International Science Index
Liquid Chromatography Microfluidics for Detection and Quantification of Urine Albumin Using Linear Regression Method
Nearly a hundred per million of the Filipino population is diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The early stage of CKD has no symptoms and can only be discovered once the patient undergoes urinalysis. Over the years, different methods were discovered and used for the quantification of the urinary albumin such as the immunochemical assays where most of these methods require large machinery that has a high cost in maintenance and resources, and a dipstick test which is yet to be proven and is still debated as a reliable method in detecting early stages of microalbuminuria. This research study involves the use of the liquid chromatography concept in microfluidic instruments with biosensor as a means of separation and detection respectively, and linear regression to quantify human urinary albumin. The researchers’ main objective was to create a miniature system that quantifies and detect patients’ urinary albumin while reducing the amount of volume used per five test samples. For this study, 30 urine samples of unknown albumin concentrations were tested using VITROS Analyzer and the microfluidic system for comparison. Based on the data shared by both methods, the actual vs. predicted regression were able to create a positive linear relationship with an R2 of 0.9995 and a linear equation of y = 1.09x + 0.07, indicating that the predicted values and actual values are approximately equal. Furthermore, the microfluidic instrument uses 75% less in total volume – sample and reagents combined, compared to the VITROS Analyzer per five test samples.
Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method
Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.
Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment
In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.
Microfluidic Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensor
A low-cost paper-based microfluidic device (PAD) for the multiplex electrochemical determination of glucose, uric acid, and dopamine in biological fluids was developed. Using wax printing, PAD containing a central zone, six channels, and six detection zones was fabricated, and the electrodes were printed on detection zones using pre-made electrodes template. For each analyte, two detection zones were used. The carbon working electrode was coated with chitosan-BSA (and enzymes for glucose and uric acid). To detect glucose and uric acid, enzymatic reactions were employed. These reactions involve enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions of the analytes and produce free electrons for electrochemical measurement. Calibration curves were linear (R² > 0.980) in the range of 0-80 mM for glucose, 0.09–0.9 mM for dopamine, and 0–50 mM for uric acid, respectively. Blood samples were successfully analyzed by the proposed method.
Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications
The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.
Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultra sensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowadays, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in this system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.
Synthesis of Highly Sensitive Molecular Imprinted Sensor for Selective Determination of Doxycycline in Honey Samples
Doxycycline (DXy) is a cycline antibiotic, most frequently prescribed to treat bacterial infections in veterinary medicine. However, its broad antimicrobial activity and low cost, lead to an intensive use, which can seriously affect human health. Therefore, its spread in the food products has to be monitored. The scope of this work was to synthetize a sensitive and very selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for DXy detection in honey samples. Firstly, the synthesis of this biosensor was performed by casting a layer of carboxylate polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) on the working surface of a gold screen-printed electrode (Au-SPE) in order to bind covalently the analyte under mild conditions. Secondly, DXy as a template molecule was bounded to the activated carboxylic groups, and the formation of MIP was performed by a biocompatible polymer by the mean of polyacrylamide matrix. Then, DXy was detected by measurements of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) prepared in the same conditions and without the use of template molecule was also performed. We have noticed that the elaborated biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity and a linear behavior between the regenerated current and the logarithmic concentrations of DXy from 0.1 pg.mL−1 to 1000 pg.mL−1. This technic was successfully applied to determine DXy residues in honey samples with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 pg.mL−1 and an excellent selectivity when compared to the results of oxytetracycline (OXy) as analogous interfering compound. The proposed method is cheap, sensitive, selective, simple, and is applied successfully to detect DXy in honey with the recoveries of 87% and 95%. Considering these advantages, this system provides a further perspective for food quality control in industrial fields.
A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer
Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.
Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation
The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new
advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing
applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional
analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the
complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations,
discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and
structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic
molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structureprocess-
property relations by using a materials science approach
linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor
design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect
disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for
diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA
(ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has
successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor
differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD
simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA
aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral
health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to
build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several
biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new
methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.
A DNA-Based Nanobiosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito
This paper describes the development of a DNA-based
nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using
electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as concentrator and
electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses
two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue
virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the
biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to
the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from
nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field.
Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–
DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin
modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated
capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring
the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results
indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the
EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10
Characterization of the Dispersion Phenomenon in an Optical Biosensor
Optical biosensors have become a powerful detection
and analysis tool for wide-ranging applications in biomedical research,
pharmaceuticals and environmental monitoring. This study carried out
the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulations to explore
the dispersion phenomenon in the micro channel of an optical
biosensor. The predicted time sequences of concentration contours
were utilized to better understand the dispersion development occurred
in different geometric shapes of micro channels. The simulation results
showed the surface concentrations at the sensing probe (with the best
performance of a grating coupler) in respect of time to appraise the
dispersion effect and therefore identify the design configurations
resulting in minimum dispersion.
Modified Poly(pyrrole) Film Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection
In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents
of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on
modified Poly(Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish
peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes.
Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was
realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by
enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the
results were compared with each other.
Development of a New Polymeric Material with Controlled Surface Micro-Morphology Aimed for Biosensors Applications
Compositions of different molar ratios of
polymethylmethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA)
were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. Polymer coated
surfaces have been produced on silicon wafers. Coated samples were
analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown
that the roughness of the surfaces have increased by increasing the
molar ratio of monomer methacrylic acid (MAA). This study reveals
that the gradual increase in surface roughness is due to the fact that
carboxylic functional groups have been generated by MAA segments.
Such surfaces can be desirable platforms for fabrication of the
biosensors for detection of the viruses and diseases.
A Nanosensor System Based On Disuccinimydyl–CYP2E1 for Amperometric Detection of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug, Pyrazinamide
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line pro-drugs in the tuberculosis (TB) combination chemotherapy used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous reports have suggested that hepatotoxicity due to pyrazinamide in patients is due to inappropriate dosing. It is, therefore necessary to develop sensitive and reliable techniques for determining the PZA metabolic profile of diagnosed patients promptly and at point-of-care. This study reports the determination of PZA based on nanobiosensor systems developed from disuccinimidyl octanedioate modified Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) electrodeposited on gold substrates derivatised with (poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid) PANSA/PVP-AgNPs nanocomposites. The rapid and sensitive amperometric PZA detection gave a dynamic linear range of 2µM to 16µM revealing a
limit of detection of 0.044µM and a sensitivity of 1.38µA/µM. The Michaelis-Menten parameters; KM, KM app and IMAX were calculated to be 6.0µM, 1.41µM and 1.51x10-6 A, respectively, indicating a nanobiosensor suitable for use in serum.
Quantitative Analysis of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Using Micromechanical Piezoresistive Cantilever
In this work, we have used arrays of micromechanical piezoresistive cantilever with different geometries to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is known as an important biomarker associated with various cancers such as colorectal, lung, breast, pancreatic, and bladder cancer. The sensing principle is based on the surface stress changes induced by antigen–antibody interaction on the microcantilevers surfaces. Different concentrations of CEA in a human serum albumin (HSA) solution were detected as a function of deflection of the beams. According to the experiments, it was revealed that microcantilevers have surface stress sensitivities in the order of 8 (mJ/m). This matter allows them to detect CEA concentrations as low as 3 ng/mL or 18 pM. This indicates the fact that the self-sensing microcantilevers approach is beneficial for pathological tests.
Characterization of ZrO2/PEG Composite Film as Immobilization Matrix for Glucose Oxidase
A biosensor based on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized onto nanoparticles zirconium oxide with polyethylene nanocomposite for glucose monitoring has been designed. The CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx nanocomposite was deposited onto screen printed carbon paste (SPCE) electrode via spin coating technique. The properties of CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx were study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SPE modified with the CTAB/PEG/ZrO2/GOx showed electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of glucose when ferrocene carboxaldehyde was used as an artificial redox mediator, which was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Several parameters such as working potential, effect of pH and effect of ZrO2/PEG layers that governed the analytical performance of the biosensor, have been studied. The biosensor was applied to detect glucose with a linear range of 0.4 to 2.0 mmol L−1 with good repetability and reproducibility.
Integration of CMOS Biosensor into a Polymeric Lab-on-a-Chip System
We present an integration approach of a CMOS biosensor into a polymer based microfluidic environment suitable for mass production. It consists of a wafer-level-package for the silicon die and laser bonding process promoted by an intermediate hot melt foil to attach the sensor package to the microfluidic chip, without the need for dispensing of glues or underfiller. A very good condition of the sensing area was obtained after introducing a protection layer during packaging. A microfluidic flow cell was fabricated and shown to withstand pressures up to Δp = 780 kPa without leakage. The employed biosensors were electrically characterized in a dry environment.
Real-Time Detecting Concentration of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by CNTFET Biosensor
Aptamers are useful tools in microorganism
researches, diagnoses, and treatment. Aptamers are specific target
molecules formed by oligonucleic acid molecules, and are not
decomposed by alcohol. Aptamers used to detect Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (MTB) have been proved to have specific affinity to the
outer membrane proteins of MTB. This article presents a biosensor
chip set with aptamers for early detection of MTB with high specificity
and sensitivity, even in very low concentration. Meanwhile, we have
already made a modified hydrophobic facial mask module with
internal rendering hydrophobic for effectively collecting M.
Antioxidant Biosensor Using Microbe
The antioxidant compounds are needed for the food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals industry. For this purpose, an appropriate method is required to measure the antioxidant properties in various types of samples. Spectrophotometric method usually used has some weaknesses, including the high price, long sample preparation time, and less sensitivity. Among the alternative methods developed to overcome these weaknesses is antioxidant biosensor based on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Therefore, this study was carried out to measure the SOD activity originating from Deinococcus radiodurans and to determine its kinetics properties. Carbon paste electrode modified with ferrocene and immobilized SOD exhibited anode and cathode current peak at potential of +400 and +300mv respectively, in both pure SOD and SOD of D. radiodurans. This indicated that the current generated was from superoxide catalytic dismutation reaction by SOD. Optimum conditions for SOD activity was at pH 9 and temperature of 27.50C for D. radiodurans SOD, and pH 11 and temperature of 200C for pure SOD. Dismutation reaction kinetics of superoxide catalyzed by SOD followed the Lineweaver-Burk kinetics with D. radiodurans SOD KMapp value was smaller than pure SOD. The result showed that D. radiodurans SOD had higher enzyme-substrate affinity and specificity than pure SOD. It concluded that D. radiodurans SOD had a great potential as biological recognition component for antioxidant biosensor.
Development of a Brain Glutamate Microbiosensor
This work attempts to improve the permselectivity of poly-ortho-phenylenediamine (PPD) coating for glutamate biosensor applications on Pt microelectrode, using constant potential amperometry and cyclic voltammetry. Percentage permeability of the modified PPD microelectrode was carried out towards hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbic acid (AA) whereas permselectivity represents the percentage interference by AA in H2O2 detection. The 50-μm diameter Pt disk microelectrode showed a good permeability value toward H2O2 (95%) and selectivity against AA (0.01%) compared to other sizes of electrode studied here. The electrode was further modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) that was immobilized and cross linked with glutaraldehyde (GA, 0.125%), resulting in Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrode design. The maximum current density Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant, KM, obtained on Pt/PPD/GluOx-GA electrodes were 48 μA cm-2 and 50 μM, respectively. The linear region slope (LRS) was 0.96 μA cm-2 mM-1. The detection limit (LOD) for glutamate was 3.0 ± 0.6 μM. This study shows a promising glutamate microbiosensor for brain glutamate detection.
Langmuir–Blodgett Films of Polyaniline for Efficient Detection of Uric Acid
Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) grown onto ITO coated glass substrates were utilized for the fabrication of Uric acid biosensor for efficient detection of uric acid by immobilizing Uricase via EDC–NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The response characteristics after immobilization of uricase were studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The uricase/PANI/ITO/glass bioelectrode studied by CV and EIS techniques revealed detection of uric acid in a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0 mM, covering the physiological range in blood. A low Michaelis–Menten constant (Km) of 0.21 mM indicates the higher affinity of immobilized Uricase towards its analyte (uric acid). The fabricated uric acid biosensor based on PANI LB films exhibits excellent sensitivity of 0.21 mA/mM with a response time of 4 s, good reproducibility, long shelf life (8 weeks) and high selectivity.
Processing the Medical Sensors Signals Using Fuzzy Inference System
Sensors possess several properties of physical
measures. Whether devices that convert a sensed signal into an
electrical signal, chemical sensors and biosensors, thus all these
sensors can be considered as an interface between the physical and
electrical equipment. The problem is the analysis of the multitudes of
saved settings as input variables. However, they do not all have the
same level of influence on the outputs. In order to identify the most
sensitive parameters, those that can guide users in gathering
information on the ground and in the process of model calibration
and sensitivity analysis for the effect of each change made.
Mathematical models used for processing become very complex.
In this paper a fuzzy rule-based system is proposed as a solution
for this problem. The system collects the available signals
information from sensors. Moreover, the system allows the study of
the influence of the various factors that take part in the decision
system. Since its inception fuzzy set theory has been regarded as a
formalism suitable to deal with the imprecision intrinsic to many
problems. At the same time, fuzzy sets allow to use symbolic models.
In this study an example was applied for resolving variety of
physiological parameters that define human health state. The
application system was done for medical diagnosis help. The inputs
are the signals expressed the cardiovascular system parameters, blood
pressure, Respiratory system paramsystem was done, it will be able
to predict the state of patient according any input values.
Highly Sensitive Label Free Biosensor for Tumor Necrosis Factor
We present a label-free biosensor based on
electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for the detection of proinflammatory
cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Secretion of
TNF-α has been correlated to the onset of various diseases including
rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn-s disease etc. Gold electrodes were
patterned on a silicon substrate and self assembled monolayer of
dithiobis-succinimidyl propionate was used to develop the biosensor
which achieved a detection limit of ~57fM. A linear relationship was
also observed between increasing TNF-α concentrations and chargetransfer
resistance within a dynamic range of 1pg/ml – 1ng/ml.
Modeling of Sensitivity for SPR Biosensors- New Aspects
The computer modeling is carried out for parameter of
sensitivity of optoelectronic chemical and biosensors, using
phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The physical model
of SPR-sensor-s is described with (or without) of modifications of
sensitive gold film surface by a dielectric layer. The variants of
increasing of sensitivity for SPR-biosensors, constructed on the
principle gold – dielectric – biomolecular layer are considered. Two
methods of mathematical treatment of SPR-curve are compared –
traditional, with estimation of sensor-s response as shift of the SPRcurve
minimum and proposed, for system with dielectric layer, using
calculating of the derivative in the point of SPR-curve half-width.
Biosensor Measurement of Urea Coonncentration in Human Blood Serum
An application of the highly biosensor based on pH-sensitive field immobilized urease for urea analysis was demo The main analytical characteristics of the bios determined; the conditions of urea measureme blood were optimized. A conceptual possibility biosensor for detection of urea concentratio patients suffering from renal insufficiency was sensitive and selective effect transistor and monstrated in this work. iosensor developed were ment in real samples of ility of application of the tion in blood serum of as shown.
Electrophoretic Motion of a Liquid Droplet within an Uncharged Cylindrical Pore
Electrophoretic motion of a liquid droplet within an
uncharged cylindrical pore is investigated theoretically in this study. It
is found that the boundary effect in terms of the reduction of droplet
mobility (droplet velocity per unit strength of the applied electric field)
is very significant when the double layer surrounding the droplet is
thick, and diminishes as it gets very thin. Moreover, the viscosity ratio
of the ambient fluid to the internal one, σ, is a crucial factor in
determining its electrophoretic behavior. The boundary effect is less
significant as the viscosity ratio gets high. Up to 70% mobility
reduction is observed when this ratio is low (σ = 0.01), whereas only
40% reduction when it is high (σ = 100). The results of this study can
be utilized in various fields of biotechnology, such as a biosensor or a
Variable Input Range Continuous-time Switched Current Delta-sigma Analog Digital Converter for RFID CMOS Biosensor Applications
Continuous-time delta-sigma analog digital converter (ADC) for radio frequency identification (RFID) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor has been reported. This delta-sigma ADC is suitable for digital conversion of biosensor signal because of small process variation, and variable input range. As the input range of continuous-time switched current delta-sigma ADC (Dynamic range : 50 dB) can be limited by using current reference, amplification of biosensor signal is unnecessary. The input range is switched to wide input range mode or narrow input range mode by command of current reference. When the narrow input range mode, the input range becomes ± 0.8 V. The measured power consumption is 5 mW and chip area is 0.31 mm^2 using 1.2 um standard CMOS process. Additionally, automatic input range detecting system is proposed because of RFID biosensor applications.
Electrical Characteristics of Biomodified Electrodes using Nonfaradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
We demonstrate a nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement of biochemically modified gold plated electrodes using a two-electrode system. The absence of any redox indicator in the impedance measurements provide more precise and accurate characterization of the measured bioanalyte at molecular resolution. An equivalent electrical circuit of the electrodeelectrolyte interface was deduced from the observed impedance data of saline solution at low and high concentrations. The detection of biomolecular interactions was fundamentally correlated to electrical double-layer variation at modified interface. The investigations were done using 20mer deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands without any label. Surface modification was performed by creating mixed monolayer of the thiol-modified single-stranded DNA and a spacer thiol (mercaptohexanol) by a two-step self-assembly method. The results clearly distinguish between the noncomplementary and complementary hybridization of DNA, at low frequency region below several hundreds Hertz.
Profile Controlled Gold Nanostructures Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography for Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is the
coherent oscillation of conductive electrons confined in noble
metallic nanoparticles excited by electromagnetic radiation, and
nanosphere lithography (NSL) is one of the cost-effective methods to
fabricate metal nanostructures for LSPR. NSL can be categorized
into two major groups: dispersed NSL and closely pack NSL. In
recent years, gold nanocrescents and gold nanoholes with vertical
sidewalls fabricated by dispersed NSL, and silver nanotriangles and
gold nanocaps on silica nanospheres fabricated by closely pack NSL,
have been reported for LSPR biosensing. This paper introduces
several novel gold nanostructures fabricated by NSL in LSPR
applications, including 3D nanostructures obtained by evaporating
gold obliquely on dispersed nanospheres, nanoholes with slant
sidewalls, and patchy nanoparticles on closely packed nanospheres,
all of which render satisfactory sensitivity for LSPR sensing. Since
the LSPR spectrum is very sensitive to the shape of the metal
nanostructures, formulas are derived and software is developed for
calculating the profiles of the obtainable metal nanostructures by
NSL, for different nanosphere masks with different fabrication
conditions. The simulated profiles coincide well with the profiles of
the fabricated gold nanostructures observed under scanning electron
microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), which
proves that the software is a useful tool for the process design of
different LSPR nanostructures.
Inductance Characteristic of Annealed Titanium Dioxide on Silicon Substrate
The control of oxygen flow rate during growth of
titanium dioxide by mass flow controller in DC plasma sputtering
growth system is studied. The impedance of TiO2 films for inductance
effect is influenced by annealing time and oxygen flow rate. As
annealing time is increased, the inductance of TiO2 film is the more.
The growth condition of optimum and maximum inductance for TiO2
film to serve as sensing device are oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm and
large annealing time. The large inductance of TiO2 film will be
adopted to fabricate the biosensor to obtain the high sensitivity of
sensing in biology.