International Science Index
Development of Fuzzy Logic and Neuro-Fuzzy Surface Roughness Prediction Systems Coupled with Cutting Current in Milling Operation
Development of two real-time surface roughness (Ra) prediction systems for milling operations was attempted. The systems used not only cutting parameters, such as feed rate and spindle speed, but also the cutting current generated and corrected by a clamp type energy sensor. Two different approaches were developed. First, a fuzzy inference system (FIS), in which the fuzzy logic rules are generated by experts in the milling processes, was used to conduct prediction modeling using current cutting data. Second, a neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS) was explored. Neuro-fuzzy systems are adaptive techniques in which data are collected on the network, processed, and rules are generated by the system. The inference system then uses these rules to predict Ra as the output. Experimental results showed that the parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and input current variation could predict Ra. These two systems enable the prediction of Ra during the milling operation with an average of 91.83% and 94.48% accuracy by FIS and ANFIS systems, respectively. Statistically, the ANFIS system provided better prediction accuracy than that of the FIS system.
Implementation the Average Input Current Mode Control of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Low-Cost Microcontroller
In this paper, the average input current mode control is proposed for two-phase interleaved boost converter with two separate input inductors operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuits of its different four modes of operation. The small ripple approximation is derived to find the transfer functions from dynamic model using switching function. In average input current mode control, the inner current loop and outer voltage loop are designed with PI controller using bode analysis. Anti-windup structure is applied for PI controllers in control system. Moreover, the simulation work is carried out by MATLAB/Simulink. And, the hardware prototype is implemented by using low-cost microcontroller Arduino Nano. Finally, the laboratory prototype, available from the local market, is constructed to validate the mathematical model. The results show that the output voltage response is the faster rise time and settling time with acceptable overshoot.
Modeling and Simulation of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter Using Open-Source Software Scilab/Xcos
This paper investigated the simulation of two-phase interleaved boost converter (IBC) with free and open-source software Scilab/Xcos. By using interleaved method, it can reduce current stress on components, components size, input current ripple and output voltage ripple. The required mathematical model is obtained from the equivalent circuit of its different four modes of operation for simulation. The equivalent circuits are considered in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The average values of the system variables are derived from the state-space equation to find the equilibrium point. Scilab is now becoming more and more popular among students, engineers and scientists because it is open-source software and free of charge. It gives a great convenience because it has powerful computation and simulation function. The waveforms of output voltage, input current and inductors current are obtained by using Scilab/Xcos.
Batteryless DCM Boost Converter for Kinetic Energy Harvesting Applications
In this paper, a bidirectional boost converter operated
in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) is presented as a suitable
power conditioning circuit for tuning of kinetic energy harvesters
without the need of a battery. A nonlinear control scheme, composed
by two linear controllers, is used to control the average value of
the input current, enabling the synthesization of complex loads. The
converter, along with the control system, is validated through SPICE
simulations using the LTspice tool. The converter model and the
controller transfer functions are derived. From the simulation results,
it was found that the input current distortion increases with the
introduced phase shift and that, such distortion, is almost entirely
present at the zero-crossing point of the input voltage.
CMOS Positive and Negative Resistors Based on Complementary Regulated Cascode Topology with Cross-Coupled Regulated Transistors
Two types of floating active resistors based on a complementary regulated cascode topology with cross-coupled regulated transistors are presented in this paper. The first topology is a high swing complementary regulated cascode active resistor. The second topology is a complementary common gate with a regulated cross coupled transistor. The small-signal input resistances of the floating resistors are derived. Three graphs of the input current versus the input voltage for different aspect ratios are designed and plotted using the Cadence Spectre 0.18-µm Rohm Semiconductor process. The total harmonic distortion graphs are plotted for three different aspect ratios with different input-voltage amplitudes and different input frequencies. From the simulation results, it is observed that a resistance of approximately 8.52 MΩ can be obtained from supply voltage at ±0.9 V.
Design of a CMOS Differential Operational Transresistance Amplifier in 90 nm CMOS Technology
In this paper, a CMOS differential operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) is presented. The amplifier is designed and implemented in a standard umc90-nm CMOS technology. The differential OTRA provides wider bandwidth at high gain. It also shows much better rise and fall time and exhibits a very good input current dynamic range of 50 to 50 μA. The OTRA can be used in many analog VLSI applications. The presented amplifier has high gain bandwidth product of 617.6 THz Ω. The total power dissipation of the presented amplifier is also very low and it is 0.21 mW.
1 kW Power Factor Correction Soft Switching Boost Converter with an Active Snubber Cell
A 1 kW power factor correction boost converter with an active snubber cell is presented in this paper. In the converter, the main switch turns on under zero voltage transition (ZVT) and turns off under zero current transition (ZCT) without any additional voltage or current stress. The auxiliary switch turns on and off under zero current switching (ZCS). Besides, the main diode turns on under ZVS and turns off under ZCS. The output current and voltage are controlled by the PFC converter in wide line and load range. The simulation results of converter are obtained for 1 kW and 100 kHz. One of the most important feature of the given converter is that it has direct power transfer as well as excellent soft switching techniques. Also, the converter has 0.99 power factor with the sinusoidal input current shape.
Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter
This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.
Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators
This paper describes two methods for the reduction of
the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps.
Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge
pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card
applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with
Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a
factor of 6 during boosting.
Nonlinear Modeling of the PEMFC Based On NNARX Approach
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is
such a time-vary nonlinear dynamic system. The traditional linear
modeling approach is hard to estimate structure correctly of PEMFC
system. From this reason, this paper presents a nonlinear modeling of
the PEMFC using Neural Network Auto-regressive model with
eXogenous inputs (NNARX) approach. The multilayer perception
(MLP) network is applied to evaluate the structure of the NNARX
model of PEMFC. The validity and accuracy of NNARX model are
tested by one step ahead relating output voltage to input current from
measured experimental of PEMFC. The results show that the obtained
nonlinear NNARX model can efficiently approximate the dynamic
mode of the PEMFC and model output and system measured output
Design and Simulation of CCM Boost Converter for Power Factor Correction Using Variable Duty Cycle Control
Power quality in terms of power factor, THD and precisely regulated output voltage are the major key factors for efficient operation of power electronic converters. This paper presents an easy and effective active wave shaping control scheme for the pulsed input current drawn by the uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier thereby achieving power factor nearer to unity and also satisfying the THD specifications. It also regulates the output DC-bus voltage. CCM boost power factor correction with constant frequency operation features smaller inductor current ripple resulting in low RMS currents on inductor and switch thus leading to low electromagnetic interference. The objective of this work is to develop an active PFC control circuit using CCM boost converter implementing variable duty cycle control. The proposed scheme eliminates inductor current sensing requirements yet offering good performance and satisfactory results for maintaining the power quality. Simulation results have been presented which covers load changes also.
Closed Loop Control of Bridgeless Cuk Converter Using Fuzzy Logic Controller for PFC Applications
This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.
A Very High Speed, High Resolution Current Comparator Design
This paper presents an idea for analog current comparison which compares input signal and reference currents with high speed and accuracy. Proposed circuit utilizes amplification properties of common gate configuration, where voltage variations of input current are amplified and a compared output voltage is developed. Cascaded inverter stages are used to generate final CMOS compatible output voltage. Power consumption of circuit can be controlled by the applied gate bias voltage. The comparator is designed and studied at 180nm CMOS process technology for a supply voltage of 3V.
Application of Pulse Doubling in Star-Connected Autotransformer Based 12-Pulse AC-DC Converter for Power Quality Improvement
This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMD-s) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse ac-dc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifier. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6- pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.
Pulse Skipping Modulated DC to DC Step Down Converter Under Discontinuous Conduction Mode
Reduced switching loss favours Pulse Skipping
Modulation mode of switching dc-to-dc converters at light loads.
Under certain conditions the converter operates in discontinuous
conduction mode (DCM). Inductor current starts from zero in each
switching cycle as the switching frequency is constant and not
adequately high. A DC-to-DC buck converter is modelled and
simulated in this paper under DCM. Effect of ESR of the filter
capacitor in input current frequency components is studied. The
converter is studied for its operation under input voltage and load
variation. The operating frequency is selected to be close to and
above audio range.
A New True RMS-to-DC Converter in CMOS Technology
This paper presents a new true RMS-to-DC converter
circuit based on a square-root-domain squarer/divider. The circuit is
designed by employing up-down translinear loop and using of
MOSFET transistors that operate in strong inversion saturation
region. The converter offer advantages of two-quadrant input current,
low circuit complexity, low supply voltage (1.2V) and immunity
from the body effect. The circuit has been simulated by HSPICE.
The simulation results are seen to conform to the theoretical analysis
and shows benefits of the proposed circuit.
Negative Slope Ramp Carrier Control for High Power Factor Boost Converters in CCM Operation
This paper, a simple continuous conduction mode (CCM) pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controller for high power factor boost converters is introduced. The duty ratios were obtained by the comparison of a sensed signal from inductor current or switch current and a negative slope ramp carrier waveform in each switching period. Due to the proposed control requires only the inductor current or switch current sensor and the output voltage sensor, its circuit implementation was very simple. To verify the proposed control, the circuit experimentation of a 350 W boost converter with the proposed control was applied. From the results, the input current waveform was shaped to be closely sinusoidal, implying high power factor and low harmonics.
Application of Boost Converter for Ride-through Capability of Adjustable Speed Drives during Sag and Swell Conditions
Process control and energy conservation are the two
primary reasons for using an adjustable speed drive. However,
voltage sags are the most important power quality problems facing
many commercial and industrial customers. The development of
boost converters has raised much excitement and speculation
throughout the electric industry. Now utilities are looking to these
devices for performance improvement and reliability in a variety of
areas. Examples of these include sags, spikes, or transients in supply
voltage as well as unbalanced voltages, poor electrical system
grounding, and harmonics. In this paper, simulations results are
presented for the verification of the proposed boost converter
topology. Boost converter provides ride through capability during
sag and swell. Further, input currents are near sinusoidal. This
eliminates the need of braking resistor also.
A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror
A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.
Sensitivity and Removed THD of a Phase- Cutting Dimmer
In this paper, we consider a designed and
implemented phase-cutting dimmer. In fact, the dimmer is closed
loop and a microcontroller calculates and then regulates the firing
delay angles of each channel. Depending on the firing angle, the
harmonic distortion in the input current will not comply with
international standards, such as IEC 61000-3-2 (class C equipments).
For solving this problem, eight harmonic compensators have been
added to the dimmer. So, the proposed dimmer has a little harmonic
distortion in the input current whereas conventional phase-cutting
dimmers are not so. Sensitivity and removed THD of the proposed
dimmer will be presented.
An Experimental Investigation of Thermoelectric Air-Cooling Module
This article experimentally investigates the
thermal performance of thermoelectric air-cooling module
which comprises a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and an
air-cooling heat sink. The influences of input current and heat
load are determined. And performances under each situation
are quantified by thermal resistance analysis. Since TEC
generates Joule heat, this nature makes construction of thermal
resistance network difficult. To simplify the analysis, this
article emphasizes on the resistance heat load might meet when
passing through the device. Therefore, the thermal resistances
in this paper are to divide temperature differences by heat load.
According to the result, there exists an optimum input current
under every heating power. In this case, the optimum input
current is around 6A or 7A. The performance of the heat sink
would be improved with TEC under certain heating power and
input current, especially at a low heat load. According to the
result, the device can even make the heat source cooler than the
ambient. However, TEC is not always effective at every heat
load and input current. In some situation, the device works
worse than the heat sink without TEC. To determine the
availability of TEC, this study figures out the effective
operating region in which the TEC air-cooling module works
better than the heat sink without TEC. The result shows that
TEC is more effective at a lower heat load. If heat load is too
high, heat sink with TEC will perform worse than without TEC.
The limit of this device is 57W. Besides, TEC is not helpful if
input current is too high or too low. There is an effective range
of input current, and the range becomes narrower when the heat
Universal Current-Mode OTA-C KHN Biquad
A universal current-mode biquad is described which
represents an economical variant of well-known KHN (Kerwin,
Huelsman, Newcomb) voltage-mode filter. The circuit consists of
two multiple-output OTAs and of two grounded capacitors. Utilizing
simple splitter of the input current and a pair of jumpers, all the basic
2nd-order transfer functions can be implemented. The principle is
verified by Spice simulation on the level of a CMOS structure of