International Science Index
From Electroencephalogram to Epileptic Seizures Detection by Using Artificial Neural Networks
Seizure is the main factor that affects the quality of life of epileptic patients. The diagnosis of epilepsy, and hence the identification of epileptogenic zone, is commonly made by using continuous Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal monitoring. Seizure identification on EEG signals is made manually by epileptologists and this process is usually very long and error prone. The aim of this paper is to describe an automated method able to detect seizures in EEG signals, using knowledge discovery in database process and data mining methods and algorithms, which can support physicians during the seizure detection process. Our detection method is based on Artificial Neural Network classifier, trained by applying the multilayer perceptron algorithm, and by using a software application, called Training Builder that has been developed for the massive extraction of features from EEG signals. This tool is able to cover all the data preparation steps ranging from signal processing to data analysis techniques, including the sliding window paradigm, the dimensionality reduction algorithms, information theory, and feature selection measures. The final model shows excellent performances, reaching an accuracy of over 99% during tests on data of a single patient retrieved from a publicly available EEG dataset.
A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model
The separation of speech signals has become a research
hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has
many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids,
speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are
usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and
obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem
worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation.
This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation
(UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem
of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly
divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to
estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then
the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this
paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper
proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for
speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm
is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low
signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper
considers the idea of an improved potential function method to
estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence
of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm,
but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This
paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as
an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this
paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies
to any mixing matrix.
A Generalized Sparse Bayesian Learning Algorithm for Near-Field Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: By Exploiting Impropriety and Noncircularity
The near-field synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging
is an advanced nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E)
technique. This paper investigates the complex-valued signal
processing related to the near-field SAR imaging system, where
the measurement data turns out to be noncircular and improper,
meaning that the complex-valued data is correlated to its complex
conjugate. Furthermore, we discover that the degree of impropriety
of the measurement data and that of the target image can be highly
correlated in near-field SAR imaging. Based on these observations, A
modified generalized sparse Bayesian learning algorithm is proposed,
taking impropriety and noncircularity into account. Numerical results
show that the proposed algorithm provides performance gain, with the
help of noncircular assumption on the signals.
Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Broken Bar Problem in Induction Motors Base Wavelet Analysis and EMD Method: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran
Nowadays, induction motors have a significant role in industries. Condition monitoring (CM) of this equipment has gained a remarkable importance during recent years due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk, and uncertainty levels. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is one of the most important techniques in CM. This method can be used for rotor broken bars detection. Signal processing methods such as Fast Fourier transformation (FFT), Wavelet transformation and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) are used for analyzing MCSA output data. In this study, these signal processing methods are used for broken bar problem detection of Mobarakeh steel company induction motors. Based on wavelet transformation method, an index for fault detection, CF, is introduced which is the variation of maximum to the mean of wavelet transformation coefficients. We find that, in the broken bar condition, the amount of CF factor is greater than the healthy condition. Based on EMD method, the energy of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) is calculated and finds that when motor bars become broken the energy of IMFs increases.
The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array
In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.
Unstructured-Data Content Search Based on Optimized EEG Signal Processing and Multi-Objective Feature Extraction
Over the last few years, the amount of data available on the globe has been increased rapidly. This came up with the emergence of recent concepts, such as the big data and the Internet of Things, which have furnished a suitable solution for the availability of data all over the world. However, managing this massive amount of data remains a challenge due to their large verity of types and distribution. Therefore, locating the required file particularly from the first trial turned to be a not easy task, due to the large similarities of names for different files distributed on the web. Consequently, the accuracy and speed of search have been negatively affected. This work presents a method using Electroencephalography signals to locate the files based on their contents. Giving the concept of natural mind waves processing, this work analyses the mind wave signals of different people, analyzing them and extracting their most appropriate features using multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, and then classifying them using artificial neural network to distinguish among files with similar names. The aim of this work is to provide the ability to find the files based on their contents using human thoughts only. Implementing this approach and testing it on real people proved its ability to find the desired files accurately within noticeably shorter time and retrieve them as a first choice for the user.
Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing
The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the
usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has
several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous
monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has
also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver,
in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure.
Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital
signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates
the received signal properties with the distance change between the
radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim
is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time,
it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their
random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper,
a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its
simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction
is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion
detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were
conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion
can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove
Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using a Combination of Images Processing and Brain Signals
Alzheimer's prevalence is on the rise, and the disease comes with problems like cessation of treatment, high cost of treatment, and the lack of early detection methods. The pathology of this disease causes the formation of protein deposits in the brain of patients called plaque amyloid. Generally, the diagnosis of this disease is done by performing tests such as a cerebrospinal fluid, CT scan, MRI, and spinal cord fluid testing, or mental testing tests and eye tracing tests. In this paper, we tried to use the Medial Temporal Atrophy (MTA) method and the Leave One Out (LOO) cycle to extract the statistical properties of the three Fz, Pz, and Cz channels of ERP signals for early diagnosis of this disease. In the process of CT scan images, the accuracy of the results is 81% for the healthy person and 88% for the severe patient. After the process of ERP signaling, the accuracy of the results for a healthy person in the delta band in the Cz channel is 81% and in the alpha band the Pz channel is 90%. In the results obtained from the signal processing, the results of the severe patient in the delta band of the Cz channel were 89% and in the alpha band Pz channel 92%.
Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification
This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.
Perturbation Based Modelling of Differential Amplifier Circuit
This paper presents the closed form nonlinear
expressions of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) differential amplifier
(DA) using perturbation method. Circuit equations have been derived
using Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s current law
(KCL). The perturbation method has been applied to state variables
for obtaining the linear and nonlinear terms. The implementation
of the proposed method is simple. The closed form nonlinear
expressions provide better insights of physical systems. The derived
equations can be used for signal processing applications.
Analytical Comparison of Conventional Algorithms with Vedic Algorithm for Digital Multiplier
In today’s scenario, the complexity of digital signal processing (DSP) applications and various microcontroller architectures have been increasing to such an extent that the traditional approaches to multiplier design in most processors are becoming outdated for being comparatively slow. Modern processing applications require suitable pipelined approaches, and therefore, algorithms that are friendlier with pipelined architectures. Traditional algorithms like Wallace Tree, Radix-4 Booth, Radix-8 Booth, Dadda architectures have been proven to be comparatively slow for pipelined architectures. These architectures, therefore, need to be optimized or combined with other architectures amongst them to enhance its performances and to be made suitable for pipelined hardware/architectures. Recently, Vedic algorithm mathematically has proven to be efficient by appearing to be less complex and with fewer steps for its output establishment and have assumed renewed importance. This paper describes and shows how the Vedic algorithm can be better suited for pipelined architectures and also can be combined with traditional architectures and algorithms for enhancing its ability even further. In this paper, we also established that for complex applications on DSP and other microcontroller architectures, using Vedic approach for multiplication proves to be the best available and efficient option.
Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition
The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.
Online Prediction of Nonlinear Signal Processing Problems Based Kernel Adaptive Filtering
This paper presents two of the most knowing kernel
adaptive filtering (KAF) approaches, the kernel least mean squares
and the kernel recursive least squares, in order to predict a new output
of nonlinear signal processing. Both of these methods implement a
nonlinear transfer function using kernel methods in a particular space
named reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) where the model is
a linear combination of kernel functions applied to transform the
observed data from the input space to a high dimensional feature
space of vectors, this idea known as the kernel trick. Then KAF is the
developing filters in RKHS. We use two nonlinear signal processing
problems, Mackey Glass chaotic time series prediction and nonlinear
channel equalization to figure the performance of the approaches
presented and finally to result which of them is the adapted one.
Robot Navigation and Localization Based on the Rat’s Brain Signals
The mobile robot ability to navigate autonomously in its environment is very important. Even though the advances in technology, robot self-localization and goal directed navigation in complex environments are still challenging tasks. In this article, we propose a novel method for robot navigation based on rat’s brain signals (Local Field Potentials). It has been well known that rats accurately and rapidly navigate in a complex space by localizing themselves in reference to the surrounding environmental cues. As the first step to incorporate the rat’s navigation strategy into the robot control, we analyzed the rats’ strategies while it navigates in a multiple Y-maze, and recorded Local Field Potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from three brain regions. Next, we processed the LFPs, and the extracted features were used as an input in the artificial neural network to predict the rat’s next location, especially in the decision-making moment, in Y-junctions. We developed an algorithm by which the robot learned to imitate the rat’s decision-making by mapping the rat’s brain signals into its own actions. Finally, the robot learned to integrate the internal states as well as external sensors in order to localize and navigate in the complex environment.
Efficient Filtering of Graph Based Data Using Graph Partitioning
An algebraic framework for processing graph signals
axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift
operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we
know the filtered output and the filter coefficients, and need to
find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using
direct approach requires O(N3) operations, where N is the number
of vertices in graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph
partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce
the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example
of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the
Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series
This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.
Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation
This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.
EEG Signal Processing Methods to Differentiate Mental States
EEG is a very complex signal with noises and other bio-potential interferences. EOG is the most distinct interfering signal when EEG signals are measured and analyzed. It is very important how to process raw EEG signals in order to obtain useful information. In this study, the EEG signal processing techniques such as EOG filtering and outlier removal were examined to minimize unwanted EOG signals and other noises. The two different mental states of resting and focusing were examined through EEG analysis. A focused state was induced by letting subjects to watch a red dot on the white screen. EEG data for 32 healthy subjects were measured. EEG data after 60-Hz notch filtering were processed by a commercially available EOG filtering and our presented algorithm based on the removal of outliers. The ratio of beta wave to theta wave was used as a parameter for determining the degree of focusing. The results show that our algorithm was more appropriate than the existing EOG filtering.
Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability
Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient.
An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals
A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.
Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram
Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.
Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features
The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.
Comparison of Developed Statokinesigram and Marker Data Signals by Model Approach
Background: Based on statokinezigram, the human balance control is often studied. Approach to human postural reaction analysis is based on a combination of stabilometry output signal with retroreflective marker data signal processing, analysis, and understanding, in this study. The study shows another original application of Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST), too. Methods: In this study, the participants maintained quiet bipedal standing for 10 s on stabilometry platform. Consequently, bilateral vibration stimuli to Achilles tendons in 20 s interval was applied. Vibration stimuli caused that human postural system took the new pseudo-steady state. Vibration frequencies were 20, 60 and 80 Hz. Participant's body segments - head, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles and little fingers were marked by 12 retroreflective markers. Markers positions were scanned by six cameras system BTS SMART DX. Registration of their postural reaction lasted 60 s. Sampling frequency was 100 Hz. For measured data processing were used Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory. Regression analysis of developed statokinesigram trajectory (DST) data and retroreflective marker developed trajectory (DMT) data were used to find out which marker trajectories most correlate with stabilometry platform output signals. Scaling coefficients (λ) between DST and DMT by linear regression analysis were evaluated, too. Results: Scaling coefficients for marker trajectories were identified for all body segments. Head markers trajectories reached maximal value and ankle markers trajectories had a minimal value of scaling coefficient. Hips, knees and ankles markers were approximately symmetrical in the meaning of scaling coefficient. Notable differences of scaling coefficient were detected in head and shoulders markers trajectories which were not symmetrical. The model of postural system behavior was identified by MDST. Conclusion: Value of scaling factor identifies which body segment is predisposed to postural instability. Hypothetically, if statokinesigram represents overall human postural system response to vibration stimuli, then markers data represented particular postural responses. It can be assumed that cumulative sum of particular marker postural responses is equal to statokinesigram.
Field Programmable Gate Array Based Infinite Impulse Response Filter Using Multipliers
In this paper, an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter
has been designed and simulated on an Field Programmable Gate
Arrays (FPGA). The implementation is based on Multiply Add and
Accumulate (MAC) algorithm which uses multiply operations for
design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to
implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the
look up table of target device. The designed filter has been
synthesized on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) slice based FPGA to
perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful
to enhance the speed performance. The proposed design is simulated
with Matlab, synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool, and
implemented on FPGA devices. The Virtex 5 FPGA based design can
operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5
MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP based design. The Virtex 5 based
implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target
FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to
provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.
Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense
environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop
communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload
that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run
out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical
individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new
Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life
and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all
nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a
novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation
of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy.
Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life
and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a
counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst
nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet
extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative
approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the
Extending the Quantum Entropy to Multidimensional Signal Processing
This paper treats different aspects of entropy measure
in classical information theory and statistical quantum mechanics, it
presents the possibility of extending the definition of Von Neumann
entropy to image and array processing. In the first part, we generalize
the quantum entropy using singular values of arbitrary rectangular
matrices to measure the randomness and the quality of denoising
operation, this new definition of entropy can be implemented to
compare the performance analysis of filtering methods. In the second
part, we apply the concept of pure state in quantum formalism
to generalize the maximum entropy method for narrowband and
farfield source localization problem. Several computer simulation
results are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed
Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface to Control Both Mecha TE Robotic Hands Using Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset
Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive
technique that registers signals originating from the firing of neurons
in the brain. The Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset is a consumer product
comprised of 14 EEG channels and was used to record the reactions
of the neurons within the brain to two forms of stimuli in 10
participants. These stimuli consisted of auditory and visual formats
that provided directions of ‘right’ or ‘left.’ Participants were
instructed to raise their right or left arm in accordance with the
instruction given. A scenario in OpenViBE was generated to both
stimulate the participants while recording their data. In OpenViBE,
the Graz Motor BCI Stimulator algorithm was configured to govern
the duration and number of visual stimuli. Utilizing EEGLAB under
the cross platform MATLAB®, the electrodes most stimulated during
the study were defined. Data outputs from EEGLAB were analyzed
using IBM SPSS Statistics® Version 20. This aided in determining
the electrodes to use in the development of a brain-machine interface
(BMI) using real-time EEG signals from the Emotiv EEG
Neuroheadset. Signal processing and feature extraction were
accomplished via the Simulink® signal processing toolbox. An
Arduino™ Duemilanove microcontroller was used to link the Emotiv
EEG Neuroheadset and the right and left Mecha TE™ Hands.
Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution
Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing
for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or
parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently
referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution
Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more
enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low
resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet
Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs
during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get
highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the
Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate
output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement
technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used.
Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss
in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss.
Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object
which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object.
Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will
generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will
improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.
Unsupervised Classification of DNA Barcodes Species Using Multi-Library Wavelet Networks
DNA Barcode provides good sources of needed
information to classify living species. The classification problem has
to be supported with reliable methods and algorithms. To analyze
species regions or entire genomes, it becomes necessary to use the
similarity sequence methods. A large set of sequences can be
simultaneously compared using Multiple Sequence Alignment which
is known to be NP-complete. However, all the used methods are still
computationally very expensive and require significant computational
infrastructure. Our goal is to build predictive models that are highly
accurate and interpretable. In fact, our method permits to avoid the
complex problem of form and structure in different classes of
organisms. The empirical data and their classification performances
are compared with other methods. Evenly, in this study, we present
our system which is consisted of three phases. The first one, is called
transformation, is composed of three sub steps; Electron-Ion
Interaction Pseudopotential (EIIP) for the codification of DNA
Barcodes, Fourier Transform and Power Spectrum Signal Processing.
Moreover, the second phase step is an approximation; it is
empowered by the use of Multi Library Wavelet Neural Networks
(MLWNN). Finally, the third one, is called the classification of DNA
Barcodes, is realized by applying the algorithm of hierarchical
Wavelet Feature Selection Approach for Heart Murmur Classification
Phonocardiography is important in appraisal of
congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension as it reflects the
duration of right ventricular systoles. The systolic murmur in patients
with intra-cardiac shunt decreases as pulmonary hypertension
develops and may eventually disappear completely as the pulmonary
pressure reaches systemic level. Phonocardiography and auscultation
are non-invasive, low-cost, and accurate methods to assess heart
disease. In this work an objective signal processing tool to extract
information from phonocardiography signal using Wavelet is
proposed to classify the murmur as normal or abnormal. Since the
feature vector is large, a Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
with mutation for feature selection is proposed. The extracted
features improve the classification accuracy and were tested across
various classifiers including Naïve Bayes, kNN, C4.5, and SVM.