International Science Index
Lung Cancer Detection and Multi Level Classification Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach
Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung in the form of tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Patients with Lung Cancer (LC) have an average of five years life span expectancy provided diagnosis, detection and prediction, which reduces many treatment options to risk of invasive surgery increasing survival rate. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for earlier detection of cancer are common. Gaussian filter along with median filter used for smoothing and noise removal, Histogram Equalization (HE) for image enhancement gives the best results without inviting further opinions. Lung cavities are extracted and the background portion other than two lung cavities is completely removed with right and left lungs segmented separately. Region properties measurements area, perimeter, diameter, centroid and eccentricity measured for the tumor segmented image, while texture is characterized by Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) functions, feature extraction provides Region of Interest (ROI) given as input to classifier. Two levels of classifications, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is used for determining patient condition as normal or abnormal, while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used for identifying the cancer stage is employed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithm is used for the main feature extraction leading to best efficiency. The developed technology finds encouraging results for real time information and on line detection for future research.
River Stage-Discharge Forecasting Based on Multiple-Gauge Strategy Using EEMD-DWT-LSSVM Approach
This study presented hybrid pre-processing approach along with a conceptual model to enhance the accuracy of river discharge prediction. In order to achieve this goal, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition algorithm (EEMD), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Mutual Information (MI) were employed as a hybrid pre-processing approach conjugated to Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM). A conceptual strategy namely multi-station model was developed to forecast the Souris River discharge more accurately. The strategy used herein was capable of covering uncertainties and complexities of river discharge modeling. DWT and EEMD was coupled, and the feature selection was performed for decomposed sub-series using MI to be employed in multi-station model. In the proposed feature selection method, some useless sub-series were omitted to achieve better performance. Results approved efficiency of the proposed DWT-EEMD-MI approach to improve accuracy of multi-station modeling strategies.
Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking
In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.
Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using a Hybrid Technique
This paper presents an efficient method of electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a hybrid approach. Two techniques are brought together to create an efficient denoising process. The first is an Adaptive Dual Threshold Filter (ADTF) and the second is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The presented approach is based on three steps of denoising, the DWT decomposition, the ADTF step and the highest peaks correction step. This paper presents some application of the approach on some electrocardiogram signals of the MIT-BIH database. The results of these applications are promising compared to other recently published techniques.
A Robust Hybrid Blind Digital Image Watermarking System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Contourlet Transform
In this paper, a hybrid blind digital watermarking system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet Transform (CT) has been implemented and tested. The implemented combined digital watermarking system has been tested against five common types of image attacks. The performance evaluation shows improved results in terms of imperceptibility, robustness, and high tolerance against these attacks; accordingly, the system is very effective and applicable.
CT Medical Images Denoising Based on New Wavelet Thresholding Compared with Curvelet and Contourlet
One of the most important challenging factors in
medical images is nominated as noise. Image denoising refers to the
improvement of a digital medical image that has been infected by
Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). The digital medical image
or video can be affected by different types of noises. They are
impulse noise, Poisson noise and AWGN. Computed tomography
(CT) images are subjects to low quality due to the noise. Quality of
CT images is dependent on absorbed dose to patients directly in such
a way that increase in absorbed radiation, consequently absorbed
dose to patients (ADP), enhances the CT images quality. In this
manner, noise reduction techniques on purpose of images quality
enhancement exposing no excess radiation to patients is one the
challenging problems for CT images processing. In this work, noise
reduction in CT images was performed using two different
directional 2 dimensional (2D) transformations; i.e., Curvelet and
Contourlet and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) thresholding
methods of BayesShrink and AdaptShrink, compared to each other
and we proposed a new threshold in wavelet domain for not only
noise reduction but also edge retaining, consequently the proposed
method retains the modified coefficients significantly that result good
visual quality. Data evaluations were accomplished by using two
criterions; namely, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and Structure
Assessing Complexity of Neuronal Multiunit Activity by Information Theoretic Measure
This paper provides a quantitative measure of the
time-varying multiunit neuronal spiking activity using an entropy
based approach. To verify the status embedded in the neuronal activity
of a population of neurons, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is
used to isolate the inherent spiking activity of MUA. Due to the
de-correlating property of DWT, the spiking activity would be
preserved while reducing the non-spiking component. By evaluating
the entropy of the wavelet coefficients of the de-noised MUA, a
multiresolution Shannon entropy (MRSE) of the MUA signal is
developed. The proposed entropy was tested in the analysis of both
simulated noisy MUA and actual MUA recorded from cortex in rodent
model. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the
dynamics of a population can be quantified by using the proposed
Medical Image Fusion Based On Redundant Wavelet Transform and Morphological Processing
The process in which the complementary information from multiple images is integrated to provide composite image that contains more information than the original input images is called image fusion. Medical image fusion provides useful information from multimodality medical images that provides additional information to the doctor for diagnosis of diseases in a better way. This paper represents the wavelet based medical image fusion algorithm on different multimodality medical images. In order to fuse the medical images, images are decomposed using Redundant Wavelet Transform (RWT). The high frequency coefficients are convolved with morphological operator followed by the maximum-selection (MS) rule. The low frequency coefficients are processed by MS rule. The reconstructed image is obtained by inverse RWT. The quantitative measures which includes Mean, Standard Deviation, Average Gradient, Spatial frequency, Edge based Similarity Measures are considered for evaluating the fused images. The performance of this proposed method is compared with Pixel averaging, PCA, and DWT fusion methods. When compared with conventional methods, the proposed framework provides better performance for analysis of multimodality medical images.
Discrete Wavelet Transform Decomposition Level Determination Exploiting Sparseness Measurement
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been widely adopted in biomedical signal processing for denoising, compression
and so on. Choosing a suitable decomposition level (DL) in DWT is of paramount importance to its performance. In this paper, we propose to exploit sparseness of the transformed signals to determine the appropriate DL. Simulation results have shown that the sparseness of transformed signals after DWT increases with the increasing DLs. Additional Monte-Carlo simulation results have verified the effectiveness of sparseness measure in determining the DL.
Combined DWT-CT Blind Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm
In this paper, we propose a new robust and secure
system that is based on the combination between two different
transforms Discrete wavelet Transform (DWT) and Contourlet
Transform (CT). The combined transforms will compensate the
drawback of using each transform separately. The proposed
algorithm has been designed, implemented and tested successfully.
The experimental results showed that selecting the best sub-band for
embedding from both transforms will improve the imperceptibility
and robustness of the new combined algorithm. The evaluated
imperceptibility of the combined DWT-CT algorithm which gave a
PSNR value 88.11 and the combination DWT-CT algorithm
improves robustness since it produced better robust against Gaussian
noise attack. In addition to that, the implemented system shored a
successful extraction method to extract watermark efficiently.
ECG Analysis using Nature Inspired Algorithm
This paper presents an algorithm based on the
wavelet decomposition, for feature extraction from the ECG signal
and recognition of three types of Ventricular Arrhythmias using
neural networks. A set of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
coefficients, which contain the maximum information about the
arrhythmias, is selected from the wavelet decomposition. After that a
novel clustering algorithm based on nature inspired algorithm (Ant
Colony Optimization) is developed for classifying arrhythmia types.
The algorithm is applied on the ECG registrations from the MIT-BIH
arrhythmia and malignant ventricular arrhythmia databases. We
applied Daubechies 4 wavelet in our algorithm. The wavelet
decomposition enabled us to perform the task efficiently and
produced reliable results.
Combination of Different Classifiers for Cardiac Arrhythmia Recognition
This paper describes a new supervised fusion (hybrid)
electrocardiogram (ECG) classification solution consisting of a new
QRS complex geometrical feature extraction as well as a new version
of the learning vector quantization (LVQ) classification algorithm
aimed for overcoming the stability-plasticity dilemma. Toward this
objective, after detection and delineation of the major events of ECG
signal via an appropriate algorithm, each QRS region and also its
corresponding discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are supposed as
virtual images and each of them is divided into eight polar sectors.
Then, the curve length of each excerpted segment is calculated
and is used as the element of the feature space. To increase the
robustness of the proposed classification algorithm versus noise,
artifacts and arrhythmic outliers, a fusion structure consisting of
five different classifiers namely as Support Vector Machine (SVM),
Modified Learning Vector Quantization (MLVQ) and three Multi
Layer Perceptron-Back Propagation (MLP–BP) neural networks with
different topologies were designed and implemented. The new proposed
algorithm was applied to all 48 MIT–BIH Arrhythmia Database
records (within–record analysis) and the discrimination power of the
classifier in isolation of different beat types of each record was
assessed and as the result, the average accuracy value Acc=98.51%
was obtained. Also, the proposed method was applied to 6 number
of arrhythmias (Normal, LBBB, RBBB, PVC, APB, PB) belonging
to 20 different records of the aforementioned database (between–
record analysis) and the average value of Acc=95.6% was achieved.
To evaluate performance quality of the new proposed hybrid learning
machine, the obtained results were compared with similar peer–
reviewed studies in this area.
Wavelet Transform and Support Vector Machine Approach for Fault Location in Power Transmission Line
This paper presents a wavelet transform and Support
Vector Machine (SVM) based algorithm for estimating fault location
on transmission lines. The Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used
for data pre-processing and this data are used for training and testing
SVM. Five types of mother wavelet are used for signal processing to
identify a suitable wavelet family that is more appropriate for use in
estimating fault location. The results demonstrated the ability of SVM
to generalize the situation from the provided patterns and to
accurately estimate the location of faults with varying fault resistance.
Wavelet and K-L Seperability Based Feature Extraction Method for Functional Data Classification
This paper proposes a novel feature extraction method,
based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and K-L Seperability
(KLS), for the classification of Functional Data (FD). This method
combines the decorrelation and reduction property of DWT and the
additive independence property of KLS, which is helpful to extraction
classification features of FD. It is an advanced approach of the
popular wavelet based shrinkage method for functional data reduction
and classification. A theory analysis is given in the paper to prove the
consistent convergence property, and a simulation study is also done
to compare the proposed method with the former shrinkage ones. The
experiment results show that this method has advantages in improving
classification efficiency, precision and robustness.
Energy Distribution of EEG Signals: EEG Signal Wavelet-Neural Network Classifier
In this paper, a wavelet-based neural network (WNN) classifier for recognizing EEG signals is implemented and tested under three sets EEG signals (healthy subjects, patients with epilepsy and patients with epileptic syndrome during the seizure). First, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) with the Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) is applied to decompose EEG signal at resolution levels of the components of the EEG signal (δ, θ, α, β and γ) and the Parseval-s theorem are employed to extract the percentage distribution of energy features of the EEG signal at different resolution levels. Second, the neural network (NN) classifies these extracted features to identify the EEGs type according to the percentage distribution of energy features. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated using in total 300 EEG signals. The results showed that the proposed classifier has the ability of recognizing and classifying EEG signals efficiently.
A Scheme of Model Verification of the Concurrent Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for Image Compression
The scientific community has invested a great deal of effort in the fields of discrete wavelet transform in the last few decades. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) associated with the vector quantization has been proved to be a very useful tool for the compression of image. However, the DWT is very computationally intensive process requiring innovative and computationally efficient method to obtain the image compression. The concurrent transformation of the image can be an important solution to this problem. This paper proposes a model of concurrent DWT for image compression. Additionally, the formal verification of the model has also been performed. Here the Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) has been used as the formal verification tool. The system has been modeled in SMV and some properties have been verified formally.
Effectiveness of Contourlet vs Wavelet Transform on Medical Image Compression: a Comparative Study
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has demonstrated
far superior to previous Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and
standard JPEG in natural as well as medical image compression. Due
to its localization properties both in special and transform domain,
the quantization error introduced in DWT does not propagate
globally as in DCT. Moreover, DWT is a global approach that avoids
block artifacts as in the JPEG. However, recent reports on natural
image compression have shown the superior performance of
contourlet transform, a new extension to the wavelet transform in two
dimensions using nonseparable and directional filter banks,
compared to DWT. It is mostly due to the optimality of contourlet in
representing the edges when they are smooth curves. In this work, we
investigate this fact for medical images, especially for CT images,
which has not been reported yet. To do that, we propose a
compression scheme in transform domain and compare the
performance of both DWT and contourlet transform in PSNR for
different compression ratios (CR) using this scheme. The results
obtained using different type of computed tomography images show
that the DWT has still good performance at lower CR but contourlet
transform performs better at higher CR.
An Advanced Method for Speech Recognition
In this paper in consideration of each available
techniques deficiencies for speech recognition, an advanced method
is presented that-s able to classify speech signals with the high
accuracy (98%) at the minimum time. In the presented method, first,
the recorded signal is preprocessed that this section includes
denoising with Mels Frequency Cepstral Analysis and feature
extraction using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients; Then
these features are fed to Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network for
classification. Finally, after training of neural network effective
features are selected with UTA algorithm.
VLSI Design of 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform for Area-Efficient and High-Speed Image Computing
This paper presents a VLSI design approach of a highspeed
and real-time 2-D Discrete Wavelet Transform computing. The
proposed architecture, based on new and fast convolution approach,
reduces the hardware complexity in addition to reduce the critical
path to the multiplier delay. Furthermore, an advanced twodimensional
(2-D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT)
implementation, with an efficient memory area, is designed to
produce one output in every clock cycle. As a result, a very highspeed
is attained. The system is verified, using JPEG2000
coefficients filters, on Xilinx Virtex-II Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA) device without accessing any external memory. The
resulting computing rate is up to 270 M samples/s and the (9,7) 2-D
wavelet filter uses only 18 kb of memory (16 kb of first-in-first-out
memory) with 256×256 image size. In this way, the developed design
requests reduced memory and provide very high-speed processing as
well as high PSNR quality.
Comparative Study of Fault Identification and Classification on EHV Lines Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fourier Transform Based ANN
An appropriate method for fault identification and classification on extra high voltage transmission line using discrete wavelet transform is proposed in this paper. The sharp variations of the generated short circuit transient signals which are recorded at the sending end of the transmission line are adopted to identify the fault. The threshold values involve fault classification and these are done on the basis of the multiresolution analysis. A comparative study of the performance is also presented for Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The results prove that the proposed method is an effective and efficient one in obtaining the accurate result within short duration of time by using Daubechies 4 and 9. Simulation of the power system is done using MATLAB.
A Watermarking System Using the Wavelet Technique for Satellite Images
The huge development of new technologies and the
apparition of open communication system more and more
sophisticated create a new challenge to protect digital content from
piracy. Digital watermarking is a recent research axis and a new
technique suggested as a solution to these problems. This technique
consists in inserting identification information (watermark) into
digital data (audio, video, image, databases...) in an invisible and
indelible manner and in such a way not to degrade original medium-s
quality. Moreover, we must be able to correctly extract the
watermark despite the deterioration of the watermarked medium (i.e
attacks). In this paper we propose a system for watermarking satellite
images. We chose to embed the watermark into frequency domain,
precisely the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). We applied our
algorithm on satellite images of Tunisian center. The experiments
show satisfying results. In addition, our algorithm showed an
important resistance facing different attacks, notably the compression
(JEPG, JPEG2000), the filtering, the histogram-s manipulation and
geometric distortions such as rotation, cropping, scaling.
A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation
In this paper, we present a robust and secure
algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into
the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT).
Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded,
these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing.
The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant
spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This
technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like
compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due
to noise in the transmission link.
The Wavelet-Based DFT: A New Interpretation, Extensions and Applications
In 1990  the subband-DFT (SB-DFT) technique was proposed. This technique used the Hadamard filters in the decomposition step to split the input sequence into low- and highpass sequences. In the next step, either two DFTs are needed on both bands to compute the full-band DFT or one DFT on one of the two bands to compute an approximate DFT. A combination network with correction factors was to be applied after the DFTs. Another approach was proposed in 1997  for using a special discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In the first step of the algorithm, the input sequence is decomposed in a similar manner to the SB-DFT into two sequences using wavelet decomposition with Haar filters. The second step is to perform DFTs on both bands to obtain the full-band DFT or to obtain a fast approximate DFT by implementing pruning at both input and output sides. In this paper, the wavelet-based DFT (W-DFT) with Haar filters is interpreted as SB-DFT with Hadamard filters. The only difference is in a constant factor in the combination network. This result is very important to complete the analysis of the W-DFT, since all the results concerning the accuracy and approximation errors in the SB-DFT are applicable. An application example in spectral analysis is given for both SB-DFT and W-DFT (with different filters). The adaptive capability of the SB-DFT is included in the W-DFT algorithm to select the band of most energy as the band to be computed. Finally, the W-DFT is extended to the two-dimensional case. An application in image transformation is given using two different types of wavelet filters.
Attack Detection through Image Adaptive Self Embedding Watermarking
Now a days, a significant part of commercial and governmental organisations like museums, cultural organizations, libraries, commercial enterprises, etc. invest intensively in new technologies for image digitization, digital libraries, image archiving and retrieval. Hence image authorization, authentication and security has become prime need. In this paper, we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for color images. The method converts the host image into YIQ color space followed by application of orthogonal dual domains of DCT and DWT transforms. The DCT helps to separate relevant from irrelevant image content to generate silent image features. DWT has excellent spatial localisation to help aid in spatial tamper characterisation. Thus image adaptive watermark is generated based of image features which allows the sharp detection of microscopic changes to locate modifications in the image. Further, the scheme utilises the multipurpose watermark consisting of soft authenticator watermark and chrominance watermark. Which has been proved fragile to some predefined processing like intentinal fabrication of the image or forgery and robust to other incidental attacks caused in the communication channel.
Feature Extraction for Surface Classification – An Approach with Wavelets
Surface metrology with image processing is a challenging task having wide applications in industry. Surface roughness can be evaluated using texture classification approach. Important aspect here is appropriate selection of features that characterize the surface. We propose an effective combination of features for multi-scale and multi-directional analysis of engineering surfaces. The features include standard deviation, kurtosis and the Canny edge detector. We apply the method by analyzing the surfaces with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT). We used Canberra distance metric for similarity comparison between the surface classes. Our database includes the surface textures manufactured by three machining processes namely Milling, Casting and Shaping. The comparative study shows that DT-CWT outperforms DWT giving correct classification performance of 91.27% with Canberra distance metric.
High Impedance Faults Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform
The purpose of this paper is to solve the problem of protecting aerial lines from high impedance faults (HIFs) in distribution systems. This investigation successfully applies 3I0 zero sequence current to solve HIF problems. The feature extraction system based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the feature identification technique found on statistical confidence are then applied to discriminate effectively between the HIFs and the switch operations. Based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) pattern recognition of HIFs is proposed, also. Staged fault testing results demonstrate that the proposed wavelet based algorithm is feasible performance well.