International Science Index
Studying the Moisture Sources and the Stable Isotope Characteristic of Moisture in Northern Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran
Iran is a semi-arid and arid country in south-western Asia in the Middle East facing intense climatological drought from the early times. Therefore, studying the precipitation events and the moisture sources and air masses causing precipitation has great importance in this region. In this study, the moisture sources and stable isotope content of precipitation moisture in three main events in 2015 have been studied in North-Eastern Iran. HYSPLIT model backward trajectories showed that the Caspian Sea and the mixture of the Caspian and Mediterranean Seas are dominant moisture sources for the studied events. This showed the role of cP (Siberian) and Mediterranean (MedT) air masses. Stable isotope studies showed that precipitation events originated from the Caspian Sea with lower Sea Surface Temperature (SST) have more depleted isotope values. However, precipitation events sourced from the mixture of the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas (with higher SST) showed more enriched isotope values.
Computation of Flood and Drought Years over the North-West Himalayan Region Using Indian Meteorological Department Rainfall Data
The climatic condition over Indian region is highly dependent on monsoon. India receives maximum amount of rainfall during southwest monsoon. Indian economy is highly dependent on agriculture. The presence of flood and drought years influenced the total cultivation system as well as the economy of the country as Indian agricultural systems is still highly dependent on the monsoon rainfall. The present study has been planned to investigate the flood and drought years for the north-west Himalayan region from 1951 to 2014 by using area average Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) rainfall data. For this investigation the Normalized index (NI) has been utilized to find out whether the particular year is drought or flood. The data have been extracted for the north-west Himalayan (NWH) region states namely Uttarakhand (UK), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) to find out the rainy season average rainfall for each year, climatological mean and the standard deviation. After calculation it has been plotted by the diagrams (or graphs) to show the results- some of the years associated with drought years, some are flood years and rest are neutral. The flood and drought years can also relate with the large-scale phenomena El-Nino and La-Lina.
Principle Knowledge of Integrated Pest Management Adopting Cotton Cultivators in Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions: A Critical Analysis
In India cotton was the major commercial crop and cultivating all the states. In recent years, area of cotton declined due to pest and disease attack, drought, lower price for the produces etc. The first reason as pest and disease attack will be the challenges and it is of utmost importance that in future the insect problems would have to be tackled through Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The present study deals with principle knowledge of IPM adopting cotton cultivators in irrigated and rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions, among cultural practices, all respondents had principle knowledge about growing high yielding and pest resistant hybrids, sowing quality and certified seeds and avoiding cotton ratoon cropping. Regarding mechanical practices all respondents had principle knowledge about collecting and destroying egg, larvae and pupae of pests and removing and destroying pest and disease infected cotton squares, flowers and other shed materials. With regard to biological practices, 93% of them had principle knowledge about spraying neem oil, followed by 82% about tying Trichogramma eggcard. Among chemical practices, more than 90% of the respondents had principle knowledge about of spraying herbicide (96%), identifying ETL (Economic Threshold Level) for cotton pests (94%), and applying safe insecticides (90%). Under rainfed condition, among cultural practices, all respondents had principle knowledge about sowing quality and certified seeds and growing high yielding and pest resistant hybrids seeds. Regarding mechanical practices hundred percentage of the respondents had principle knowledge on the mechanical practices viz., collecting and destroying egg, larvae and pupae of pests and removing and destroying pest and disease infected cotton squares, flowers and other shed materials. With regard to biological practices, 96% of the respondents had correct in principle knowledge about spraying neem oil, followed by 89% about tying Trichogramma eggcard. With regard to chemical practices, more than 90% of the respondents had principle knowledge of applying safe insecticides (95%), avoiding repeated use of the same insecticides (95%), identifying ETL for cotton pests (94%) and applying granular insecticides (90%).
Using GIS and Map Data for the Analysis of the Relationship between Soil and Groundwater Quality at Saline Soil Area of Kham Sakaesaeng District, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
The study area is Kham Sakaesaeng District in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, the south section of Northeastern Thailand, located in the Lower Khorat-Ubol Basin. This region is the one of saline soil area, located in a dry plateau and regularly experience standing with periods of floods and alternating with periods of drought. Especially, the drought in the summer season causes the major saline soil and saline water problems of this region. The general cause of dry land salting resulted from salting on irrigated land, and an excess of water leading to the rising water table in the aquifer. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of physical and chemical properties between the soil and groundwater. The soil and groundwater samples were collected in both rainy and summer seasons. The content of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride and salinity were investigated. The experimental result of soil and groundwater samples show the slightly pH less than 7, EC (186 to 8,156 us/cm and 960 to 10,712 us/cm), TDS (93 to 3,940 ppm and 480 to 5,356 ppm), chloride content (45.58 to 4,177,015 mg/l and 227.90 to 9,216,736 mg/l), and salinity (0.07 to 4.82 ppt and 0.24 to 14.46 ppt) in the rainy and summer seasons, respectively. The distribution of chloride content and salinity content were interpolated and displayed as a map by using ArcMap 10.3 program, according to the season. The result of saline soil and brined groundwater in the study area were related to the low-lying topography, drought area, and salt-source exposure. Especially, the Rock Salt Member of Maha Sarakham Formation was exposed or lies near the ground surface in this study area. During the rainy season, salt was eroded or weathered from the salt-source rock formation and transported by surface flow or leached into the groundwater. In the dry season, the ground surface is dry enough resulting salt precipitates from the brined surface water or rises from the brined groundwater influencing the increasing content of chloride and salinity in the ground surface and groundwater.
The Study of Rapeseed Characteristics by Factor Analysis under Normal and Drought Stress Conditions
To understand internal characteristics relationships and determine factors which explain under consideration characteristics in rapeseed varieties, 10 rapeseed genotypes were implemented in complete accidental plot with three-time repetitions under drought stress in 2009-2010 in research field of agriculture college, Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch. In this research, 11 characteristics include of characteristics related to growth, production and functions stages was considered. Variance analysis results showed that there is a significant difference among rapeseed varieties characteristics. By calculating simple correlation coefficient under both conditions, normal and drought stress indicate that seed function characteristics in plant and pod number have positive and significant correlation in 1% probable level with seed function and selection on the base of these characteristics was effective for improving this function. Under normal and drought stress, analyzing the main factors showed that numbers of factors which have more than one amount, had five factors under normal conditions which were 82.72% of total variance totally, but under drought stress four factors diagnosed which were 76.78% of total variance. By considering total results of this research and by assessing effective characteristics for factor analysis and selecting different components of these characteristics, they can be used for modifying works to select applicable and tolerant genotypes in drought stress conditions.
The Effects of Drought and Nitrogen on Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Physiology and Yield
Legume crops are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic relation with specific bacteria, which allows the use of the mineral nitrogen-fertilizer to be reduced, or even excluded, resulting in more profit for the farmers and less pollution for the environment. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important legumes with its high content of both protein and oil. However, it is recommended to combine the two nitrogen sources under stress conditions in order to overcome its negative effects. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that increasingly limits soybean yields. A precise rate of mineral nitrogen under drought conditions is not confirmed, as it depends on many factors; soybean yield-potential and soil-nitrogen content to name a few. An experiment was conducted during 2017 growing season in Debrecen, Hungary to investigate the effects of nitrogen source on the physiology and the yield of the soybean cultivar 'Boglár'. Three N-fertilizer rates including no N-fertilizer (0 N), 35 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (35 N) and 105 kg ha-1 of N-fertilizer (105 N) were applied under three different irrigation regimes; severe drought stress (SD), moderate drought stress (MD) and control with no drought stress (ND). Half of the seeds in each treatment were pre-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculant. The overall results showed significant differences associated with fertilization and irrigation, but not with inoculation. Increasing N rate was mostly accompanied with increased chlorophyll content and leaf area index, whereas it positively affected the plant height only when the drought was waived off. Plant height was the lowest under severe drought, regardless of inoculation and N-fertilizer application and rate. Inoculation increased the yield when there was no drought, and a low rate of N-fertilizer increased the yield furthermore; however, the high rate of N-fertilizer decreased the yield to a level even less than the inoculated control. On the other hand, the yield of non-inoculated plants increased as the N-fertilizer rate increased. Under drought conditions, adding N-fertilizer increased the yield of the non-inoculated plants compared to their inoculated counterparts; moreover, the high rate of N-fertilizer resulted in the best yield. Regardless of inoculation, the mean yield of the three fertilization rates was better when the water amount increased. It was concluded that applying N-fertilizer to provide the nitrogen needed by soybean plants, with the absence of N2-fixation process, is very important. Moreover, adding relatively high rate of N-fertilizer is very important under severe drought stress to alleviate the drought negative effects. Further research to recommend the best N-fertilizer rate to inoculated soybean under drought stress conditions should be executed.
Use of Cellulosic Fibres in Double Layer Porous Asphalt
Climate change, namely precipitation patterns alteration, has led to extreme conditions such as floods and droughts. In turn, excessive construction has led to the waterproofing of the soil, increasing the surface runoff and decreasing the groundwater recharge capacity. The permeable pavements used in areas with low traffic lead to a decrease in the probability of floods peaks occurrence and the sediments reduction and pollutants transport, ensuring rainwater quality improvement. This study aims to evaluate the porous asphalt performance, developed in the laboratory, with addition of cellulosic fibres. One of the main objectives of cellulosic fibres use is to stop binder drainage, preventing its loss during storage and transport. Comparing to the conventional porous asphalt the cellulosic fibres addition improved the porous asphalt performance. The cellulosic fibres allowed the bitumen content increase, enabling retention and better aggregates coating and, consequently, a greater mixture durability. With this solution, it is intended to develop better practices of resilience and adaptation to the extreme climate changes and respond to the sustainability current demands, through the eco-friendly materials use. The mix design was performed for different size aggregates (with fine aggregates – PA1 and with coarse aggregates – PA2). The percentage influence of the fibres to be used was studied. It was observed that overall, the binder drainage decreases as the cellulose fibres percentage increases. It was found that the PA2 mixture obtained most binder drainage relative to PA1 mixture, irrespective of the fibres percentage used. Subsequently, the performance was evaluated through laboratory tests of indirect tensile stiffness modulus, water sensitivity, permeability and permanent deformation. The stiffness modulus for the two mixtures groups (with and without cellulosic fibres) presented very similar values between them. For the water sensitivity test it was observed that porous asphalt containing more fine aggregates are more susceptible to the water presence than mixtures with coarse aggregates. The porous asphalt with coarse aggregates have more air voids which allow water to pass easily leading to ITSR higher values. In the permeability test was observed that asphalt porous without cellulosic fibres presented had lower permeability than asphalt porous with cellulosic fibres. The resistance to permanent deformation results indicates better behaviour of porous asphalt with cellulosic fibres, verifying a bigger rut depth in porous asphalt without cellulosic fibres. In this study, it was observed that porous asphalt with bitumen higher percentages improve the performance to permanent deformation. This fact was only possible due to the bitumen retention by the cellulosic fibres.
Hydrochemical Assessment and Quality Classification of Water in Torogh and Kardeh Dam Reservoirs, North-East Iran
Khorasan Razavi is the second most important province in north-east of Iran, which faces a water shortage crisis due to recent droughts and huge water consummation. Kardeh and Torogh dam reservoirs in this province provide a notable part of Mashhad metropolitan (with more than 4.5 million inhabitants) potable water needs. Hydrochemical analyses on these dam reservoirs samples demonstrate that MgHCO3 in Kardeh and CaHCO3 and to lower extent MgHCO3 water types in Torogh dam reservoir are dominant. On the other hand, Gibbs binary diagram demonstrates that rock weathering is the main factor controlling water quality in dam reservoirs. Plotting dam reservoir samples on Mg2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ vs. Ca2+/ Na+ diagrams demonstrate evaporative and carbonate mineral dissolution is the dominant rock weathering ion sources in these dam reservoirs. Cluster Analyses (CA) also demonstrate intense role of rock weathering mainly (carbonate and evaporative minerals dissolution) in water quality of these dam reservoirs. Studying water quality by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI index NSF-WQI, Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and Canadian Water Quality Index DWQI index show moderate and good quality.
Implication to Environmental Education of Indigenous Knowledge and the Ecosystem of Upland Farmers in Aklan, Philippines
This paper defined the association between the
indigenous knowledge, cultural practices and the ecosystem its
implication to the environmental education to the farmers. Farmers
recognize the need for sustainability of the ecosystem they inhabit.
The cultural practices of farmers on use of indigenous pest control,
use of insect-repellant plants, soil management practices that suppress
diseases and harmful pests and conserve soil moisture are deemed
to be ecologically-friendly. Indigenous plant materials that were
more drought- and pest-resistant were grown. Crop rotation was
implemented with various crop seeds to increase their disease
resistance. Multi-cropping, planting of perennial crops, categorization
of soil and planting of appropriate crops, planting of appropriate
and leguminous crops, alloting land as watershed, and preserving
traditional palay seed varieties were found to be beneficial in
preserving the environment. The study also found that indigenous
knowledge about crops are still relevant and useful to the current
generation. This ensured the sustainability of our environment and
incumbent on policy makers and educators to support and preserve
for generations yet to come.
Variable Responses of Leaf C, N and P to Climatic Factors in Different Regions and Growth Forms
Plant ecological stoichiometry, which is one of the most important tools to connect the components among different levels of ecosystem, has obtained increasingly extensive concern, especially on its responses to the environmental gradients. Based on the published literatures and datasets, this article focused on reviewing the variable responses of plant foliar ecological stoichiometry to the climatic factors, such as temperature, water, elevated CO2, and found that foliar ecological stoichiometry responded dynamically to climatic variations among different regions and different growth forms. Then, research status and deficiency were summarized and the expectation on studying the relationships between plant C, N and P ecological stoichiometry and environmental variations which can provide a reference to understand how plants will respond to global change in the future was pointed out.
GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower
Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.
Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands
Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.
Effects of Reclaimed Agro-Industrial Wastewater for Long-Term Irrigation of Herbaceous Crops on Soil Chemical Properties
Worldwide, about two-thirds of industrial and domestic wastewater effluent is discharged without treatment, which can cause contamination and eutrophication of the water. In particular, for Mediterranean countries, irrigation with treated wastewater would mitigate the water stress and support the agricultural sector. Changing global weather patterns will make the situation worse, due to increased susceptibility to drought, which can cause major environmental, social, and economic problems. The study was carried out in open field in an intensive agricultural area of the Apulian region in Southern Italy where freshwater resources are often scarce. As well as providing a water resource, irrigation with treated wastewater represents a significant source of nutrients for soil–plant systems. However, the use of wastewater might have further effects on soil. This study thus investigated the long-term impact of irrigation with reclaimed agro-industrial wastewater on the chemical characteristics of the soil. Two crops (processing tomato and broccoli) were cultivated in succession in Stornarella (Foggia) over four years from 2012 to 2016 using two types of irrigation water: groundwater and tertiary treated agro-industrial wastewater that had undergone an activated sludge process, sedimentation filtration, and UV radiation. Chemical analyses were performed on the irrigation waters and soil samples. The treated wastewater was characterised by high levels of several chemical parameters including TSS, EC, COD, BOD5, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4-N, PO4-P, K+, SAR and CaCO3, as compared with the groundwater. However, despite these higher levels, the mean content of several chemical parameters in the soil did not show relevant differences between the irrigation treatments, in terms of the chemical features of the soil.
Evaluation of Potential Production of Maize Genotypes of Early Maturity in Rainfed Lowland
Maize development at the rainfed lowland after rice is often confronted with the occurrence of drought stress at the time of entering the generative phase, which will cause be hampered crop production. Consequently, in the utilization of the rainfed lowland areas optimally, an effort that can be done using the varieties of early maturity to minimize crop failures due to its short rainy season. The aim of this research was evaluating the potential yield of genotypes of candidates of maize early maturity in the rainfed lowland areas. The study was conducted during May to August 2016 at South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study used randomized block design to compare 12 treatments and consists of 8 genotypes namely CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, CH5, CH6, CH7, CH8 and the use of four varieties, namely Bima 3, Bima 7, Lamuru and Gumarang. The results showed that genotype of CH2, CH3, CH5, CH 6, CH7 and CH8 harvesting has less than 90 days. There are two genotypes namely genotypes of CH7 and CH8 that have a fairly high production respectively of 7.16 tons / ha and 8.11 tons/ ha and significantly not different from the superior varieties Bima3.
Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.
Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing
The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.
Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations
Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.
Comprehensive Regional Drought Assessment Index
Drought is an inevitable part of the earth’s climate. It occurs regularly with no clear warning and without recognizing borders. In addition, its impact is cumulative and not immediately discernible. Iran is located in a semi-arid region where droughts occur periodically as natural hazard. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI), and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) are three well-known indices which describe drought severity; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. These indices take into account some factors such as precipitation, reservoir storage and discharge, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration in determining drought severity. In this paper, first all three indices are calculated in Aharchay river watershed located in northwestern part of Iran in East Azarbaijan province. Next, based on two other important parameters which are groundwater level and solar radiation, two new indices are defined. Finally, considering all five aforementioned indices, a combined drought index (CDI) is presented and calculated for the region. This combined index is based on all the meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural features of the region. The results show that the most severe drought condition in Aharchay watershed happened in Jun, 2004. The result of this study can be used for monitoring drought and prepare for the drought mitigation planning.
Archaic Ontologies Nowadays: Music of Rituals
Many of the interrogations or dilemmas of the contemporary world found the answer in what was generically called the appeal to matrix. This genuine spiritual exercise of re-connection of the present to origins, to the primary source, revealed the ontological condition of timelessness, ahistorical, immutable (epi)phenomena, of those pure essences concentrated in the archetypal-referential layer of the human existence. The musical creation was no exception to this trend, the impasse generated by the deterministic excesses of the whole serialism or, conversely, by some questionable results of the extreme indeterminism proper to the avant-garde movements, stimulating the orientation of many composers to rediscover a universal grammar, as an emanation of a new ‘collective’ order (reverse of the utopian individualism). In this context, the music of oral tradition and therefore the world of the ancient modes represented a true revelation for the composers of the twentieth century, who were suddenly in front of some unsuspected (re)sources, with a major impact on all levels of edification of the musical work: morphology, syntax, timbrality, semantics etc. For the contemporary Romanian creators, the music of rituals, existing in the local archaic culture, opened unsuspected perspectives for which it meant to be a synthetic, inclusive and recoverer vision, where the primary (archetypal) genuine elements merge with the latest achievements of language of the European composers. Thus, anchored in a strong and genuine modal source, the compositions analysed in this paper evoke, in a manner as modern as possible, the atmosphere of some ancestral rituals such as: the invocation of rain during the drought (Paparudele, Scaloianul), funeral ceremony (Bocetul), traditions specific to the winter holidays and new year (Colinda, Cântecul de stea, Sorcova, Folklore traditional dances) etc. The reactivity of those rituals in the sound context of the twentieth century meant potentiating or resizing the archaic spirit of the primordial symbolic entities, in terms of some complexity levels generated by the technique of harmonies of chordal layers, of complex aggregates (gravitational or non-gravitational, geometric), of the mixture polyphonies and with global effect (group, mass), by the technique of heterophony, of texture and cluster, leading to the implementation of some processes of collective improvisation and instrumental theatre.
Analysis of Trend and Variability of Rainfall in the Mid-Mahanadi River Basin of Eastern India
The major objective of this study was to analyze the trend and variability of rainfall in the middle Mahandi river basin located in eastern India. The trend of variation of extreme rainfall events has predominant effect on agricultural water management and extreme hydrological events such as floods and droughts. Mahanadi river basin is one of the major river basins of India having an area of 1,41,589 km2 and divided into three regions: Upper, middle and delta region. The middle region of Mahanadi river basin has an area of 48,700 km2 and it is mostly dominated by agricultural land, where agriculture is mostly rainfed. The study region has five Agro-climatic zones namely: East and South Eastern Coastal Plain, North Eastern Ghat, Western Undulating Zone, Western Central Table Land and Mid Central Table Land, which were numbered as zones 1 to 5 respectively for convenience in reporting. In the present study, analysis of variability and trends of annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfall was carried out, using the daily rainfall data collected from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) for 35 years (1979-2013) for the 5 agro-climatic zones. The long term variability of rainfall was investigated by evaluating the mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The long term trend of rainfall was analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test on monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. It was found that there is a decreasing trend in the rainfall during the winter and pre monsoon seasons for zones 2, 3 and 4; whereas in the monsoon (rainy) season there is an increasing trend for zones 1, 4 and 5 with a level of significance ranging between 90-95%. On the other hand, the mean annual rainfall has an increasing trend at 99% significance level. The estimated seasonality index showed that the rainfall distribution is asymmetric and distributed over 3-4 months period. The study will help to understand the spatio-temporal variation of rainfall and to determine the correlation between the current rainfall trend and climate change scenario of the study region for multifarious use.
Water Budget in High Drought-Borne Area in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka during Dry Season
In Sri Lanka, the Jaffna area is a high drought affected area and depends mainly on groundwater aquifers for water needs. Water for daily activities is extracted from wells. As households manually extract water from the wells, it is not drawn from mid evening to early morning. The water inflow at night provides the maximum water level that decreases during the daytime due to extraction. The storage volume of water in wells is limited or at its lowest level during the dry season. This study analyzes the domestic water budget during the dry season in the Jaffna area. In order to evaluate the water inflow rate into wells, storage volume and extraction volume from wells over time, water pressure is measured at the bottom of three wells, which are located in coastal area denoted as well A, in nonspecific area denoted as well B, and agricultural area denoted as well C. The water quality at the wells A, B, and C, are mostly fresh, modest fresh, and saline respectively. From the monitoring, we can find that the daily inflow amount of water into the wells and daily water extraction depend on each other, that is, higher extraction yields higher inflow. And, in the dry season, the daily inflow volume and the daily extraction volume of each well are almost in balance.
Acute and Chronic Effect of Biopesticide on Infestation of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on the Culantro Cultivation
Acute and chronic effects of biopesticide from entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema thailandensis n. sp.), bacteria ISR (Pseudomonas fluorescens), wood vinegar and fermented organic substances from plants: (neem Azadirachta indica + citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle + bitter bush Chromolaena odorata L.) were tested on culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.). The biopesticide was investigated for infestation reduction of the major insect pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)). The experimental plots were located at a farm in Nakhon Sawan Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the drought season (late November to May). Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated in terms of acute and chronic effect. The populations of whitefly were observed and recorded every hour up to 3 hours with insect nets and yellow sticky traps after the treatments were applied for the acute effect. The results showed that bacteria ISR had the highest effectiveness for controlling whitefly infestation on culantro; the whitefly numbers on insect nets were 12.5, 10.0 and 7.5 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively while the whitefly on yellow sticky traps showed 15.0, 10.0 and 10.0 after 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr, respectively. For chronic effect, the whitefly was continuously collected and recorded at weekly intervals; the result showed that treatment of bacteria ISR found the average whitefly numbers only 8.06 and 11.0 on insect nets and sticky traps respectively, followed by treatment of nematode where the average whitefly was 9.87 and 11.43 on the insect nets and sticky traps, respectively. In addition, the minor insect pests were also observed and collected. The biopesticide influenced the reduction number of minor insect pests (red spider mites, beet armyworm, short-horned grasshopper, pygmy locusts, etc.) with only a few found on the culantro cultivation.
Sustainable Use of Laura Lens during Drought
Laura Island, which is located about 50 km away from
downtown, is a source of water supply in Majuro atoll, which is the
capital of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Low and flat Majuro
atoll has neither river nor lake. It is very important for Majuro atoll to
ensure the conservation of its water resources. However, upconing,
which is the process of partial rising of the freshwater-saltwater
boundary near the water-supply well, was caused by the excess
pumping from it during the severe drought in 1998. Upconing will
make the water usage of the freshwater lens difficult. Thus,
appropriate water usage is required to prevent up coning in the
freshwater lens because there is no other water source during drought. Numerical simulation of water usage applying SEAWAT model
was conducted at the central part of Laura Island, including the water
supply well, which was affected by upconing. The freshwater lens was
created as a result of infiltration of consistent average rainfall. The lens
shape was almost the same as the one in 1985. 0 of monthly rainfall
and variable daily pump discharge were used to calculate the
sustainable pump discharge from the water supply well. Consequently,
the total amount of pump discharge was increased as the daily pump
discharge was increased, indicating that it needs more time to recover
from upconing. Thus, a pump standard to reduce the pump intensity is
being proposed, which is based on numerical simulation concerning
the occurrence of the up-coning phenomenon in Laura Island during
Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition
Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant
breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under
different conditions, like drought stress. In this study a sample of 28
recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of
Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were
evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress
conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots
included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation
from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect
of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water
regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic
effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines
under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight
(0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values
(0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic
coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index.
Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the
feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some
RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.
Assessment of Drought Tolerance Maize Hybrids at Grain Growth Stage in Mediterranean Area
Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a
grave threat to cereals production including maize. Maize
improvement in drought-stress tolerance poses a great challenge as
the global need for food and bio-energy increases. Thus, the current
study was planned to explore the variations and determine the
performance of target traits of maize hybrids at grain growth stage
under drought conditions during 2014 under Adana, Mediterranean
climate conditions, Turkey. Maize hybrids (Sancia, Indaco,
71May69, Aaccel, Calgary, 70May82, 72May80) were evaluated
under (irrigated and water stress). Results revealed that, grain yield
and yield traits had a negative effects because of water stress
conditions compared with the normal irrigation. As well as, based on
the result under normal irrigation, the maximum biological yield and
harvest index were recorded. According to the differences among
hybrids were found that, significant differences were observed among
hybrids with respect to yield and yield traits under current research. Based on the results, grain weight had more effect on grain yield
than grain number during grain filling growth stage under water
stress conditions. In this concern, according to low drought
susceptibility index (less grain yield losses), the hybrid (Indaco) was
more stable in grain number and grain weight. Consequently, it may
be concluded that this hybrid would be recommended for use in the
future breeding programs for production of drought tolerant hybrids.
A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production
Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) have been used
widely through evolution theory to discover acceptable solutions that
corresponds to challenges such as natural resources management.
EAs are also used to solve varied problems in the real world. EAs
have been rapidly identified for its ease in handling multiple
objective problems. Reservoir operations is a vital and researchable
area which has been studied in the last few decades due to the limited
nature of water resources that is found mostly in the semi-arid
regions of the world. The state of some developing economy that
depends on electricity for overall development through hydropower
production, a renewable form of energy, is appalling due to water
scarcity. This paper presents a review of the applications of
evolutionary algorithms to reservoir operation for hydropower
production. This review includes the discussion on areas such as
genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and reservoir operation. It
also identified the research gaps discovered in these areas. The results
of this study will be an eye opener for researchers and decision
makers to think deeply of the adverse effect of water scarcity and
drought towards economic development of a nation. Hence, it
becomes imperative to identify evolutionary algorithms that can
address this issue which can hamper effective hydropower
The Potential Effect of Biochar Application on Microbial Activities and Availability of Mineral Nitrogen in Arable Soil Stressed by Drought
Application of biochar to arable soils represents a new
approach to restore soil health and quality. Many studies reported the
positive effect of biochar application on soil fertility and
development of soil microbial community. Moreover biochar may
affect the soil water retention, but this effect has not been sufficiently
described yet. Therefore this study deals with the influence of
biochar application on: microbial activities in soil, availability of
mineral nitrogen in soil for microorganisms, mineral nitrogen
retention and plant production. To demonstrate the effect of biochar
addition on the above parameters, the pot experiment was realized.
As a model crop, Lactuca sativa L. was used and cultivated from
December 10th 2014 till March 22th 2015 in climate chamber in
thoroughly homogenized arable soil with and without addition of
biochar. Five variants of experiment (V1 – V5) with different regime
of irrigation were prepared. Variants V1 – V2 were fertilized by
mineral nitrogen, V3 – V4 by biochar and V5 was a control. The
significant differences were found only in plant production and
mineral nitrogen retention. The highest content of mineral nitrogen
in soil was detected in V1 and V2, about 250 % in comparison with
the other variants. The positive effect of biochar application on soil
fertility, mineral nitrogen availability was not found. On the other
hand results of plant production indicate the possible positive effect
of biochar application on soil water retention.
Wireless Sensor Network to Help Low Incomes Farmers to Face Drought Impacts
This research presents the main ideas to implement an
intelligent system composed by communicating wireless sensors
measuring environmental data linked to drought indicators (such as
air temperature, soil moisture , etc...). On the other hand, the setting
up of a spatio temporal database communicating with a Web mapping
application for a monitoring in real time in activity 24:00 /day, 7
days/week is proposed to allow the screening of the drought
parameters time evolution and their extraction. Thus this system
helps detecting surfaces touched by the phenomenon of drought.
Spatio-temporal conceptual models seek to answer the users who
need to manage soil water content for irrigating or fertilizing or other
activities pursuing crop yield augmentation. Effectively, spatiotemporal
conceptual models enable users to obtain a diagram of
readable and easy data to apprehend. Based on socio-economic
information, it helps identifying people impacted by the phenomena
with the corresponding severity especially that this information is
accessible by farmers and stakeholders themselves. The study will be
applied in Siliana watershed Northern Tunisia.
Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation
This research was planned in order to study the effect
of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their
effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3
different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment
I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants
respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as
secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30
and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent
effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on
biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition,
independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest
index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent
treatments on harvest index was not significant.
Effectiveness of Biopesticide against Insects Pest and Its Quality of Pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr.)
Effect of biopesticide from wood vinegar and
extracted substances from 3 medicinal plants such as: non taai yak
(Stemona tuberosa Lour), boraphet (Tinospora crispa Mier) and
derris (Derris elliptica Roxb) were tested on the age five years of
pomelo. The selected pomelo was carried out for insects’ pest control
and its quality. The experimental site was located at farmer’s orchard
in Phichit Province, Thailand. This study was undertaken during the
drought season (December to March). The extracted from plants and
wood vinegar were evaluated in 6 treatments: 1) water as control; 2)
wood vinegar; 3) S. tuberosa Lour; 4) T. crispa Mier; 5) D. elliptica
Roxb; 6) mixed (wood vinegar + S. tuberosa Lour + T. crispa Mier +
D. elliptica Roxb). The experiment was RCB with 6 treatments and 3
replications per treatment. The results showed that T. crispa Mier was
the highest effectiveness for reduction population of thrips
(Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis
citrella Stainton) at 14.10 and 15.37 respectively, followed by
treatment of mixed, D. elliptica Roxb, S. tuberosa Lour and wood
vinegar with significance different. Additionally, T. crispa Mier
promoted the high quality of harvested pomelo in term of thickness
of skin at 12.45 mm and S. tuberosa Lour gave the high quality of the
pomelo in term of firmness (276.5 kg/cm2) and brix (11.0%).