalities, a few intense hacks provided will build the administrative onuses on a virtual system. These hacks may divulge barriers based on social conventions, financial boundaries, digital literacy, intellectual capacity of the staff, and highlight the impediments in introducing students to an interactive virtual learning environment and thereby provide the necessary actions or changes to be made to succeed and march along in creating an intellectual society built on virtual learning and lifestyle. This digital learning environment will be composed of multimedia presentations, trivia and pop quizzes conducted on a GUI, assessments conducted via a virtual system, records maintained on a database, etc. The ultimate objective of this study could enhance every child's basic learning environment; hence, diminishing the digital divide that exists in certain communities.
The Impact of Online Advertising on Generation Y’s Purchase Decision in Malaysia
Advertising is commonly used to foster sales and reputation of an institution. It is at first the growth of print advertising that has increased the population and number of periodicals of newspaper and its circulation. The rise of Internet and online media has somehow blurred the role of media and advertising though the intention is still to reach out to audience and to increase sales. The relationship between advertising and audience on a product purchase through persuasion has been developing from print media to online media. From the changing media environment and audience, it is the concern of this research to study the impact of online advertising to such a relationship cycle. The content of online advertisements is much of text, multimedia, photo, audio and video. The messages of such content format may indeed bring impacts to its audience and its credibility. This study is therefore reflecting the effectiveness of online advertisement and its influences on generation Y in their purchasing behavior. This study uses Media Dependency Theory to analyze the relationship between the impact of online advertisement and media usage pattern of generation Y. Hierarchy of Effectiveness Model is used as a marketing communication model to study the effectiveness of advertising and further to determine the impact of online advertisement on generation Y in their purchasing decision making. This research uses online survey to reach out the sample of generation Y. The results have shown that online advertisements do not affect much on purchase decision making even though generation Y relies much on the media content including online advertisement for its information and believing in its credibility. There are few other external factors that may interrupt the effectiveness of online advertising. The very obvious influence of purchasing behavior is actually derived from the peers.
Dynamic Admission Control Based on Effective Demand for Next Generation Wireless Networks
In next generation wireless networks (i.e., 4G and beyond), one of the main objectives is to ensure highest level of customer satisfaction in terms of data transfer speed, decrease in cost and delay, non-rejection and no drop of calls, availability of ‘always-on’ connectivity and services, continuity of connected services, hastle-free roaming in addition to the convenience of use of network services from anywhere and anytime. To take care of these requirements effectively, internet service providers (ISPs) and network planners have to go for major capacity enhancement of network resources and at the same time these resources are to be used effectively and efficiently to reduce cost and to increase revenue. In this work, the effective bandwidth available in a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) of a wireless network providing multi-class multimedia services is analyzed. Bandwidth requirement of the users for a customized Quality of Service (QoS) is estimated. The findings of the QoS estimation are applied for the capacity planning and admission control of the multi-class traffic flows coming into the MSC.
Identifying E-Learning Components at North-West University, Mafikeng Campus
Educational institutions are under pressure from their competitors. Regulators and community groups need educational institutions to adopt appropriate business and organizational practices. Globally, educational institutions are now using e-learning as the best teaching and learning approach. E-learning is becoming the center of attention to the learning institutions, educational systems and software inventors. North-West University (NWU) is currently using eFundi, a Learning Management System (LMS). LMS are all information systems and procedures that adds value to students learning and support the learning material in text or any multimedia files. With various e-learning tools, students would be able to access all the materials related to the course in electronic copies. The study was tasked with identifying the e-learning components at the NWU, Mafikeng campus. Quantitative research methodology was considered in data collection and descriptive statistics for data analysis. The Activity Theory (AT) was used as a theory to guide the study. AT outlines the limitations amongst e-learning at the macro-organizational level (plan, guiding principle, campus-wide solutions) and micro-organization (daily functioning practice, collaborative transformation, specific adaptation). On a technological environment, AT gives people an opportunity to change from concentrating on computers as an area of concern but also understand that technology is part of human activities. The findings have identified the university’s current IT tools and knowledge on e-learning elements. It was recommended that university should consider buying computer resources that consumes less power and practice e-learning effectively.
Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers
The paper examined the capability of a prototype of a tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely dependent on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale was deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, a succinct description of the findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led to the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.
Digital Cinema Watermarking State of Art and Comparison
Nowadays, the vigorous popularity of video processing techniques has resulted in an explosive growth of multimedia data illegal use. So, watermarking security has received much more attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore some watermarking techniques in order to observe their specificities and select the finest methods to apply in digital cinema domain against movie piracy by creating an invisible watermark that includes the date, time and the place where the hacking was done. We have studied three principal watermarking techniques in the frequency domain: Spread spectrum, Wavelet transform domain and finally the digital cinema watermarking transform domain. In this paper, a detailed technique is presented where embedding is performed using direct sequence spread spectrum technique in DWT transform domain. Experiment results shows that the algorithm provides high robustness and good imperceptibility.
The Nuclear Energy Museum in Brazil: Creative Solutions to Transform Science Education into Meaningful Learning
Nuclear technology is a controversial issue among a great share of the Brazilian population. Misinformation and common wrong beliefs confuse public’s perceptions and the scientific community is expected to offer a wider perspective on the benefits and risks resulting from ionizing radiation in everyday life. Attentive to the need of new approaches between science and society, the Nuclear Energy Museum, in northeast Brazil, is an initiative created to communicate the growing impact of the beneficial applications of nuclear technology in medicine, industry, agriculture and electric power generation. Providing accessible scientific information, the museum offers a rich learning environment, making use of different educational strategies, such as films, interactive panels and multimedia learning tools, which not only increase the enjoyment of visitors, but also maximize their learning potential. Developed according to modern active learning instructional strategies, multimedia materials are designed to present the increasingly role of nuclear science in modern life, transforming science education into a meaningful learning experience. In year 2016, nine different interactive computer-based activities were developed, presenting curiosities about ionizing radiation in different landmarks around the world, such as radiocarbon dating works in Egypt, nuclear power generation in France and X-radiography of famous paintings in Italy. Feedback surveys have reported a high level of visitors’ satisfaction, proving the high quality experience in learning nuclear science at the museum. The Nuclear Energy Museum is the first and, up to the present time, the only permanent museum in Brazil devoted entirely to nuclear science.
Web-Based Tools to Increase Public Understanding of Nuclear Technology and Food Irradiation
Food irradiation is a processing and preservation technique to eliminate insects and parasites and reduce disease-causing microorganisms. Moreover, the process helps to inhibit sprouting and delay ripening, extending fresh fruits and vegetables shelf-life. Nevertheless, most Brazilian consumers seem to misunderstand the difference between irradiated food and radioactive food and the general public has major concerns about the negative health effects and environmental contamination. Society´s judgment and decision making are directly linked to perceived benefits and risks. The web-based project entitled ‘Scientific information about food irradiation: Internet as a tool to approach science and society’ was created by the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN), in order to offer an interdisciplinary approach to science education, integrating economic, ethical, social and political aspects of food irradiation. This project takes into account that, misinformation and unfounded preconceived ideas impact heavily on the acceptance of irradiated food and purchase intention by the Brazilian consumer. Taking advantage of the potential value of the Internet to enhance communication and education among general public, a research study was carried out regarding the possibilities and trends of Information and Communication Technologies among the Brazilian population. The content includes concepts, definitions and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about processes, safety, advantages, limitations and the possibilities of food irradiation, including health issues, as well as its impacts on the environment. The project counts on eight self-instructional interactive web courses, situating scientific content in relevant social contexts in order to encourage self-learning and further reflections. Communication is a must to improve public understanding of science. The use of information technology for quality scientific divulgation shall contribute greatly to provide information throughout the country, spreading information to as many people as possible, minimizing geographic distances and stimulating communication and development.
Multimedia Firearms Training System
The goal of the article is to present a novel Multimedia Firearms Training System. The system was developed in order to compensate for major problems of existing shooting training systems. The designed and implemented solution can be characterized by five major advantages: algorithm for automatic geometric calibration, algorithm of photometric recalibration, firearms hit point detection using thermal imaging camera, IR laser spot tracking algorithm for after action review analysis, and implementation of ballistics equations. The combination of the abovementioned advantages in a single multimedia firearms training system creates a comprehensive solution for detecting and tracking of the target point usable for shooting training systems and improving intervention tactics of uniformed services. The introduced algorithms of geometric and photometric recalibration allow the use of economically viable commercially available projectors for systems that require long and intensive use without most of the negative impacts on color mapping of existing multi-projector multimedia shooting range systems. The article presents the results of the developed algorithms and their application in real training systems.
Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application
Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.
The Video Database for Teaching and Learning in Football Refereeing
The following paper describes the video database tool used by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) as part of the research project developed in collaboration with the Carlos III University of Madrid. The database project began in 2012, with the aim of creating an educational tool for the training of instructors, referees and assistant referees, and it has been used in all FUTURO III courses since 2013. The platform now contains 3,135 video clips of different match situations from FIFA competitions. It has 1,835 users (FIFA instructors, referees and assistant referees). In this work, the main features of the database are described, such as the use of a search tool and the creation of multimedia presentations and video quizzes. The database has been developed in MySQL, ActionScript, Ruby on Rails and HTML. This tool has been rated by users as "very good" in all courses, which prompt us to introduce it as an ideal tool for any other sport that requires the use of video analysis.
Beginning Physics Experiments Class Using Multi Media in National University of Laos
National University of Laos (NUOL) requested Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) volunteers to begin a physics experiments class using multi media. However, there are issues. NUOL had no physics experiment class, no space for physics experiments, experiment materials were not used for many years and were scattered in various places, and there is no projector and laptop computer in the unit. This raised the question: How do authors begin the physics experiments class using multimedia? To solve this problem, the JICA took some steps, took stock of what was available and reviewed the syllabus. The JICA then revised the experiment materials to assess what was available and then developed textbooks for experiments using them; however, the question remained, what about the multimedia component of the course? Next, the JICA reviewed Physics teacher Pavy Souvannavong’s YouTube channel, where he and his students upload video reports of their physics classes at NUOL using their smartphones. While they use multi-media, almost all the videos recorded were of class presentations. To improve the multimedia style, authors edited the videos in the style of another YouTube channel, “Science for Lao,” which is a science education group made up of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) in Laos. They created the channel to enhance science education in Laos, and hold regular monthly meetings in the capital, Vientiane, and at teacher training colleges in the country. They edit the video clips in three parts, which are the materials and procedures part including pictures, practice footage of the experiment part, and then the result and conclusion part. Then students perform experiments and prepare for presentation by following the videos. The revised experiment presentation reports use PowerPoint presentations, material pictures and experiment video clips. As for providing textbooks and submitting reports, the students use the e-Learning system of “Moodle” of the Information Technology Center in Dongdok campus of NUOL. The Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) donated those facilities. The authors have passed the process of the revised materials, developed textbooks, the PowerPoint slides presented by students, downloaded textbooks and uploaded reports, to begin the physics experiments class using multimedia. This is the practice research report for beginning a physics experiments class using multimedia in the physics unit at the Department of Natural Science, Faculty of Education, at the NUOL.
Examining the Usefulness of an ESP Textbook for Information Technology: Learner Perspectives
Many English for Specific Purposes (ESP) textbooks are distributed globally as the content development is often obliged to compromises between commercial and pedagogical demands. Therefore, the issue of regional application and usefulness of globally published ESP textbooks has received much debate. For ESP instructors, textbook selection is definitely a priority consideration for curriculum design. An appropriate ESP textbook can facilitate teaching and learning, while an inappropriate one may cause a disaster for both teachers and students. This study aims to investigate the regional application and usefulness of an ESP textbook for information technology (IT). Participants were 51 sophomores majoring in Applied Informatics and Multimedia at a university in Taiwan. As they were non-English majors, their English proficiency was mostly at elementary and elementary-to-intermediate levels. This course was offered for two semesters. The textbook selected was Oxford English for Information Technology. At class end, the students were required to complete a survey comprising five choices of Very Easy, Easy, Neutral, Difficult, and Very Difficult for each item. Based on the content design of the textbook, the survey investigated how the students viewed the difficulty of grammar, listening, speaking, reading, and writing materials of the textbook. In terms of difficulty, results reveal that only 22% of them found the grammar section difficult and very difficult. For listening, 71% responded difficult and very difficult. For general reading, 55% responded difficult and very difficult. For speaking, 56% responded difficult and very difficult. For writing, 78% responded difficult and very difficult. For advanced reading, 90% reported difficult and very difficult. These results indicate that, except the grammar section, more than half of the students found the textbook contents difficult in terms of listening, speaking, reading, and writing materials. Such contradictory results between the easy grammar section and the difficult four language skills sections imply that the textbook designers do not well understand the English learning background of regional ESP learners. For the participants, the learning contents of the grammar section were the general grammar level of junior high school, while the learning contents of the four language skills sections were more of the levels of college English majors. Implications from the findings are obtained for instructors and textbook designers. First of all, existing ESP textbooks for IT are few and thus textbook selections for instructors are insufficient. Second, existing globally published textbooks for IT cannot be applied to learners of all English proficiency levels, especially the low level. With limited textbook selections, third, instructors should modify the selected textbook contents or supplement extra ESP materials to meet the proficiency level of target learners. Fourth, local ESP publishers should collaborate with local ESP instructors who understand best the learning background of their students in order to develop appropriate ESP textbooks for local learners. Even though the instructor reduced learning contents and simplified tests in curriculum design, in conclusion, the students still found difficult. This implies that in addition to the instructor’s professional experience, there is a need to understand the usefulness of the textbook from learner perspectives.
Augmented Reality for Maintenance Operator for Problem Inspections
Current production-oriented factories need maintenance operators to work in shifts monitoring and inspecting complex systems and different equipment in the situation of mechanical breakdown. Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that embeds data into the environment for situation awareness to help maintenance operators make decisions and solve problems. An application was designed to identify the problem of steam generators and inspection centrifugal pumps. The objective of this research was to find the best medium of AR and type of problem solving strategies among analogy, focal object method and mean-ends analysis. Two scenarios of inspecting leakage were temperature and vibration. Two experiments were used in usability evaluation and future innovation, which included decision-making process and problem-solving strategy. This study found that maintenance operators prefer build-in magnifier to zoom the components (55.6%), 3D exploded view to track the problem parts (50%), and line chart to find the alter data or information (61.1%). There is a significant difference in the use of analogy (44.4%), focal objects (38.9%) and mean-ends strategy (16.7%). The marked differences between maintainers and operators are of the application of a problem solving strategy. However, future work should explore multimedia information retrieval which supports maintenance operators for decision-making.
Business-Intelligence Mining of Large Decentralized Multimedia Datasets with a Distributed Multi-Agent System
The rapid generation of high volume and a broad variety of data from the application of new technologies pose challenges for the generation of business-intelligence. Most organizations and business owners need to extract data from multiple sources and apply analytical methods for the purposes of developing their business. Therefore, the recently decentralized data management environment is relying on a distributed computing paradigm. While data are stored in highly distributed systems, the implementation of distributed data-mining techniques is a challenge. The aim of this technique is to gather knowledge from every domain and all the datasets stemming from distributed resources. As agent technologies offer significant contributions for managing the complexity of distributed systems, we consider this for next-generation data-mining processes. To demonstrate agent-based business intelligence operations, we use agent-oriented modeling techniques to develop a new artifact for mining massive datasets.
Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol and its sample services resulted from informal SIP specification. We create an “Abstract User Interface” using case analysis so that can be applied to identify SIP services more explicitly. The issued sample SIP features are then used as case scenarios; they are revised in MSCs format and validated to their corresponding SDL models.
Further the Future: The Exploratory Study in 3D Animation Marketing Trend and Industry in Thailand
Lately, many media organizations in Thailand have started to produce 3D animation, so the quality of personnel should be identified. As an instructor in the school of Animation and Multimedia, the researchers have to prepare the students, suitable for the need of industry. The current study used exploratory research design to establish the knowledge of about this issue, including the required qualification of employees and the potential of animation industry in Thailand. The interview sessions involved three key informants from three well-known organizations. The interview data was used to design a questionnaire for the confirmation phase. The overall results showed that the industry needed an individual with 3D animation skill, computer graphic skills, good communication skills, a high responsibility, and an ability to finish the project on time. Moreover, it is also found that there were currently various kinds of media where 3D animation has been involved, such as films, TV variety, TV advertising, online advertising, and application on mobile device.
Multimedia Data Fusion for Event Detection in Twitter by Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory
Data fusion technology can be the best way to extract
useful information from multiple sources of data. It has been widely
applied in various applications. This paper presents a data fusion
approach in multimedia data for event detection in twitter by using
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The methodology applies a mining
algorithm to detect the event. There are two types of data in the
fusion. The first is features extracted from text by using the bag-ofwords
method which is calculated using the term frequency-inverse
document frequency (TF-IDF). The second is the visual features
extracted by applying scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). The
Dempster - Shafer theory of evidence is applied in order to fuse the
information from these two sources. Our experiments have indicated
that comparing to the approaches using individual data source, the
proposed data fusion approach can increase the prediction accuracy
for event detection. The experimental result showed that the proposed
method achieved a high accuracy of 0.97, comparing with 0.93 with
texts only, and 0.86 with images only.
Design of Mobile Teaching for Students Collaborative Learning in Distance Higher Education
The aim of the study is to describe and analyze design
of mobile teaching for students collaborative learning in distance
higher education with a focus on mobile technologies as online
webinars (web-based seminars or conferencing) by using laptops,
smart phones, or tablets. These multimedia tools can provide face-toface
interactions, recorded flipped classroom videos and parallel chat
communications. The data collection consists of interviews with 22
students and observations of online face-to-face webinars, as well
two surveys. Theoretically, the study joins the research tradition of
Computer Supported Collaborative learning, CSCL, as well as
Computer Self-Efficacy, CSE concerned with individuals’ media and
information literacy. Important conclusions from the study
demonstrated mobile interactions increased student centered
learning. As the students were appreciating the working methods,
they became more engaged and motivated. The mobile technology
using among student also contributes to increased flexibility between
space and place, as well as media and information literacy.
A Survey on E-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental Science among Standard Six Primary School Students the Ministry of Education Malaysia
This study aims to assess the students' needs for the
tour planning e-guide. The study is developing on the contribution
and importance of the Educational Tour Planning Guide (ETP) is a
multimedia course ware as one of the effective methods in teaching
and learning of environmental science among the students in primary
schools of the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. It is to provide the
student with knowledge and experience about tourism, environmental
science activities and process. E-guide to ETP also hopes to
strengthen the student understanding toward the subject learn in the
tourism environmental science. In order to assess the student's needs
on the e-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental
Science, the study has produced a similar e-Guide to ETP in the form
as a course ware to be tested during the study. The study has involved
several steps in order to be completed. It is such as the formulation of
the problem, the review of the literature, the formulation of the study
methodology, the production of the e-Guide to ETP, field survey and
finally the analyses and discussion made on the data gathered during
the study. The survey has involved 100 respondents among the
students in standard six primary schools in Kluang Johor. Through
the findings, the study indicates that the current tested product is
acceptable among the students in learning environmental science as a
guide to plan for the tour. The findings also show a slight difference
between the respondents who are using the e-Guide to ETP, and those
who are not on the basis of the e-Guide to ETP results. Due the
important for the study, the researcher hopes to be having a fair
discussion and excellence, recommendation for the development of
the product of the current study. This report is written also important
to provide a written reference for the future related study.