The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has provoked a raising interest in the development of mathematical models in order to evaluate the cardiovascular function both under physiological and pathological conditions. In this paper, a physical model of the cardiovascular system with intrinsic regulation is presented and implemented by using the object-oriented Modelica simulation software tools. For this task, a multi-compartmental system previously validated with physiological data has been built, based on the interconnection of cardiovascular elements such as resistances, capacitances and pumping among others, by following an electrohydraulic analogy. The results obtained under both physiological and pathological scenarios provide an easy interpretative key to analyze the hemodynamic behavior of the patient. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical and nursing students among others.
The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.
In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.
The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by Radio frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40oC to +150oC can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by Capacitance Bridge and in-waveguide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.
This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer through the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a multi-inputs voltage sense amplifier. Its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transitions at the output nodes inevitably disturb the input sides through the capacitive coupling between the outputs and inputs. Then, it can possible degrade the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes more serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the overall systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization techniques are proposed. It achieves 45% and 40% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.
A novel method to produce a fast high voltage solid states switch using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) is presented for discharge-pumped gas lasers. The IGBTs are connected in series to achieve a high voltage rating. An avalanche transistor is used as the gate driver. The fast pulse generated by the avalanche transistor quickly charges the large input capacitance of the IGBT, resulting in a switch out of a fast high-voltage pulse. The switching characteristic of fast-high voltage solid state switch has been estimated in the multi-stage series-connected IGBT with the applied voltage of several tens of kV. Electrical circuit diagram and the mythology of fast-high voltage solid state switch as well as experimental results obtained are presented.
The power converter that feeds high-frequency, highvoltage transformers must be carefully designed due to parasitic components, mainly the secondary winding capacitance and the leakage inductance, that introduces resonances in relatively lowfrequency range, next to the switching frequency. This paper considers applications in which the load (resistive) has an unpredictable behavior, changing from open to short-circuit condition faster than the output voltage control loop could react. In this context, to avoid overvoltage and over current situations, that could damage the converter, the transformer or the load, it is necessary to find an operation point that assure the desired output voltage in spite of the load condition. This can done adjusting the frequency response of the transformer adding an external inductance, together with selecting the switching frequency to get stable output voltage independently of the load.
The Al-MoO3-P-CdTe-Al MOS sandwich structures were fabricated by vacuum deposition method on cleaned glass substrates. Capacitance versus voltage measurements were performed at different frequencies and sweep rates of applied voltages for oxide and semiconductor films of different thicknesses. In the negative voltage region of the C-V curve a high differential capacitance of the semiconductor was observed and at high frequencies (<10 kHz) the transition from accumulation to depletion and further to deep depletion was observed as the voltage was swept from negative to positive. A study have been undertaken to determine the value of acceptor density and some depletion layer parameters such as depletion layer capacitance, depletion width, impurity concentration, flat band voltage, Debye length, flat band capacitance, diffusion or built-in-potential, space charge per unit area etc. These were determined from C-V measurements for different oxide and semiconductor thicknesses.
Anultra-low power capacitor less low-dropout voltage regulator with improved transient response using gain enhanced feed forward path compensation is presented in this paper. It is based on a cascade of a voltage amplifier and a transconductor stage in the feed forward path with regular error amplifier to form a composite gainenhanced feed forward stage. It broadens the gain bandwidth and thus improves the transient response without substantial increase in power consumption. The proposed LDO, designed for a maximum output current of 100 mA in UMC 180 nm, requires a quiescent current of 69 )A. An undershot of 153.79mV for a load current changes from 0mA to 100mA and an overshoot of 196.24mV for current change of 100mA to 0mA. The settling time is approximately 1.1 )s for the output voltage undershooting case. The load regulation is of 2.77 )V/mA at load current of 100mA. Reference voltage is generated by using an accurate band gap reference circuit of 0.8V.The costly features of SOC such as total chip area and power consumption is drastically reduced by the use of only a total compensation capacitance of 6pF while consuming power consumption of 0.096 mW.
Most of the PV systems are designed with transformer for safety purpose with galvanic isolation. However, the transformer is big, heavy and expensive. Also, it reduces the overall frequency of the conversion stage. Generally PV inverter with transformer is having efficiency around 92%–94% only. To overcome these problems, transformerless PV system is introduced. It is smaller, lighter, cheaper and higher in efficiency. However, dangerous leakage current will flow between PV array and the grid due to the stray capacitance. There are different types of configurations available for transformerless inverters like H5, H6, HERIC, oH5, and Dual paralleled buck inverter. But each configuration is suffering from its own disadvantages like high conduction losses, shoot-through issues of switches, dead-time requirements at zero crossing instants of grid voltage to avoid grid shoot-through faults and MOSFET reverse recovery issues. The main objective of the proposed transformerless inverter is to address two key issues: One key issue for a transformerless inverter is that it is necessary to achieve high efficiency compared to other existing inverter topologies. Another key issue is that the inverter configuration should not have any shoot-through issues for higher reliability.
We succeeded to produce a high performance and flexible graphene/Manganese dioxide (G/MnO2) electrode coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The graphene film is initially synthesized by drop-casting the graphene oxide (GO) solution on the PET substrate, followed by simultaneous reduction and patterning of the dried film using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser beam with power of 1.8 W. Potentiostatic Anodic Deposition method was used to deposit thin film of MnO2 with different loading mass 10 – 50 and 100 μg.cm-2 on the pre-prepared graphene film. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance. A maximum specific capacitance of 973 F.g-1 was attributed when depositing 50μg.cm-2 MnO2 on the laser reduced graphene oxide rGO (or G/50MnO2) and over 92% of its initial capacitance was retained after 1000 cycles. The good electrochemical performance and long-term cycling stability make our proposed approach a promising candidate in the supercapacitor applications.
Non-synchronous breakage or line failure in power systems with light or no loads can lead to core saturation in transformers or potential transformers. This can cause component and capacitance matching resulting in the formation of resonant circuits, which trigger ferroresonance. This study employed a wavelet transform for the detection of ferroresonance. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.
This paper presents the performance state analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization technique. The total admittance of the induction machine is minimized to calculate the frequency and magnetizing reactance corresponding to any rotor speed, load impedance and excitation capacitance. The performance of SEIG is calculated using the optimized parameter found. The results obtained by ABC algorithm are compared with results from numerical method. The results obtained coincide with the numerical method results. This technique proves to be efficient in solving nonlinear constrained optimization problems and analyzing the performance of SEIG.
This paper discusses the undesirable charge transfer by the parasitic capacitances of the input transistors in a voltage sense amplifier. Due to its intrinsic rail-to-rail voltage transition, the input sides are inevitably disturbed. It can possible disturb the stabilities of the reference voltage levels. Moreover, it becomes serious in multi-channel systems by altering them for other channels, and so degrades the linearity of the systems. In order to alleviate the internal node voltage transition, the internal node stabilization technique is proposed by utilizing an additional biasing circuit. It achieves 47% and 43% improvements for node stabilization and input referred disturbance, respectively.
Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).
Force sensor has been used as requisite for knowing information on the amount and the directions of forces on the skin surface. We have developed a four-degrees-of-freedom capacitive force sensor (approximately 20×20×5 mm3) that has a flexible structure and sixteen parallel plate capacitors. An iterative algorithm was developed for estimating four displacements from the sixteen capacitances using fourth-order polynomial approximation of characteristics between capacitance and displacement. The estimation results from measured capacitances had large error caused by deterioration of the characteristics. In this study, effective capacitors had major information were selected on the basis of the capacitance change range and the characteristic shape. Maximum errors in calibration and non-calibration points were 25%and 6.8%.However the maximum error was larger than desired value, the smallness of averaged value indicated the occurrence of a few large error points. On the other hand, error in non-calibration point was within desired value.
This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter (CVC) as the analog front-end for magnetometer interface IC. The application demands very low power solution operating in the frequency of around 20 KHz. The design adapts low power architecture to create low noise electronic interface for Capacitive Micro-machined Lorentz force magnetometer sensor. Using a 0.18-μm CMOS process, simulation results of this interface IC show that the proposed CVC can provide 33 dB closed loop gain, 20 nV/√Hz input referred noise at 20 KHz, while consuming 65 μA current from 1.8-V supply.
An on-line condition monitoring method for transmission line is proposed using electrical circuit theory and IT technology in this paper. It is reasonable that the circuit parameters such as resistance (R), inductance (L), conductance (g) and capacitance (C) of a transmission line expose the electrical conditions and physical state of the line. Those parameters can be calculated from the linear equation composed of voltages and currents measured by synchro-phasor measurement technique at both end of the line. A set of linear voltage drop equations containing four terminal constants (A, B ,C ,D ) are mathematical models of the transmission line circuits. At least two sets of those linear equations are established from different operation condition of the line, they may mathematically yield those circuit parameters of the line. The conditions of line connectivity including state of connecting parts or contacting parts of the switching device may be monitored by resistance variations during operation. The insulation conditions of the line can be monitored by conductance (g) and capacitance(C) measurements. Together with other condition monitoring devices such as partial discharge, sensors and visual sensing device etc.,they may give useful information to monitor out any incipient symptoms of faults. The prototype of hardware system has been developed and tested through laboratory level simulated transmission lines. The test has shown enough evident to put the proposed method to practical uses.
In the present work, we have developed a symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on the nanostructured iron oxide (Fe3O4)-activated carbon (AC) nanocomposite materials. The physical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The electrochemical performances of the composite electrode in 1.0 M Na2SO3 and 1.0 M Na2SO4 aqueous solutions were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The composite electrode with 4 wt% of iron oxide nanomaterials exhibits the highest capacitance of 86 F/g. The experimental results clearly indicate that the incorporation of iron oxide nanomaterials at low concentration to the composite can improve the capacitive performance, mainly attributed to the contribution of the pseudocapacitance charge storage mechanism and the enhancement on the effective surface area of the electrode. Nevertheless, there is an optimum threshold on the amount of iron oxide that needs to be incorporated into the composite system. When this optimum threshold is exceeded, the capacitive performance of the electrode starts to deteriorate, as a result of the undesired particle aggregation, which is clearly indicated in the SEM analysis. The electrochemical performance of the composite electrode is found to be superior when Na2SO3 is used as the electrolyte, if compared to the Na2SO4 solution. It is believed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for sulphite (SO3 2-) anions which act as catalysts for subsequent redox and intercalation reactions.
In this paper, a power laterally-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As is presented. The device utilizes a thicker field-oxide with low dielectric constant under the field-plate in order to achieve possible reduction in device capacitances and reduced-surface-field effect. Using 2D numerical simulations, performance of the proposed device is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional LDMOSFET. The proposed structure provides 50% increase in the breakdown voltage, 21% increase in transit frequency, and 72% improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device for same cell pitch.
This paper presents a resonant-based read-out circuit for capacitive pressure sensors. The proposed read-out circuit consists of an LC oscillator and a counter. The circuit detects the capacitance changes of a capacitive pressure sensor by means of frequency shifts from its nominal operation frequency. The proposed circuit is designed in 0.18m CMOS with an estimated power consumption of 43.1mW. Simulation results show that the circuit has a capacitive resolution of 8.06kHz/fF, which enables it for high resolution pressure detection.
A SnO2/CdS/CdTe heterojunction was fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The fabricated cells were annealed at 573K for periods of 60, 120 and 180 minutes. The structural properties of the solar cells have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. Capacitance- voltage measurements were studied for the as-prepared and annealed cells at a frequency of 102 Hz. The capacitance- voltage measurements indicated that these cells are abrupt. The capacitance decreases with increasing annealing time. The zero bias depletion region width and the carrier concentration increased with increasing annealing time. The carrier transport mechanism for the CdS/CdTe heterojunction in dark is tunneling recombination. The ideality factor is 1.56 and the reverse bias saturation current is 9.6×10-10A. The energy band lineup for the n- CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction was investigated using current - voltage and capacitance - voltage characteristics.
Worldwide many electrical equipment insulation failures have been reported caused by switching operations, while those equipments had previously passed all the standard tests and complied with all quality requirements. The problem is mostly associated with high-frequency overvoltages generated during opening or closing of a switching device. The transients generated during switching operations in a Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) are associated with high frequency components in the order of few tens of MHz. The frequency spectrum of the VFTO generated in the 220/66 kV Wadi-Hoff GIS is analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform technique. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of disconnector (DS5) is 5 to 10 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 9 MHz. The main frequency with high voltage amplitude due to the operation of circuit breaker (CB5) is 1 to 25 MHz, with the highest amplitude at 2 MHz. Mitigating techniques damped the oscillating frequencies effectively. The using of cable terminal reduced the frequency oscillation effectively than that of OHTL terminal. The using of a shunt capacitance results in vanishing the high frequency components. Ferrite rings reduces the high frequency components effectively especially in the range 2 to 7 MHz. The using of RC and RL filters results in vanishing the high frequency components.
A gold coated copper rotating electrode was used to eliminate surface oxidation effect. This study examined the effect of electrode rotation on the ozone generation process and showed that an ozonizer with an electrode rotating system might be a possible way to increase ozone-synthesis efficiency. Two new phenomena appeared during experiments with the rotating electrode. First was that ozone concentration increased to about two times higher than that of the case with no rotation. Second, input power and discharge area were found to increase with the rotation speed. Both ozone concentration and ozone production efficiency improved in the case of rotating electrode compared to the case with a non-rotating electrode. One possible reason for this was the increase in discharge length of micro-discharges during electrode rotation. The rotating electrode decreased onset voltage, while reactor capacitance increased with rotation. Use of a rotating-type electrode allowed earlier observation of the ozone zero phenomena compared with a non-rotating electrode because, during rotation, the entire electrode surface was functional, allowing nitrogen on the electrode surface to be evenly consumed. Nitrogen demand increased with increasing rotation s