International Science Index
The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation
This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed, and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction.
Electric Field Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of 400 kV Silicone Composite Insulator
In electrical power system, high voltage insulators are necessary for consistent performance. All insulators are exposed to different mechanical and electrical stresses. Mechanical stresses occur due to various loads such as wind load, hardware and conductors weight. Electrical stresses are due to over voltages and operating voltages. The performance analysis of polymer insulators is an essential, as most of the electrical utility companies are employing polymer insulators for new and updated transmission lines. In this paper, electric field is analyzed for 400 kV silicone (SiR) composite insulator by COULOMB 3D software based on boundary element method. The field results are compared with EPRI reference values. Our results proved that values at critical regions are very less compared to EPRI reference values. And also experimentally 400 kV single V suspension string is evaluated as per IEC standards.
Flutter Analysis of Slender Beams with Variable Cross Sections Based on Integral Equation Formulation
This paper studies a mathematical model based on the
integral equations for dynamic analyzes numerical investigations of a
non-uniform or multi-material composite beam. The beam is
subjected to a sub-tangential follower force and elastic foundation.
The boundary conditions are represented by generalized
parameterized fixations by the linear and rotary springs. A
mathematical formula based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is
presented for beams with variable cross-sections. The non-uniform
section introduces non-uniformity in the rigidity and inertia of beams
and consequently, more complicated equilibrium who governs the
equation. Using the boundary element method and radial basis
functions, the equation of motion is reduced to an algebro-differential
system related to internal and boundary unknowns. A generalized
formula for the deflection, the slope, the moment and the shear force
are presented. The free vibration of non-uniform loaded beams is
formulated in a compact matrix form and all needed matrices are
explicitly given. The dynamic stability analysis of slender beam is
illustrated numerically based on the coalescence criterion. A realistic
case related to an industrial chimney is investigated.
Dynamic Analysis of Nonlinear Models with Infinite Extension by Boundary Elements
The Time-Domain Boundary Element Method (TDBEM)
is a well known numerical technique that handles quite
properly dynamic analyses considering infinite dimension media.
However, when these analyses are also related to nonlinear behavior,
very complex numerical procedures arise considering the TD-BEM,
which may turn its application prohibitive. In order to avoid this
drawback and model nonlinear infinite media, the present work
couples two BEM formulations, aiming to achieve the best of two
worlds. In this context, the regions expected to behave nonlinearly
are discretized by the Domain Boundary Element Method (D-BEM),
which has a simpler mathematical formulation but is unable to deal
with infinite domain analyses; the TD-BEM is employed as in the
sense of an effective non-reflexive boundary. An iterative procedure
is considered for the coupling of the TD-BEM and D-BEM, which is
based on a relaxed renew of the variables at the common interfaces.
Elastoplastic models are focused and different time-steps are allowed
to be considered by each BEM formulation in the coupled analysis.
Flow Field Analysis of Submerged Horizontal Plate Type Breakwater
A submerged horizontal plate type breakwater is
pointed out as an efficient wave protection device for cage culture in
marine fishery. In order to reveal the wave elimination principle of this
type breakwater, boundary element method is utilized to investigate
this problem. The flow field and the trajectory of water particles are
studied carefully. The flow field analysis shows that: the interaction of
incident wave and adverse current above the plate disturbs the water
domain drastically. This can slow down the horizontal velocity and
vertical velocity of the water particles.
A Laplace Transform Dual-Reciprocity Boundary Element Method for Axisymmetric Elastodynamic Problems
A dual-reciprocity boundary element method is presented
for the numerical solution of a class of axisymmetric elastodynamic
problems. The domain integrals that arise in the integrodifferential
formulation are converted to line integrals by using the
dual-reciprocity method together suitably constructed interpolating
functions. The second order time derivatives of the displacement
in the governing partial differential equations are suppressed by
using Laplace transformation. In the Laplace transform domain, the
problem under consideration is eventually reduced to solving a system
of linear algebraic equations. Once the linear algebraic equations are
solved, the displacement and stress fields in the physical domain can
be recovered by using a numerical technique for inverting Laplace
The Effects of Tissue Optical Parameters and Interface Reflectivity on Light Diffusion in Biological Tissues
In cancer progress, the optical properties of tissues
like absorption and scattering coefficient change, so by these
changes, we can trace the progress of cancer, even it can be applied
for pre-detection of cancer. In this paper, we investigate the effects of
changes of optical properties on light penetrated into tissues. The
diffusion equation is widely used to simulate light propagation into
biological tissues. In this study, the boundary integral method (BIM)
is used to solve the diffusion equation. We illustrate that the changes
of optical properties can modified the reflectance or penetrating light.
Analyzing of Noise inside a Simple Vehicle Cabin using Boundary Element Method
In this paper, modeling of an acoustic enclosed
vehicle cabin has been carried out by using boundary element
method. Also, the second purpose of this study is analyzing of linear
wave equation in an acoustic field. The resultants of this modeling
consist of natural frequencies that have been compared with
resultants derived from finite element method. By using numerical
method (boundary element method) and after solution of wave
equation inside an acoustic enclosed cabin, this method has been
progressed to simulate noise inside a simple vehicle cabin.
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Sound Radiation by the Boundary Element Method
The modeling of sound radiation is of fundamental importance for understanding the propagation of acoustic waves and, consequently, develop mechanisms for reducing acoustic noise. The propagation of acoustic waves, are involved in various phenomena such as radiation, absorption, transmission and reflection. The radiation is studied through the linear equation of the acoustic wave that is obtained through the equation for the Conservation of Momentum, equation of State and Continuity. From these equations, is the Helmholtz differential equation that describes the problem of acoustic radiation. In this paper we obtained the solution of the Helmholtz differential equation for an infinite cylinder in a pulsating through free and homogeneous. The analytical solution is implemented and the results are compared with the literature. A numerical formulation for this problem is obtained using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). This method has great power for solving certain acoustical problems in open field, compared to differential methods. BEM reduces the size of the problem, thereby simplifying the input data to be worked and reducing the computational time used.
BEM Formulations Based on Kirchhoffs Hypoyhesis to Perform Linear Bending Analysis of Plates Reinforced by Beams
In this work, are discussed two formulations of the boundary element method - BEM to perform linear bending analysis of plates reinforced by beams. Both formulations are based on the Kirchhoff's hypothesis and they are obtained from the reciprocity theorem applied to zoned plates, where each sub-region defines a beam or a slab. In the first model the problem values are defined along the interfaces and the external boundary. Then, in order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom kinematics hypothesis are assumed along the beam cross section, leading to a second formulation where the collocation points are defined along the beam skeleton, instead of being placed on interfaces. On these formulations no approximation of the generalized forces along the interface is required. Moreover, compatibility and equilibrium conditions along the interface are automatically imposed by the integral equation. Thus, these formulations require less approximation and the total number of the degree s of freedom is reduced. In the numerical examples are discussed the differences between these two BEM formulations, comparing as well the results to a well-known finite element code.
Analysis of the Coupled Stretching Bending Problem of Stiffened Plates by a BEM Formulation Based on Reissner's Hypothesis
In this work, the plate bending formulation of the boundary element method - BEM, based on the Reissner?s hypothesis, is extended to the analysis of plates reinforced by beams taking into account the membrane effects. The formulation is derived by assuming a zoned body where each sub-region defines a beam or a slab and all of them are represented by a chosen reference surface. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions are automatically imposed by the integral equations, which treat this composed structure as a single body. In order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, the problem values defined on the interfaces are written in terms of their values on the beam axis. Initially are derived separated equations for the bending and stretching problems, but in the final system of equations the two problems are coupled and can not be treated separately. Finally are presented some numerical examples whose analytical results are known to show the accuracy of the proposed model.
Genetic Combined with a Simplex Algorithm as an Efficient Method for the Detection of a Depressed Ellipsoidal Flaw using the Boundary Element Method
The present work encounters the solution of the defect identification problem with the use of an evolutionary algorithm combined with a simplex method. In more details, a Matlab implementation of Genetic Algorithms is combined with a Simplex method in order to lead to the successful identification of the defect. The influence of the location and the orientation of the depressed ellipsoidal flaw was investigated as well as the use of different amount of static data in the cost function. The results were evaluated according to the ability of the simplex method to locate the global optimum in each test case. In this way, a clear impression regarding the performance of the novel combination of the optimization algorithms, and the influence of the geometrical parameters of the flaw in defect identification problems was obtained.
A Parametric Study of an Inverse Electrostatics Problem (IESP) Using Simulated Annealing, Hooke & Jeeves and Sequential Quadratic Programming in Conjunction with Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods
The aim of the current work is to present a comparison among three popular optimization methods in the inverse elastostatics problem (IESP) of flaw detection within a solid. In more details, the performance of a simulated annealing, a Hooke & Jeeves and a sequential quadratic programming algorithm was studied in the test case of one circular flaw in a plate solved by both the boundary element (BEM) and the finite element method (FEM). The proposed optimization methods use a cost function that utilizes the displacements of the static response. The methods were ranked according to the required number of iterations to converge and to their ability to locate the global optimum. Hence, a clear impression regarding the performance of the aforementioned algorithms in flaw identification problems was obtained. Furthermore, the coupling of BEM or FEM with these optimization methods was investigated in order to track differences in their performance.