International Science Index

22
10011305
Assessing the Effect of the Position of the Cavities on the Inner Plate of the Steel Shear Wall under Time History Dynamic Analysis
Abstract:

The seismic forces caused by the waves created in the depths of the earth during the earthquake hit the structure and cause the building to vibrate. Creating large seismic forces will cause low-strength sections in the structure to suffer extensive surface damage. The use of new steel shear walls in steel structures has caused the strength of the building and its main members (columns) to increase due to the reduction and depreciation of seismic forces during earthquakes. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate a type of steel shear wall that has regular holes in the inner sheet by modeling the finite element model with Abacus software. The shear wall of the steel plate, measuring 6000 × 3000 mm (one floor) and 3 mm thickness, was modeled with four different pores with a cross-sectional area. The shear wall was dynamically subjected to a time history of 5 seconds by three accelerators, El Centro, Imperial Valley and Kobe. The results showed that increasing the distance between the geometric center of the hole and the geometric center of the inner plate in the steel shear wall (increasing the RCS index) caused the total maximum acceleration to be transferred from the perimeter of the hole to horizontal and vertical beams. The results also show that there is no direct relationship between RCS index and total acceleration in steel shear wall and RCS index is separate from the peak ground acceleration value of earthquake.

Paper Detail
118
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21
10009065
Electron Beam Processing of Ethylene-Propylene-Terpolymer-Based Rubber Mixtures
Abstract:

The goal of the paper is to present the results regarding the influence of the irradiation dose and amount of multifunctional monomer trimethylol-propane trimethacrylate (TMPT) on ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer rubber (EPDM) mixtures irradiated in electron beam. Blends, molded on an electrically heated laboratory roller mill and compressed in an electrically heated hydraulic press, were irradiated using the ALID 7 of 5.5 MeV linear accelerator in the dose range of 22.6 kGy to 56.5 kGy in atmospheric conditions and at room temperature of 25 °C. The share of cross-linking and degradation reactions was evaluated by means of sol-gel analysis, cross-linking density measurements, FTIR studies and Charlesby-Pinner parameter (p0/q0) calculations. The blends containing different concentrations of TMPT (3 phr and 9 phr) and irradiated with doses in the mentioned range have present the increasing of gel content and cross-linking density. Modified and new bands in FTIR spectra have appeared, because of both cross-linking and chain scission reactions.

Paper Detail
553
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20
10009199
Dosimetric Analysis of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus 3D Conformal Radiotherapy in Adult Primary Brain Tumors: Regional Cancer Centre, India
Abstract:

Radiation therapy has undergone many advancements and evloved from 2D to 3D. Recently, with rapid pace of drug discoveries, cutting edge technology, and clinical trials has made innovative advancements in computer technology and treatment planning and upgraded to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) which delivers in homogenous dose to tumor and normal tissues. The present study was a hospital-based experience comparing two different conformal radiotherapy techniques for brain tumors. This analytical study design has been conducted at Regional Cancer Centre, India from January 2014 to January 2015. Ten patients have been selected after inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were treated on Artiste Siemens Linac Accelerator. The tolerance level for maximum dose was 6.0 Gyfor lenses and 54.0 Gy for brain stem, optic chiasm and optical nerves as per RTOG criteria. Mean and standard deviation values of PTV98%, PTV 95% and PTV 2% in IMRT were 93.16±2.9, 95.01±3.4 and 103.1±1.1 respectively; for 3DCRT were 91.4±4.7, 94.17±2.6 and 102.7±0.39 respectively. PTV max dose (%) in IMRT and 3D-CRT were 104.7±0.96 and 103.9±1.0 respectively. Maximum dose to the tumor can be delivered with IMRT with acceptable toxicity limits. Variables such as expertise, location of tumor, patient condition, and TPS influence the outcome of the treatment.

Keywords:
Paper Detail
383
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19
10007297
Asymmetrical Informative Estimation for Macroeconomic Model: Special Case in the Tourism Sector of Thailand
Abstract:

This paper used an asymmetric informative concept to apply in the macroeconomic model estimation of the tourism sector in Thailand. The variables used to statistically analyze are Thailand international and domestic tourism revenues, the expenditures of foreign and domestic tourists, service investments by private sectors, service investments by the government of Thailand, Thailand service imports and exports, and net service income transfers. All of data is a time-series index which was observed between 2002 and 2015. Empirically, the tourism multiplier and accelerator were estimated by two statistical approaches. The first was the result of the Generalized Method of Moments model (GMM) based on the assumption which the tourism market in Thailand had perfect information (Symmetrical data). The second was the result of the Maximum Entropy Bootstrapping approach (MEboot) based on the process that attempted to deal with imperfect information and reduced uncertainty in data observations (Asymmetrical data). In addition, the tourism leakages were investigated by a simple model based on the injections and leakages concept. The empirical findings represented the parameters computed from the MEboot approach which is different from the GMM method. However, both of the MEboot estimation and GMM model suggests that Thailand’s tourism sectors are in a period capable of stimulating the economy.

Paper Detail
690
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18
10003205
Ion Thruster Grid Lifetime Assessment Based on Its Structural Failure
Abstract:
This article developed an ion thruster optic system sputter erosion depth numerical 3D model by IFE-PIC (Immersed Finite Element-Particle-in-Cell) and Mont Carlo method, and calculated the downstream surface sputter erosion rate of accelerator grid; compared with LIPS-200 life test data. The results of the numerical model are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Finally, we predicted the lifetime of the 20cm diameter ion thruster via the erosion data obtained with the model. The ultimate result demonstrated that under normal operating condition, the erosion rate of the grooves wears on the downstream surface of the accelerator grid is 34.6μm⁄1000h, which means the conservative lifetime until structural failure occurring on the accelerator grid is 11500 hours.
Paper Detail
1514
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17
10001510
Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Hard Ferrites
Abstract:
Many industrial materials like magnets need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large influences of beta, neutron and gamma’s over their life Gamma irradiation of the permanent sample magnets using a 60Co source was investigated up to an absorbed dose of 700Mrad shows a negligible effect on some magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B. In this work it has been tried to investigate the change of some important properties of Barium hexa ferrite. Results showed little decreases of magnetic properties at doses rang of 0.5 to 2.5 Mrad. But at the gamma irradiation dose up to 10 Mrad it is showed a few increase of properties. Also study of gamma irradiation of Nd-Fe-B showed considerably increase of magnetic properties.
Paper Detail
2213
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16
10002009
A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera
Abstract:
In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previous proposed methods, a motion capture system (i. e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipments, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.
Paper Detail
1291
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15
10000239
High Level Synthesis of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on Zynq Platform
Abstract:

Real time image and video processing is a demand in many computer vision applications, e.g. video surveillance, traffic management and medical imaging. The processing of those video applications requires high computational power. Thus, the optimal solution is the collaboration of CPU and hardware accelerators. In this paper, a Canny edge detection hardware accelerator is proposed. Edge detection is one of the basic building blocks of video and image processing applications. It is a common block in the pre-processing phase of image and video processing pipeline. Our presented approach targets offloading the Canny edge detection algorithm from processing system (PS) to programmable logic (PL) taking the advantage of High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool flow to accelerate the implementation on Zynq platform. The resulting implementation enables up to a 100x performance improvement through hardware acceleration. The CPU utilization drops down and the frame rate jumps to 60 fps of 1080p full HD input video stream.

Paper Detail
5011
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14
9999954
High Performance Fibre Reinforced Alkali Activated Slag Concrete
Abstract:

The main objective of the study is focused in producing slag based geopolymer concrete obtained with the addition of alkali activator. Test results indicated that the reaction of silicates in slag is based on the reaction potential of sodium hydroxide and the formation of alumino-silicates. The study also comprises on the evaluation of the efficiency of polymer reaction in terms of the strength gain properties for different geopolymer mixtures. Geopolymer mixture proportions were designed for different binder to total aggregate ratio (0.3 & 0.45) and fine to coarse aggregate ratio (0.4 & 0.8). Geopolymer concrete specimens casted with normal curing conditions reported a maximum 28 days compressive strength of 54.75 MPa. The addition of glued steel fibres at 1.0% Vf in geopolymer concrete showed reasonable improvements on the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural properties of different geopolymer mixtures. Further, comparative assessment was made for different geopolymer mixtures and the reinforcing effects of steel fibres were investigated in different concrete matrix.

Paper Detail
2413
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13
16724
Equivalent Field Calculation to Irregular Symmetric and Asymmetric Photon Fields
Abstract:

Equivalent fields are frequently used for central axis depth-dose calculations of rectangular and irregular shaped photon beam. Since most of the proposed models to calculate the equivalent square field, are dosimetry-based, a simple physical-based method to calculate the equivalent square field size was used as the basis of this study. The table of the sides of the equivalent square for rectangular fields was constructed and then compared with the well-known tables of BJR and Venselaar with the average relative error percentage of 2.5±2.5 % and 1.5±1.5 % respectively. To evaluate the accuracy of this method, the PDDs were measured for some special irregular symmetric and asymmetric treatment fields and their equivalent squares for Siemens Primus Plus linear accelerator for both energies 6 and 18MV. The mean relative differences of PDDs measurement for these fields and their equivalent square was approximately 1% or less. As a result, this method can be employed to calculate equivalent field not only for rectangular fields but also for any irregular symmetric or asymmetric field.

Paper Detail
5152
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12
4038
An FPGA Implementation of Intelligent Visual Based Fall Detection
Abstract:
Falling has been one of the major concerns and threats to the independence of the elderly in their daily lives. With the worldwide significant growth of the aging population, it is essential to have a promising solution of fall detection which is able to operate at high accuracy in real-time and supports large scale implementation using multiple cameras. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a highly promising tool to be used as a hardware accelerator in many emerging embedded vision based system. Thus, it is the main objective of this paper to present an FPGA-based solution of visual based fall detection to meet stringent real-time requirements with high accuracy. The hardware architecture of visual based fall detection which utilizes the pixel locality to reduce memory accesses is proposed. By exploiting the parallel and pipeline architecture of FPGA, our hardware implementation of visual based fall detection using FGPA is able to achieve a performance of 60fps for a series of video analytical functions at VGA resolutions (640x480). The results of this work show that FPGA has great potentials and impacts in enabling large scale vision system in the future healthcare industry due to its flexibility and scalability.
Paper Detail
2168
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11
14900
The MUST ADS Concept
Abstract:
The presented work is motivated by a French law regarding nuclear waste management. A new conceptual Accelerator Driven System (ADS) designed for the Minor Actinides (MA) transmutation has been assessed by numerical simulation. The MUltiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS combines high thermal power (up to 1.4 GWth) and high specific power. A 30 mA and 1 GeV proton beam is divided into three secondary beams transmitted on three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. Neutron and thermalhydraulic simulations have been performed with the code MURE, based on the Monte-Carlo transport code MCNPX. A methodology has been developed to define characteristic of the MUST ADS concept according to a specific transmutation scenario. The reference scenario is based on a MA flux (neptunium, americium and curium) providing from European Fast Reactor (EPR) and a plutonium multireprocessing strategy is accounted for. The MUST ADS reference concept is a sodium cooled fast reactor. The MA fuel at equilibrium is mixed with MgO inert matrix to limit the core reactivity and improve the fuel thermal conductivity. The fuel is irradiated over five years. Five years of cooling and two years for the fuel fabrication are taken into account. The MUST ADS reference concept burns about 50% of the initial MA inventory during a complete cycle. In term of mass, up to 570 kg/year are transmuted in one concept. The methodology to design the MUST ADS and to calculate fuel composition at equilibrium is precisely described in the paper. A detailed fuel evolution analysis is performed and the reference scenario is compared to a scenario where only americium transmutation is performed.
Paper Detail
1368
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10
2993
Development of the Algorithm for Detecting Falls during Daily Activity using 2 Tri-Axial Accelerometers
Abstract:
Falls are the primary cause of accidents in people over the age of 65, and frequently lead to serious injuries. Since the early detection of falls is an important step to alert and protect the aging population, a variety of research on detecting falls was carried out including the use of accelerators, gyroscopes and tilt sensors. In exiting studies, falls were detected using an accelerometer with errors. In this study, the proposed method for detecting falls was to use two accelerometers to reject wrong falls detection. As falls are accompanied by the acceleration of gravity and rotational motion, the falls in this study were detected by using the z-axial acceleration differences between two sites. The falls were detected by calculating the difference between the analyses of accelerometers placed on two different positions on the chest of the subject. The parameters of the maximum difference of accelerations (diff_Z) and the integration of accelerations in a defined region (Sum_diff_Z) were used to form the fall detection algorithm. The falls and the activities of daily living (ADL) could be distinguished by using the proposed parameters without errors in spite of the impact and the change in the positions of the accelerometers. By comparing each of the axial accelerations, the directions of falls and the condition of the subject afterwards could be determined.In this study, by using two accelerometers without errors attached to two sites to detect falls, the usefulness of the proposed fall detection algorithm parameters, diff_Z and Sum_diff_Z, were confirmed.
Paper Detail
1755
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9
121
A Novel Convergence Accelerator for the LMS Adaptive Algorithm
Abstract:
The least mean square (LMS) algorithmis one of the most well-known algorithms for mobile communication systems due to its implementation simplicity. However, the main limitation is its relatively slow convergence rate. In this paper, a booster using the concept of Markov chains is proposed to speed up the convergence rate of LMS algorithms. The nature of Markov chains makes it possible to exploit the past information in the updating process. Moreover, since the transition matrix has a smaller variance than that of the weight itself by the central limit theorem, the weight transition matrix converges faster than the weight itself. Accordingly, the proposed Markov-chain based booster thus has the ability to track variations in signal characteristics, and meanwhile, it can accelerate the rate of convergence for LMS algorithms. Simulation results show that the LMS algorithm can effectively increase the convergence rate and meantime further approach the Wiener solution, if the Markov-chain based booster is applied. The mean square error is also remarkably reduced, while the convergence rate is improved.
Paper Detail
1374
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8
2018
Multiobjective Optimal Power Flow Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper solves the environmental/ economic dispatch power system problem using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and its hybrid with a Convergence Accelerator Operator (CAO), called the NSGA-II/CAO. These multiobjective evolutionary algorithms were applied to the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system. Several optimization runs were carried out on different cases of problem complexity. Different quality measure which compare the performance of the two solution techniques were considered. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of the CAO in the original NSGA-II improves its convergence while preserving the diversity properties of the solution set.
Paper Detail
1912
downloads
7
6829
Fully Parameterizable FPGA based Crypto-Accelerator
Abstract:
In this paper, RSA encryption algorithm and its hardware implementation in Xilinx-s Virtex Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is analyzed. The issues of scalability, flexible performance, and silicon efficiency for the hardware acceleration of public key crypto systems are being explored in the present work. Using techniques based on the interleaved math for exponentiation, the proposed RSA calculation architecture is compared to existing FPGA-based solutions for speed, FPGA utilization, and scalability. The paper covers the RSA encryption algorithm, interleaved multiplication, Miller Rabin algorithm for primality test, extended Euclidean math, basic FPGA technology, and the implementation details of the proposed RSA calculation architecture. Performance of several alternative hardware architectures is discussed and compared. Finally, conclusion is drawn, highlighting the advantages of a fully flexible & parameterized design.
Paper Detail
2395
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6
14286
Transform-Domain Rate-Distortion Optimization Accelerator for H.264/AVC Video Encoding
Abstract:
In H.264/AVC video encoding, rate-distortion optimization for mode selection plays a significant role to achieve outstanding performance in compression efficiency and video quality. However, this mode selection process also makes the encoding process extremely complex, especially in the computation of the ratedistortion cost function, which includes the computations of the sum of squared difference (SSD) between the original and reconstructed image blocks and context-based entropy coding of the block. In this paper, a transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator based on fast SSD (FSSD) and VLC-based rate estimation algorithm is proposed. This algorithm could significantly simplify the hardware architecture for the rate-distortion cost computation with only ignorable performance degradation. An efficient hardware structure for implementing the proposed transform-domain rate-distortion optimization accelerator is also proposed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm reduces about 47% of total encoding time with negligible degradation of coding performance. The proposed method can be easily applied to many mobile video application areas such as a digital camera and a DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) phone.
Paper Detail
1254
downloads
5
2464
An Efficient Architecture for Interleaved Modular Multiplication
Abstract:
Modular multiplication is the basic operation in most public key cryptosystems, such as RSA, DSA, ECC, and DH key exchange. Unfortunately, very large operands (in order of 1024 or 2048 bits) must be used to provide sufficient security strength. The use of such big numbers dramatically slows down the whole cipher system, especially when running on embedded processors. So far, customized hardware accelerators - developed on FPGAs or ASICs - were the best choice for accelerating modular multiplication in embedded environments. On the other hand, many algorithms have been developed to speed up such operations. Examples are the Montgomery modular multiplication and the interleaved modular multiplication algorithms. Combining both customized hardware with an efficient algorithm is expected to provide a much faster cipher system. This paper introduces an enhanced architecture for computing the modular multiplication of two large numbers X and Y modulo a given modulus M. The proposed design is compared with three previous architectures depending on carry save adders and look up tables. Look up tables should be loaded with a set of pre-computed values. Our proposed architecture uses the same carry save addition, but replaces both look up tables and pre-computations with an enhanced version of sign detection techniques. The proposed architecture supports higher frequencies than other architectures. It also has a better overall absolute time for a single operation.
Paper Detail
2056
downloads
4
7719
Design of Extremum Seeking Control with PD Accelerator and its Application to Monod and Williams-Otto Models
Abstract:
In this paper, we are concerned with the design and its simulation studies of a modified extremum seeking control for nonlinear systems. A standard extremum seeking control has a simple structure, but it takes a long time to reach an optimal operating point. We consider a modification of the standard extremum seeking control which is aimed to reach the optimal operating point more speedily than the standard one. In the modification, PD acceleration term is added before an integrator making a principal control, so that it enables the objects to be regulated to the optimal point smoothly. This proposed method is applied to Monod and Williams-Otto models to investigate its effectiveness. Numerical simulation results show that this modified method can improve the time response to the optimal operating point more speedily than the standard one.
Paper Detail
1189
downloads
3
15731
Fuzzy Control of Macroeconomic Models
Abstract:
The optimal control is one of the possible controllers for a dynamic system, having a linear quadratic regulator and using the Pontryagin-s principle or the dynamic programming method . Stochastic disturbances may affect the coefficients (multiplicative disturbances) or the equations (additive disturbances), provided that the shocks are not too great . Nevertheless, this approach encounters difficulties when uncertainties are very important or when the probability calculus is of no help with very imprecise data. The fuzzy logic contributes to a pragmatic solution of such a problem since it operates on fuzzy numbers. A fuzzy controller acts as an artificial decision maker that operates in a closed-loop system in real time. This contribution seeks to explore the tracking problem and control of dynamic macroeconomic models using a fuzzy learning algorithm. A two inputs - single output (TISO) fuzzy model is applied to the linear fluctuation model of Phillips and to the nonlinear growth model of Goodwin.
Paper Detail
1666
downloads
2
6190
A 10 Giga VPN Accelerator Board for Trust Channel Security System
Abstract:
This paper proposes a VPN Accelerator Board (VPN-AB), a virtual private network (VPN) protocol designed for trust channel security system (TCSS). TCSS supports safety communication channel between security nodes in internet. It furnishes authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and access control to security node to transmit data packets with IPsec protocol. TCSS consists of internet key exchange block, security association block, and IPsec engine block. The internet key exchange block negotiates crypto algorithm and key used in IPsec engine block. Security Association blocks setting-up and manages security association information. IPsec engine block treats IPsec packets and consists of networking functions for communication. The IPsec engine block should be embodied by H/W and in-line mode transaction for high speed IPsec processing. Our VPN-AB is implemented with high speed security processor that supports many cryptographic algorithms and in-line mode. We evaluate a small TCSS communication environment, and measure a performance of VPN-AB in the environment. The experiment results show that VPN-AB gets a performance throughput of maximum 15.645Gbps when we set the IPsec protocol with 3DES-HMAC-MD5 tunnel mode.
Paper Detail
1816
downloads
1
6497
Toward an Architecture of a Component-Based System Supporting Separation of Non- Functional Concerns
Abstract:
The promises of component-based technology can only be fully realized when the system contains in its design a necessary level of separation of concerns. The authors propose to focus on the concerns that emerge throughout the life cycle of the system and use them as an architectural foundation for the design of a component-based framework. The proposed model comprises a set of superimposed views of the system describing its functional and non-functional concerns. This approach is illustrated by the design of a specific framework for data analysis and data acquisition and supplemented with experiences from using the systems developed with this framework at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.
Paper Detail
1010
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