International Science Index
Data Centers’ Temperature Profile Simulation Optimized by Finite Elements and Discretization Methods
Nowadays, data center industry faces strong challenges for increasing the speed and data processing capacities while at the same time is trying to keep their devices a suitable working temperature without penalizing that capacity. Consequently, the cooling systems of this kind of facilities use a large amount of energy to dissipate the heat generated inside the servers, and developing new cooling techniques or perfecting those already existing would be a great advance in this type of industry. The installation of a temperature sensor matrix distributed in the structure of each server would provide the necessary information for collecting the required data for obtaining a temperature profile instantly inside them. However, the number of temperature probes required to obtain the temperature profiles with sufficient accuracy is very high and expensive. Therefore, other less intrusive techniques are employed where each point that characterizes the server temperature profile is obtained by solving differential equations through simulation methods, simplifying data collection techniques but increasing the time to obtain results. In order to reduce these calculation times, complicated and slow computational fluid dynamics simulations are replaced by simpler and faster finite element method simulations which solve the Burgers‘ equations by backward, forward and central discretization techniques after simplifying the energy and enthalpy conservation differential equations. The discretization methods employed for solving the first and second order derivatives of the obtained Burgers‘ equation after these simplifications are the key for obtaining results with greater or lesser accuracy regardless of the characteristic truncation error.
Infrared Lightbox and iPhone App for Improving Detection Limit of Phosphate Detecting Dip Strips
In this paper, we report the development of a portable and inexpensive infrared lightbox for improving the detection limits of paper-based phosphate devices. Commercial paper-based devices utilize the molybdenum blue protocol to detect phosphate in the environment. Although these devices are easy to use and have a long shelf life, their main deficiency is their low sensitivity based on the qualitative results obtained via a color chart. To improve the results, we constructed a compact infrared lightbox that communicates wirelessly with a smartphone. The system measures the absorbance of radiation for the molybdenum blue reaction in the infrared region of the spectrum. It consists of a lightbox illuminated by four infrared light-emitting diodes, an infrared digital camera, a Raspberry Pi microcontroller, a mini-router, and an iPhone to control the microcontroller. An iPhone application was also developed to analyze images captured by the infrared camera in order to quantify phosphate concentrations. Additionally, the app connects to an online data center to present a highly scalable worldwide system for tracking and analyzing field measurements. In this study, the detection limits for two popular commercial devices were improved by a factor of 4 for the Quantofix devices (from 1.3 ppm using visible light to 300 ppb using infrared illumination) and a factor of 6 for the Indigo units (from 9.2 ppm to 1.4 ppm) with repeatability of less than or equal to 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD). The system also provides more granular concentration information compared to the discrete color chart used by commercial devices and it can be easily adapted for use in other applications.
Distributed Cost-Based Scheduling in Cloud Computing Environment
Cloud computing can be defined as one of the prominent technologies that lets a user change, configure and access the services online. it can be said that this is a prototype of computing that helps in saving cost and time of a user practically the use of cloud computing can be found in various fields like education, health, banking etc. Cloud computing is an internet dependent technology thus it is the major responsibility of Cloud Service Providers(CSPs) to care of data stored by user at data centers. Scheduling in cloud computing environment plays a vital role as to achieve maximum utilization and user satisfaction cloud providers need to schedule resources effectively. Job scheduling for cloud computing is analyzed in the following work. To complete, recreate the task calculation, and conveyed scheduling methods CloudSim3.0.3 is utilized. This research work discusses the job scheduling for circulated processing condition also by exploring on this issue we find it works with minimum time and less cost. In this work two load balancing techniques have been employed: ‘Throttled stack adjustment policy’ and ‘Active VM load balancing policy’ with two brokerage services ‘Advanced Response Time’ and ‘Reconfigure Dynamically’ to evaluate the VM_Cost, DC_Cost, Response Time, and Data Processing Time. The proposed techniques are compared with Round Robin scheduling policy.
Energy Efficient Resource Allocation and Scheduling in Cloud Computing Platform
There has been renewal of interest in the relation between Green IT and cloud computing in recent years. Cloud computing has to be a highly elastic environment which provides stable services to users. The growing use of cloud computing facilities has caused marked energy consumption, putting negative pressure on electricity cost of computing center or data center. Each year more and more network devices, storages and computers are purchased and put to use, but it is not just the number of computers that is driving energy consumption upward. We could foresee that the power consumption of cloud computing facilities will double, triple, or even more in the next decade. This paper aims at resource allocation and scheduling technologies that are short of or have not well developed yet to reduce energy utilization in cloud computing platform. In particular, our approach relies on recalling services dynamically onto appropriate amount of the machines according to user’s requirement and temporarily shutting down the machines after finish in order to conserve energy. We present initial work on integration of resource and power management system that focuses on reducing power consumption such that they suffice for meeting the minimizing quality of service required by the cloud computing platform.
The Application of Bayesian Heuristic for Scheduling in Real-Time Private Clouds
The emergence of Cloud data centers has revolutionized
the IT industry. Private Clouds in specific provide Cloud services
for certain group of customers/businesses. In a real-time private
Cloud each task that is given to the system has a deadline that
desirably should not be violated. Scheduling tasks in a real-time
private CLoud determine the way available resources in the system
are shared among incoming tasks. The aim of the scheduling policy is
to optimize the system outcome which for a real-time private Cloud
can include: energy consumption, deadline violation, execution time
and the number of host switches. Different scheduling policies can be
used for scheduling. Each lead to a sub-optimal outcome in a certain
settings of the system. A Bayesian Scheduling strategy is proposed
for scheduling to further improve the system outcome. The Bayesian
strategy showed to outperform all selected policies. It also has the
flexibility in dealing with complex pattern of incoming task and has
the ability to adapt.
Reliability Analysis of Computer Centre at Yobe State University Using LRU Algorithm
In this paper, we focus on the reliability and performance analysis of Computer Centre (CC) at Yobe State University, Damaturu, Nigeria. The CC consists of three servers: one database mail server, one redundant and one for sharing with the client computers in the CC (called as a local server). Observing the different possibilities of the functioning of the CC, the analysis has been done to evaluate the various popular measures of reliability such as availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit analysis due to the operation of the system. The system can ultimately fail due to the failure of router, redundant server before repairing the mail server and switch failure. The system can also partially fail when a local server fails. The failed devices have restored according to Least Recently Used (LRU) techniques. The system can also fail entirely due to a cooling failure of the server, electricity failure or some natural calamity like earthquake, fire tsunami, etc. All the failure rates are assumed to be constant and follow exponential time distribution, while the repair follows two types of distributions: i.e. general and Gumbel-Hougaard family copula distribution.
Increasing the System Availability of Data Centers by Using Virtualization Technologies
Like most entrepreneurs, data center operators pursue goals such as profit-maximization, improvement of the company’s reputation or basically to exist on the market. Part of those aims is to guarantee a given quality of service. Quality characteristics are specified in a contract called the service level agreement. Central part of this agreement is non-functional properties of an IT service. The system availability is one of the most important properties as it will be shown in this paper. To comply with availability requirements, data center operators can use virtualization technologies. A clear model to assess the effect of virtualization functions on the parts of a data center in relation to the system availability is still missing. This paper aims to introduce a basic model that shows these connections, and consider if the identified effects are positive or negative. Thus, this work also points out possible disadvantages of the technology. In consequence, the paper shows opportunities as well as risks of data center virtualization in relation to system availability.
Sidecooler Flow Field Investigation
One of the aims of the paper is to make a comparison
of experimental results with numerical simulation for a side cooler.
Specifically, it was the amount of air to be delivered by the side
cooler with fans running at 100%. This integral value was measured
and evaluated within the plane parallel to the front side of the side
cooler at a distance of 20mm from the front side. The flow field
extending from the side cooler to the space was also evaluated.
Another objective was to address the contribution of evaluated values
to the increase of data center energy consumption.
Power Saving System in Green Data Center
Power consumption is rapidly increased in data centers
because the number of data center is increased and more the scale of
data center become larger. Therefore, it is one of key research items to
reduce power consumption in data center. The peak power of a typical
server is around 250 watts. When a server is idle, it continues to use
around 60% of the power consumed when in use, though vendors are
putting effort into reducing this “idle" power load. Servers tend to
work at only around a 5% to 20% utilization rate, partly because of
response time concerns. An average of 10% of servers in their data
centers was unused. In those reason, we propose dynamic power
management system to reduce power consumption in green data
center. Experiment result shows that about 55% power consumption is
reduced at idle time.
Server Virtualization Using User Behavior Model Focus on Provisioning Concept
Server provisioning is one of the most attractive topics in virtualization systems. Virtualization is a method of running multiple independent virtual operating systems on a single physical computer. It is a way of maximizing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware. Additionally, it can help to consolidate servers, improve hardware utilization and reduce the consumption of power and physical space in the data center. However, management of heterogeneous workloads, especially for resource utilization of the server, or so called provisioning becomes a challenge. In this paper, a new concept for managing workloads based on user behavior is presented. The experimental results show that user behaviors are different in each type of service workload and time. Understanding user behaviors may improve the efficiency of management in provisioning concept. This preliminary study may be an approach to improve management of data centers running heterogeneous workloads for provisioning in virtualization system.
Reducing Power Consumption in Cloud Platforms using an Effective Mechanism
In recent years there has been renewal of interest in the
relation between Green IT and Cloud Computing. The growing use of
computers in cloud platform has caused marked energy consumption,
putting negative pressure on electricity cost of cloud data center. This
paper proposes an effective mechanism to reduce energy utilization in
cloud computing environments. We present initial work on the
integration of resource and power management that aims at reducing
power consumption. Our mechanism relies on recalling virtualization
services dynamically according to user-s virtualization request and
temporarily shutting down the physical machines after finish in order
to conserve energy. Given the estimated energy consumption, this
proposed effort has the potential to positively impact power
consumption. The results from the experiment concluded that energy
indeed can be saved by powering off the idling physical machines in
On the Joint Optimization of Performance and Power Consumption in Data Centers
We model the process of a data center as a multi- objective problem of mapping independent tasks onto a set of data center machines that simultaneously minimizes the energy consump¬tion and response time (makespan) subject to the constraints of deadlines and architectural requirements. A simple technique based on multi-objective goal programming is proposed that guarantees Pareto optimal solution with excellence in convergence process. The proposed technique also is compared with other traditional approach. The simulation results show that the proposed technique achieves superior performance compared to the min-min heuristics, and com¬petitive performance relative to the optimal solution implemented in UNDO for small-scale problems.
Intelligent BRT in Tehran
an intelligent BRT system is necessary when
communities looking for new ways to use high capacity rapid transit
at a reduced cost.This paper will describe the intelligent control
system that works with Datacenter. With the help of GPS system, the
data center can monitor the situation of each bus and bus station.
Through RFID technology, bus station and traffic light can transfer
data with bus and by Wimax communication technology all of parts
can talk together; data center learns all information about the location
of bus, the arrival of bus in each station and the number of passengers
in station and bus.Finally, the paper presents the case study of those
theories in Tehran BRT.
Preliminary Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Data Center: Case Study
As the data-driven economy is growing faster than
ever and the demand for energy is being spurred, we are facing
unprecedented challenges of improving energy efficiency in data
centers. Effectively maximizing energy efficiency or minimising the
cooling energy demand is becoming pervasive for data centers. This
paper investigates overall energy consumption and the energy
efficiency of cooling system for a data center in Finland as a case
study. The power, cooling and energy consumption characteristics
and operation condition of facilities are examined and analysed.
Potential energy and cooling saving opportunities are identified and
further suggestions for improving the performance of cooling system
are put forward. Results are presented as a comprehensive evaluation
of both the energy performance and good practices of energy
efficient cooling operations for the data center. Utilization of an
energy recovery concept for cooling system is proposed. The
conclusion we can draw is that even though the analysed data center
demonstrated relatively high energy efficiency, based on its power
usage effectiveness value, there is still a significant potential for
energy saving from its cooling systems.
A Generic Approach to Achieve Optimal Server Consolidation by Using Existing Servers in Virtualized Data Center
Virtualization-based server consolidation has been
proven to be an ideal technique to solve the server sprawl problem by
consolidating multiple virtualized servers onto a few physical servers
leading to improved resource utilization and return on investment. In
this paper, we solve this problem by using existing servers, which are
heterogeneous and diversely preferred by IT managers. Five practical
consolidation rules are introduced, and a decision model is proposed to
optimally allocate source services to physical target servers while
maximizing the average resource utilization and preference value. Our
model can be regarded as a multi-objective multi-dimension
bin-packing (MOMDBP) problem with constraints, which is strongly
NP-hard. An improved grouping generic algorithm (GGA) is
introduced for the problem. Extensive simulations were performed and
the results are given.
Cloud Computing Databases: Latest Trends and Architectural Concepts
The Economic factors are leading to the rise of
infrastructures provides software and computing facilities as a
service, known as cloud services or cloud computing. Cloud services
can provide efficiencies for application providers, both by limiting
up-front capital expenses, and by reducing the cost of ownership over
time. Such services are made available in a data center, using shared
commodity hardware for computation and storage. There is a varied
set of cloud services available today, including application services
(salesforce.com), storage services (Amazon S3), compute services
(Google App Engine, Amazon EC2) and data services (Amazon
SimpleDB, Microsoft SQL Server Data Services, Google-s Data
store). These services represent a variety of reformations of data
management architectures, and more are on the horizon.
Cloud Computing Initiative using Modified Ant Colony Framework
Scheduling of diversified service requests in
distributed computing is a critical design issue. Cloud is a type of
parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of
interconnected and virtual computers. It is not only the clusters and
grid but also it comprises of next generation data centers. The paper
proposes an initial heuristic algorithm to apply modified ant colony
optimization approach for the diversified service allocation and
scheduling mechanism in cloud paradigm. The proposed optimization
method is aimed to minimize the scheduling throughput to service all
the diversified requests according to the different resource allocator
available under cloud computing environment.
A Weighted Sum Technique for the Joint Optimization of Performance and Power Consumption in Data Centers
With data centers, end-users can realize the pervasiveness of services that will be one day the cornerstone of our lives. However, data centers are often classified as computing systems that consume the most amounts of power. To circumvent such a problem, we propose a self-adaptive weighted sum methodology that jointly optimizes the performance and power consumption of any given data center. Compared to traditional methodologies for multi-objective optimization problems, the proposed self-adaptive weighted sum technique does not rely on a systematical change of weights during the optimization procedure. The proposed technique is compared with the greedy and LR heuristics for large-scale problems, and the optimal solution for small-scale problems implemented in LINDO. the experimental results revealed that the proposed selfadaptive weighted sum technique outperforms both of the heuristics and projects a competitive performance compared to the optimal solution.
ISCS (Information Security Check Service) for the Safety and Reliability of Communications
Recent widespread use of information and
communication technology has greatly changed information security
risks that businesses and institutions encounter. Along with this
situation, in order to ensure security and have confidence in electronic
trading, it has become important for organizations to take competent
information security measures to provide international confidence that
sensitive information is secure. Against this backdrop, the approach to
information security checking has come to an important issue, which
is believed to be common to all countries. The purpose of this paper is
to introduce the new system of information security checking program
in Korea and to propose synthetic information security
countermeasures under domestic circumstances in order to protect
physical equipment, security management and technology, and the
operation of security check for securing services on ISP(Internet
Service Provider), IDC(Internet Data Center), and
e-commerce(shopping malls, etc.)
A Model of Network Security with Prevention Capability by Using Decoy Technique
This research work proposes a model of network security systems aiming to prevent production system in a data center from being attacked by intrusions. Conceptually, we introduce a decoy system as a part of the security system for luring intrusions, and apply network intrusion detection (NIDS), coupled with the decoy system to perform intrusion prevention. When NIDS detects an activity of intrusions, it will signal a redirection module to redirect all malicious traffics to attack the decoy system instead, and hence the production system is protected and safe. However, in a normal situation, traffic will be simply forwarded to the production system as usual. Furthermore, we assess the performance of the model with various bandwidths, packet sizes and inter-attack intervals (attacking frequencies).