International Science Index

3
10006473
Rheological Characteristics of Ice Slurries Based on Propylene- and Ethylene-Glycol at High Ice Fractions
Abstract:

Ice slurries are considered as a promising phase-changing secondary fluids for air-conditioning, packaging or cooling industrial processes. An experimental study has been here carried out to measure the rheological characteristics of ice slurries. Ice slurries consist in a solid phase (flake ice crystals) and a liquid phase. The later is composed of a mixture of liquid water and an additive being here either (1) Propylene-Glycol (PG) or (2) Ethylene-Glycol (EG) used to lower the freezing point of water. Concentrations of 5%, 14% and 24% of both additives are investigated with ice mass fractions ranging from 5% to 85%. The rheological measurements are carried out using a Discovery HR-2 vane-concentric cylinder with four full-length blades. The experimental results show that the behavior of ice slurries is generally non-Newtonian with shear-thinning or shear-thickening behaviors depending on the experimental conditions. In order to determine the consistency and the flow index, the Herschel-Bulkley model is used to describe the behavior of ice slurries. The present results are finally validated against an experimental database found in the literature and the predictions of an Artificial Neural Network model.

Paper Detail
689
downloads
2
15910
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
Abstract:
The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.
Paper Detail
9123
downloads
1
8384
Preservation of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Coexisting with Sucrose at Temperatures below the Water Freezing Point under Atmospheric Pressure
Abstract:
This paper reports the influence of sucrose on the preservation of CO2 hydrate crystal samples. The particle diameter of hydrate samples were 1.0 and 5.6-8.0 mm. Mass fraction of sucrose in the sample was 0.16. The samples were stored at the aerated condition under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of 253 or 258 K. The results indicated that the mass fractions of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose were 0.10 ┬▒ 0.03 at the end of 3-week preservation, regardless of temperature and particle diameter. Mass fraction of CO2 hydrate in the samples with sucrose was higher than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 1.0 mm particle diameter, while was lower than that of pure CO2 hydrate for 5.6-8.0 mm particle diameter. Discussion is made on the influence of sucrose on the dissociation of CO2 hydrate and the resulting formation of ice.
Paper Detail
1599
downloads