International Science Index
Evaluating the Impact of Replacement Policies on the Cache Performance and Energy Consumption in Different Multicore Embedded Systems
The cache has an important role in the reduction of access delay between a processor and memory in high-performance embedded systems. In these systems, the energy consumption is one of the most important concerns, and it will become more important with smaller processor feature sizes and higher frequencies. Meanwhile, the cache system dissipates a significant portion of energy compared to the other components of a processor. There are some elements that can affect the energy consumption of the cache such as replacement policy and degree of associativity. Due to these points, it can be inferred that selecting an appropriate configuration for the cache is a crucial part of designing a system. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different cache replacement policies on both cache’s performance and energy consumption. Furthermore, the impact of different Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs) on cache’s performance and energy consumption has been investigated.
A Study of the Trade-off Energy Consumption-Performance-Schedulability for DVFS Multicore Systems
Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS)
multicore platforms are promising execution platforms that enable
high computational performance, less energy consumption and
flexibility in scheduling the system processes. However, the
resulting interleaving and memory interference together with per-core
frequency tuning make real-time guarantees hard to be delivered.
Besides, energy consumption represents a strong constraint for the
deployment of such systems on energy-limited settings. Identifying
the system configurations that would achieve a high performance and
consume less energy while guaranteeing the system schedulability is
a complex task in the design of modern embedded systems. This work
studies the trade-off between energy consumption, cores utilization
and memory bottleneck and their impact on the schedulability of
DVFS multicore time-critical systems with a hierarchy of shared
memories. We build a model-based framework using Parametrized
Timed Automata of UPPAAL to analyze the mutual impact of
performance, energy consumption and schedulability of DVFS
multicore systems, and demonstrate the trade-off on an actual case
Evaluation of Model-Based Code Generation for Embedded Systems–Mature Approach for Development in Evolution
Model-based development approach is gaining more support and acceptance. Its higher abstraction level brings simplification of systems’ description that allows domain experts to do their best without particular knowledge in programming. The different levels of simulation support the rapid prototyping, verifying and validating the product even before it exists physically. Nowadays model-based approach is beneficial for modelling of complex embedded systems as well as a generation of code for many different hardware platforms. Moreover, it is possible to be applied in safety-relevant industries like automotive, which brings extra automation of the expensive device certification process and especially in the software qualification. Using it, some companies report about cost savings and quality improvements, but there are others claiming no major changes or even about cost increases. This publication demonstrates the level of maturity and autonomy of model-based approach for code generation. It is based on a real live automotive seat heater (ASH) module, developed using The Mathworks, Inc. tools. The model, created with Simulink, Stateflow and Matlab is used for automatic generation of C code with Embedded Coder. To prove the maturity of the process, Code generation advisor is used for automatic configuration. All additional configuration parameters are set to auto, when applicable, leaving the generation process to function autonomously. As a result of the investigation, the publication compares the quality of generated embedded code and a manually developed one. The measurements show that generally, the code generated by automatic approach is not worse than the manual one. A deeper analysis of the technical parameters enumerates the disadvantages, part of them identified as topics for our future work.
A Wireless Feedback Control System as a Base of Bio-Inspired Structure System to Mitigate Vibration in Structures
This paper attempts to develop a wireless feedback control system as a primary step eventually toward a bio-inspired structure system where inanimate structure behaves like a life form autonomously. It is a standalone wireless control system which is supposed to measure externally caused structural responses, analyze structural state from acquired data, and take its own action on the basis of the analysis with an embedded logic. For an experimental examination of its effectiveness, we applied it on a model of two-span bridge and performed a wireless control test. Experimental tests have been conducted for comparison on both the wireless and the wired system under the conditions of Un-control, Passive-off, Passive-on, and Lyapunov control algorithm. By proving the congruence of the test result of the wireless feedback control system with the wired control system, its control performance was proven to be effective. Besides, it was found to be economical in energy consumption and also autonomous by means of a command algorithm embedded into it, which proves its basic capacity as a bio-inspired system.
Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation
This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.
An Implementation of a Configurable UART-to-Ethernet Converter
This paper presents an implementation of a configurable UART-to-Ethernet converter using an ARM-based 32-bit microcontroller as well as a dedicated configuration program running on a PC for configuring the operating parameters of the converter. The program was written in Python. Various parameters pertaining to the operation of the converter can be modified by the configuration program through the Ethernet interface of the converter. The converter supports 3 representative asynchronous serial communication protocols, RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485 and supports 3 network modes, TCP/IP server, TCP/IP client, and UDP client. The TCP/IP and UDP protocols were implemented on the microcontroller using an open source TCP/IP protocol stack called lwIP (A lightweight TCP/IP) and FreeRTOS, a free real-time operating system for embedded systems. Due to the use of a real-time operating system, the firmware of the converter was implemented as a multi-thread application and as a result becomes more modular and easier to develop. The converter can provide a seamless bridge between a serial port and an Ethernet port, thereby allowing existing legacy apparatuses with no Ethernet connectivity to communicate using the Ethernet protocol.
A Study of Recent Contribution on Simulation Tools for Network-on-Chip
The growth in the number of Intellectual Properties (IPs) or the number of cores on the same chip becomes a critical issue in System-on-Chip (SoC) due to the intra-communication problem between the chip elements. As a result, Network-on-Chip (NoC) has emerged as a system architecture to overcome intra-communication issues. This paper presents a study of recent contributions on simulation tools for NoC. Furthermore, an overview of NoC is covered as well as a comparison between some NoC simulators to help facilitate research in on-chip communication.
Hand Gesture Interpretation Using Sensing Glove Integrated with Machine Learning Algorithms
In this paper, we present a low cost design for a smart glove that can perform sign language recognition to assist the speech impaired people. Specifically, we have designed and developed an Assistive Hand Gesture Interpreter that recognizes hand movements relevant to the American Sign Language (ASL) and translates them into text for display on a Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT LCD) screen as well as synthetic speech. Linear Bayes Classifiers and Multilayer Neural Networks have been used to classify 11 feature vectors obtained from the sensors on the glove into one of the 27 ASL alphabets and a predefined gesture for space. Three types of features are used; bending using six bend sensors, orientation in three dimensions using accelerometers and contacts at vital points using contact sensors. To gauge the performance of the presented design, the training database was prepared using five volunteers. The accuracy of the current version on the prepared dataset was found to be up to 99.3% for target user. The solution combines electronics, e-textile technology, sensor technology, embedded system and machine learning techniques to build a low cost wearable glove that is scrupulous, elegant and portable.
Towards a Framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence in the Plantation Domain
Embedded systems have emerged as important elements in various domains with extensive applications in automotive, commercial, consumer, healthcare and transportation markets, as there is emphasis on intelligent devices. On the other hand, Business Intelligence (BI) has also been extensively used in a range of applications, especially in the agriculture domain which is the area of this research. The aim of this research is to create a framework for Embedded Weight Comparison Algorithm with Business Intelligence (EWCA-BI). The weight comparison algorithm will be embedded within the plantation management system and the weighbridge system. This algorithm will be used to estimate the weight at the site and will be compared with the actual weight at the plantation. The algorithm will be used to build the necessary alerts when there is a discrepancy in the weight, thus enabling better decision making. In the current practice, data are collected from various locations in various forms. It is a challenge to consolidate data to obtain timely and accurate information for effective decision making. Adding to this, the unstable network connection leads to difficulty in getting timely accurate information. To overcome the challenges embedding is done on a portable device that will have the embedded weight comparison algorithm to also assist in data capture and synchronize data at various locations overcoming the network short comings at collection points. The EWCA-BI will provide real-time information at any given point of time, thus enabling non-latent BI reports that will provide crucial information to enable efficient operational decision making. This research has a high potential in bringing embedded system into the agriculture industry. EWCA-BI will provide BI reports with accurate information with uncompromised data using an embedded system and provide alerts, therefore, enabling effective operation management decision-making at the site.
Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Matching an embedded electronic application with a
cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour
due to the large number of factors influencing the output power.
In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester
parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of
harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved
by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general
parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward
harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and
implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester
benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated
by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide
V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and
frequency as variables.
An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security
This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields
of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding
information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a
way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded
message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism
of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media
and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In
this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms
available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media
against the corresponding cover media and understand the process
of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that
this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in
steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate
Conceptual Design of a Wi-Fi and GPS Based Robotic Library Using an Intelligent System
In this paper, an attempt has been made for the design
of a robotic library using an intelligent system. The robot works on
the ARM microprocessor, motor driver circuit with 5 degrees of
freedom with Wi-Fi and GPS based communication protocol. The
authenticity of the library books is controlled by RFID. The proposed
robotic library system is facilitated with embedded system and ARM.
In this library issuance system, the previous potential readers’
authentic review reports have been taken into consideration for
recommending suitable books to the deserving new users and the
issuance of books or periodicals is based on the users’ decision. We
have conjectured that the Wi-Fi based robotic library management
system would allow fast transaction of books issuance and it also
produces quality readers.
Robotics and Embedded Systems Applied to the Buried Pipeline Inspection
The work aims to develop a robot in the form of
autonomous vehicle to detect, inspection and mapping of
underground pipelines through the ATmega328 Arduino platform.
Hardware prototyping is very similar to C / C ++ language that
facilitates its use in robotics open source, resembles PLC used in
large industrial processes. The robot will traverse the surface
independently of direct human action, in order to automate the
process of detecting buried pipes, guided by electromagnetic
induction. The induction comes from coils that send the signal to the
Arduino microcontroller contained in that will make the difference in
intensity and the treatment of the information, and then this
determines actions to electrical components such as relays and
motors, allowing the prototype to move on the surface and getting the
necessary information. This change of direction is performed by a
stepper motor with a servo motor. The robot was developed by
electrical and electronic assemblies that allowed test your application.
The assembly is made up of metal detector coils, circuit boards and
microprocessor, which interconnected circuits previously developed
can determine, process control and mechanical actions for a robot
(autonomous car) that will make the detection and mapping of buried
pipelines plates. This type of prototype can prevent and identifies
possible landslides and they can prevent the buried pipelines suffer an
external pressure on the walls with the possibility of oil leakage and
thus pollute the environment.
Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster
This paper aims to project the construction of a
prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and
easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their
performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The
construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software,
responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary.
Validation tests were performed in the form of partial or complete
system. These tests validate the system manually or automatically.
The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the
conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates
the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time
that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position
original. A serial communication connects the Simulation Dynamic
Positioning System with Embedded System causing the usergenerated
data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of
control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses
issues in the marine industry employees.
Implementation of Conceptual Real-Time Embedded Functional Design via Drive-by-Wire ECU Development
Design concepts of real-time embedded system can be
realized initially by introducing novel design approaches. In this
literature, model based design approach and in-the-loop testing were
employed early in the conceptual and preliminary phase to formulate
design requirements and perform quick real-time verification. The
design and analysis methodology includes simulation analysis, model
based testing, and in-the-loop testing. The design of conceptual driveby-
wire, or DBW, algorithm for electronic control unit, or ECU, was
presented to demonstrate the conceptual design process, analysis, and
functionality evaluation. The concepts of DBW ECU function can be
implemented in the vehicle system to improve electric vehicle, or EV,
conversion drivability. However, within a new development process,
conceptual ECU functions and parameters are needed to be evaluated.
As a result, the testing system was employed to support conceptual
DBW ECU functions evaluation. For the current setup, the system
components were consisted of actual DBW ECU hardware, electric
vehicle models, and control area network or CAN protocol. The
vehicle models and CAN bus interface were both implemented as
real-time applications where ECU and CAN protocol functionality
were verified according to the design requirements. The proposed
system could potentially benefit in performing rapid real-time
analysis of design parameters for conceptual system or software
Real Time Remote Monitoring and Fault Detection in Wind Turbine
In new energy development, wind power has boomed.
It is due to the proliferation of wind parks and their operation in
supplying the national electric grid with low cost and clean resources.
Hence, there is an increased need to establish a proactive
maintenance for wind turbine machines based on remote control and
monitoring. That is necessary with a real-time wireless connection in
offshore or inaccessible locations while the wired method has many
flaws. The objective of this strategy is to prolong wind turbine
lifetime and to increase productivity. The hardware of a remote
control and monitoring system for wind turbine parks is designed. It
takes advantage of GPRS or Wi-Max wireless module to collect data
measurements from different wind machine sensors through IP based
multi-hop communication. Computer simulations with Proteus ISIS
and OPNET software tools have been conducted to evaluate the
performance of the studied system. Study findings show that the
designed device is suitable for application in a wind park.
Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Vibration Control of an ERF Embedded Smart Structure
The main objective of this article is to present the semi-active vibration control using an electro-rheological fluid embedded sandwich structure for a cantilever beam. ER fluid is a smart material, which cause the suspended particles polarize and connect each other to form chain. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the ER fluid can be changed in 10 micro seconds; therefore, ERF is suitable to become the material embedded in the tunable vibration absorber to become a smart absorber. For the ERF smart material embedded structure, the fuzzy control law depends on the experimental expert database and the proposed self-tuning strategy. The electric field is controlled by a CRIO embedded system to implement the real application. This study investigates the different performances using the Type-1 fuzzy and interval Type-2 fuzzy controllers. The Interval type-2 fuzzy control is used to improve the modeling uncertainties for this ERF embedded shock absorber. The self-tuning vibration controllers using Type-1 and Interval Type-2 fuzzy law are implemented to the shock absorber system. Based on the resulting performance, Internal Type-2 fuzzy is better than the traditional Type-1 fuzzy control for this vibration control system.
How Virtualization, Decentralization and Network Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective
The German manufacturing industry has to withstand an increasing global competition on product quality and production costs. As labor costs are high, several industries have suffered severely under the relocation of production facilities towards aspiring countries, which have managed to close the productivity and quality gap substantially. Established manufacturing companies have recognized that customers are not willing to pay large price premiums for incremental quality improvements. As a consequence, many companies from the German manufacturing industry adjust their production focusing on customized products and fast time to market. Leveraging the advantages of novel production strategies such as Agile Manufacturing and Mass Customization, manufacturing companies transform into integrated networks, in which companies unite their core competencies. Hereby, virtualization of the process- and supply-chain ensures smooth inter-company operations providing real-time access to relevant product and production information for all participating entities. Boundaries of companies deteriorate, as autonomous systems exchange data, gained by embedded systems throughout the entire value chain. By including Cyber-Physical-Systems, advanced communication between machines is tantamount to their dialogue with humans. The increasing utilization of information and communication technology allows digital engineering of products and production processes alike. Modular simulation and modeling techniques allow decentralized units to flexibly alter products and thereby enable rapid product innovation. The present article describes the developments of Industry 4.0 within the literature and reviews the associated research streams. Hereby, we analyze eight scientific journals with regards to the following research fields: Individualized production, end-to-end engineering in a virtual process chain and production networks. We employ cluster analysis to assign sub-topics into the respective research field. To assess the practical implications, we conducted face-to-face interviews with managers from the industry as well as from the consulting business using a structured interview guideline. The results reveal reasons for the adaption and refusal of Industry 4.0 practices from a managerial point of view. Our findings contribute to the upcoming research stream of Industry 4.0 and support decision-makers to assess their need for transformation towards Industry 4.0 practices.
Evaluation of Features Extraction Algorithms for a Real-Time Isolated Word Recognition System
Paper presents an comparative evaluation of features extraction algorithm for a real-time isolated word recognition system
based on FPGA. The Mel-frequency cepstral, linear frequency cepstral, linear predictive and their cepstral coefficients were
implemented in hardware/software design. The proposed system was investigated in speaker dependent mode for 100 different
Lithuanian words. The robustness of features extraction algorithms was tested recognizing the speech records at different signal to noise rates. The experiments on clean records show highest accuracy for Mel-frequency cepstral and linear frequency cepstral coefficients. For records with 15 dB signal to noise rate the linear predictive cepstral coefficients gives best result. The hard and soft part of the system is clocked on 50 MHz and 100 MHz accordingly. For the classification purpose the pipelined dynamic time warping core was implemented. The proposed word recognition system satisfy the real-time requirements and is suitable for applications in embedded systems.
Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation
Autonomous robotic systems need an equipment like a human eye for their movement. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been designed and implemented for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper.
GSM Based Automated Embedded System for Monitoring and Controlling of Smart Grid
The purpose of this paper is to acquire the remote electrical parameters like Voltage, Current, and Frequency from Smart grid and send these real time values over GSM network using GSM Modem/phone along with temperature at power station. This project is also designed to protect the electrical circuitry by operating an Electromagnetic Relay. The Relay can be used to operate a Circuit Breaker to switch off the main electrical supply. User can send commands in the form of SMS messages to read the remote electrical parameters. This system also can automatically send the real time electrical parameters periodically (based on time settings) in the form of SMS. This system also send SMS alerts whenever the Circuit Breaker trips or whenever the Voltage or Current exceeds the predefined limits.
Development of a Computer Vision System for the Blind and Visually Impaired Person
Eyes are an essential and conspicuous organ of the human body. Human eyes are outward and inward portals of the body that allows to see the outside world and provides glimpses into ones inner thoughts and feelings. Inevitable blindness and visual impairments may results from eye-related disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means. The study emphasizes innovative tools that will serve as an aid to the blind and visually impaired (VI) individuals. The researchers fabricated a prototype that utilizes the Microsoft Kinect for Windows and Arduino microcontroller board. The prototype facilitates advanced gesture recognition, voice recognition, obstacle detection and indoor environment navigation. Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) performs image analysis, and gesture tracking to transform Kinect data to the desired output. A computer vision technology device provides greater accessibility for those with vision impairments.
A General Mandatory Access Control Framework in Distributed Environments
In this paper, we propose a general mandatory access framework for distributed systems. The framework can be applied into multiple operating systems and can handle multiple stakeholders. Despite considerable advancements in the area of mandatory access control, a certain approach to enforcing mandatory access control can only be applied in a specific operating system. Other than PC market in which windows captures the overwhelming shares, there are a number of popular operating systems in the emerging smart phone environment, i.e. Android, Windows mobile, Symbian, RIM. It should be noted that more and more stakeholders are involved in smartphone software, such as devices owners, service providers and application providers. Our framework includes three parts—local decision layer, the middle layer and the remote decision layer. The middle layer takes charge of managing security contexts, OS API, operations and policy combination. The design of the remote decision layer doesn’t depend on certain operating systems because of the middle layer’s existence. We implement the framework in windows, linux and other popular embedded systems.
Robotic End-Effector Impedance Control without Expensive Torque/Force Sensor
A novel low-cost impedance control structure is
proposed for monitoring the contact force between end-effector and
environment without installing an expensive force/torque sensor.
Theoretically, the end-effector contact force can be estimated from the
superposition of each joint control torque. There have a nonlinear
matrix mapping function between each joint motor control input and
end-effector actuating force/torques vector. This new force control
structure can be implemented based on this estimated mapping matrix.
First, the robot end-effector is manipulated to specified positions, then
the force controller is actuated based on the hall sensor current
feedback of each joint motor. The model-free fuzzy sliding mode
control (FSMC) strategy is employed to design the position and force
controllers, respectively. All the hardware circuits and software
control programs are designed on an Altera Nios II embedded
development kit to constitute an embedded system structure for a
retrofitted Mitsubishi 5 DOF robot. Experimental results show that PI
and FSMC force control algorithms can achieve reasonable contact
force monitoring objective based on this hardware control structure.
Embedded Systems Energy Consumption Analysis Through Co-modelling and Simulation
This paper presents a new methodology to study power and energy consumption in mechatronic systems early in the development process. This new approach makes use of two modeling languages to represent and simulate embedded control software and electromechanical subsystems in the discrete event and continuous time domain respectively within a single co-model. This co-model enables an accurate representation of power and energy consumption and facilitates the analysis and development of both software and electro-mechanical subsystems in parallel. This makes the engineers aware of energy-wise implications of different design alternatives and enables early trade-off analysis from the beginning of the analysis and design activities.
Customization of a Real-Time Operating System Scheduler with Aspect-Oriented Programming
Tasks of an application program of an embedded system are managed by the scheduler of a real-time operating system
(RTOS). Most RTOSs adopt just fixed priority scheduling, which is not optimal in all cases. Some applications require earliest deadline
first (EDF) scheduling, which is an optimal scheduling algorithm.
In order to develop an efficient real-time embedded system, the
scheduling algorithm of the RTOS should be selectable. The paper presents a method to customize the scheduler using aspectoriented
programming. We define aspects to replace the fixed priority scheduling mechanism of an OSEK OS with an EDF scheduling
mechanism. By using the aspects, we can customize the scheduler
without modifying the original source code. We have applied the
aspects to an OSEK OS and get a customized operating system with
EDF scheduling. The evaluation results show that the overhead of
aspect-oriented programming is small enough.
Web Driving Performance Monitoring System
Safer driver behavior promoting is the main goal of this paper. It is a fact that drivers behavior is relatively safer when being monitored. Thus, in this paper, we propose a monitoring system to report specific driving event as well as the potentially aggressive events for estimation of the driving performance. Our driving monitoring system is composed of two parts. The first part is the in-vehicle embedded system which is composed of a GPS receiver, a two-axis accelerometer, radar sensor, OBD interface, and GPRS modem. The design considerations that led to this architecture is described in this paper. The second part is a web server where an adaptive hierarchical fuzzy system is proposed to classify the driving performance based on the data that is sent by the in-vehicle embedded system and the data that is provided by the geographical information system (GIS). Our system is robust, inexpensive and small enough to fit inside a vehicle without distracting the driver.
Smart Cane Assisted Mobility for the Visually Impaired
An efficient reintegration of the disabled people in the
family and society should be fulfilled; hence it is strongly needful to assist their diminished functions or to replace the totally lost
functions. Assistive technology helps in neutralizing the impairment.
Recent advancements in embedded systems have opened up a vast
area of research and development for affordable and portable assistive devices for the visually impaired. Granted there are many assistive devices on the market that are able to detect obstacles, and numerous research and development currently in process to
alleviate the cause, unfortunately the cost of devices, size of
devices, intrusiveness and higher learning curve prevents the visually impaired from taking advantage of available devices. This
project aims at the design and implementation of a detachable unit
which is robust, low cost and user friendly, thus, trying to
aggrandize the functionality of the existing white cane, to concede above-knee obstacle detection. The designed obstruction detector
uses ultrasound sensors for detecting the obstructions before direct contact. It bestows haptic feedback to the user in accordance with the position of the obstacle.
Teaching Students the Black Magic of Electromagnetic Compatibility
Introducing Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility, or “The Art of Black Magic", for engineering students might be a terrifying experience both for students and tutors. Removing the obstacle of large, expensive facilities like a fully fitted EMC laboratory and hours of complex theory, this paper demonstrates a design of a laboratory setup for student exercises, giving students experience in the basics of EMC/EMI problems that may challenge the functionality and stability of embedded system designs. This is done using a simple laboratory installation and basic measurement equipment such as a medium cost digital storage oscilloscope, at the cost of not knowing the exact magnitude of the noise components, but rather if the noise is significant or not, as well as the source of the noise. A group of students have performed a trial exercise with good results and feedback.
An Embedded System Design for SRAM SEU Test
An embedded system for SEU(single event upset) test
needs to be designed to prevent system failure by high-energy particles
during measuring SEU. SEU is a phenomenon in which the data is changed temporary in semiconductor device caused by high-energy particles. In this paper, we present an embedded system for
SRAM(static random access memory) SEU test. SRAMs are on the DUT(device under test) and it is separated from control board which
manages the DUT and measures the occurrence of SEU. It needs to
have considerations for preventing system failure while managing the
DUT and making an accurate measurement of SEUs. We measure the occurrence of SEUs from five different SRAMs at three different
cyclotron beam energies 30, 35, and 40MeV. The number of SEUs of SRAMs ranges from 3.75 to 261.00 in average.