International Science Index

38
10010592
The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries
Abstract:

Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Paper Detail
325
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37
10010468
A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model
Abstract:
The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.
Paper Detail
284
downloads
36
10008701
Regional Low Gravity Anomalies Influencing High Concentrations of Heavy Minerals on Placer Deposits
Abstract:

Regions of low gravity and gravity anomalies both influence heavy mineral concentrations on placer deposits. Economically imported heavy minerals are likely to have higher levels of deposition in low gravity regions of placer deposits. This can be found in coastal regions of Southern Asia, particularly in Sri Lanka and Peninsula India and areas located in the lowest gravity region of the world. The area about 70 kilometers of the east coast of Sri Lanka is covered by a high percentage of ilmenite deposits, and the southwest coast of the island consists of Monazite placer deposit. These deposits are one of the largest placer deposits in the world. In India, the heavy mineral industry has a good market. On the other hand, based on the coastal placer deposits recorded, the high gravity region located around Papua New Guinea, has no such heavy mineral deposits. In low gravity regions, with the help of other depositional environmental factors, the grains have more time and space to float in the sea, this helps bring high concentrations of heavy mineral deposits to the coast. The effect of low and high gravity can be demonstrated by using heavy mineral separation devices.  The Wilfley heavy mineral separating table is one of these; it is extensively used in industries and in laboratories for heavy mineral separation. The horizontally oscillating Wilfley table helps to separate heavy and light mineral grains in to deferent fractions, with the use of water. In this experiment, the low and high angle of the Wilfley table are representing low and high gravity respectively. A sample mixture of grain size <0.85 mm of heavy and light mineral grains has been used for this experiment. The high and low angle of the table was 60 and 20 respectively for this experiment. The separated fractions from the table are again separated into heavy and light minerals, with the use of heavy liquid, which consists of a specific gravity of 2.85. The fractions of separated heavy and light minerals have been used for drawing the two-dimensional graphs. The graphs show that the low gravity stage has a high percentage of heavy minerals collected in the upper area of the table than in the high gravity stage. The results of the experiment can be used for the comparison of regional low gravity and high gravity levels of heavy minerals. If there are any heavy mineral deposits in the high gravity regions, these deposits will take place far away from the coast, within the continental shelf.

Paper Detail
771
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35
10008312
Adaptive Filtering in Subbands for Supervised Source Separation
Abstract:
This paper investigates MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) adaptive filtering techniques for the application of supervised source separation in the context of convolutive mixtures. From the observation that there is correlation among the signals of the different mixtures, an improvement in the NSAF (Normalized Subband Adaptive Filter) algorithm is proposed in order to accelerate its convergence rate. Simulation results with mixtures of speech signals in reverberant environments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to the performances of the NLMS (Normalized Least-Mean-Square) and conventional NSAF, considering both the convergence speed and SIR (Signal-to-Interference Ratio) after convergence.
Paper Detail
486
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34
10008090
The Use of Thermal Infrared Wavelengths to Determine the Volcanic Soils
Abstract:

In this study, an application was carried out to determine the Volcanic Soils by using remote sensing.  The study area was located on the Golcuk formation in Isparta-Turkey. The thermal bands of Landsat 7 image were used for processing. The implementation of the climate model that was based on the water index was used in ERDAS Imagine software together with pixel based image classification. Soil Moisture Index (SMI) was modeled by using the surface temperature (Ts) which was obtained from thermal bands and vegetation index (NDVI) derived from Landsat 7. Surface moisture values were grouped and classified by using scoring system. Thematic layers were compared together with the field studies. Consequently, different moisture levels for volcanic soils were indicator for determination and separation. Those thermal wavelengths are preferable bands for separation of volcanic soils using moisture and temperature models.

Paper Detail
774
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33
10007554
Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid
Abstract:

Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.

Paper Detail
711
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32
10005886
An Activity Based Trajectory Search Approach
Abstract:

With the gigantic increment in portable applications use and the spread of positioning and location-aware technologies that we are seeing today, new procedures and methodologies for location-based strategies are required. Location recommendation is one of the highly demanded location-aware applications uniquely with the wide accessibility of social network applications that are location-aware including Facebook check-ins, Foursquare, and others. In this paper, we aim to present a new methodology for location recommendation. The proposed approach coordinates customary spatial traits alongside other essential components including shortest distance, and user interests. We also present another idea namely, "activity trajectory" that represents trajectory that fulfills the set of activities that the user is intrigued to do. The approach dispatched acquaints the related distance value to select trajectory(ies) with minimum cost value (distance) and spatial-area to prune unneeded directions. The proposed calculation utilizes the idea of movement direction to prescribe most comparable N-trajectory(ies) that matches the client's required action design with least voyaging separation. To upgrade the execution of the proposed approach, parallel handling is applied through the employment of a MapReduce based approach. Experiments taking into account genuine information sets were built up and tested for assessing the proposed approach. The exhibited tests indicate how the proposed approach beets different strategies giving better precision and run time.

Paper Detail
721
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31
10005215
Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process
Abstract:

Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Paper Detail
1784
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30
10003164
Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue
Abstract:
In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.
Paper Detail
1669
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29
10002069
Pre-beneficiation of Low Grade Diasporic Bauxite Ore by Reduction Roasting
Abstract:
A bauxite ore can be utilized in Bayer Process, if the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 is greater than 10. Otherwise, its FexOy and SiO2 content should be removed. On the other hand, removal of TiO2 from the bauxite ore would be beneficial because of both lowering the red mud residue and obtaining a valuable raw material containing TiO2 mineral. In this study, the low grade diasporic bauxite ore of Yalvaç, Isparta, Turkey was roasted under reducing atmosphere and subjected to magnetic separation. According to the experimental results, 800°C for reduction temperature and 20000 Gauss of magnetic intensity were found to be the optimum parameters for removal of iron oxide and rutile from the nonmagnetic ore. On the other hand, 600°C and 5000 Gauss were determined to be the optimum parameters for removal of silica from the non-magnetic ore.
Paper Detail
2642
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28
10000644
Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation
Abstract:

An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Paper Detail
1552
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27
9999145
Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses
Abstract:

In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

Paper Detail
1210
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26
9998543
Numerical Study of Flow Separation Control over a NACA2415 Airfoil
Abstract:

This study involves numerical simulation of the flow around a NACA2415 airfoil, with a 18° angle of attack, and flow separation control using a rod, It involves putting a cylindrical rod - upstream of the leading edge- in vertical translation movement in order to accelerate the transition of the boundary layer by interaction between the rod wake and the boundary layer. The viscous, nonstationary flow is simulated using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The rod movement is reproduced using the dynamic mesh technique and an in-house developed UDF (User Define Function). The frequency varies from 75 to 450 Hz and the considered amplitudes are 2%, and 3% of the foil chord. The frequency chosen closed to the frequency of separation. Our results showed a substantial modification in the flow behavior and a maximum drag reduction of 61%.

Paper Detail
2613
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25
9997364
Dynamic Stall Vortex Formation of OA-209 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number
Abstract:

The unsteady flow field around oscillating OA-209 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 3.5×105 were investigated. Three different reduced frequencies were tested in order to see how it affects the hysteresis loop of an airfoil. At a reduced frequency of 0.05 the deep dynamic stall phenomenon was observed. Lift overshooting was observed as a result of dynamic stall vortex (DSV) shedding. Further investigation was carried out to find out the cause of DSV formation and shedding over airfoil. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD tools were used and it was found out that dynamic stall separation (DSS), which is separated from leading edge separation (LES) and trailing edge separation (TES), triggered the dynamic stall vortex (DSV).

Paper Detail
2853
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24
9996850
Study of a Crude Oil Desalting Plant of the National Iranian South Oil Company in Gachsaran by Using Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract:

Desalting/dehydration plants (DDP) are often installed in crude oil production units in order to remove water-soluble salts from an oil stream. In order to optimize this process, desalting unit should be modeled. In this research, artificial neural network is used to model efficiency of desalting unit as a function of input parameter. The result of this research shows that the mentioned model has good agreement with experimental data.

Paper Detail
3823
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23
16639
Production of Biodiesel from Different Edible Oils
Abstract:

Different vegetable oil based biodiesel (FAMES) were prepared by alkaline transesterification using refined oils as well as waste frying oil (WFO). Methanol and sodium hydroxide are used as catalyst under similar reaction conditions. To ensure the quality of biodiesel produced, a series of different ASTM Standard tests were carried out. In this context, various testwere done including viscosity, carbon residue, specific gravity, corrosion test, flash point, cloud point and pour point. Results revealed that characteristics of biodiesel depend on the feedstock and it is far better than petroleum diesel.

Paper Detail
1845
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22
16207
Experimental Study of Performance of a Counter Flow Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube with Inner Threaded Body
Abstract:

In this experimental study, performance of a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) with threads cut on its inner surface was investigated experimentally (pitch is 1 and 2 mm). The inner diameter of the vortex tube used was D=9 mm and the ratio of the tube’s length to diameter was L/D=12. The experimental system was a thermodynamic open system. Flow was controlled by a valve on the hot outlet side, where the valve was changed from a nearly closed position to its nearly open position. Fraction of cold flow (ξ) = 0.1-0.9, was determined under 300 and 350 kPa pressurized air. All experimental data were compared with each other, the maximum heating performance of the RHVT system was found to be 38.2 oC and the maximum cooling performance of the RHVT in this study was found to be -30.9 oC at pitch 1 mm.

Paper Detail
2567
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21
16515
Novel PES Membrane Reinforced by Nano-WS2 for Enhanced Fouling Resistance
Abstract:

Application of nanoparticles as additives in membrane synthesis for improving the resistance of membranes against fouling has triggered recent interest in new membrane types. However, most nanoparticle-enhanced membranes suffer from the tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. In this study, nano-WS2 was explored as the additive in membrane synthesis by non-solvent induced phase separation. Blended PES-WS2 flat-sheet membranes with the incorporation of ultra-low concentrations of nanoparticles (from 0.025 to 0.25%, WS2/PES ratio) were manufactured and investigated in terms of permeability, fouling resistance and solute rejection. Remarkably, a significant enhancement in the permeability was observed as a result of the incorporation of ultra-low fractions of nano-WS2 to the membrane structure. Optimal permeability values were obtained for modified membranes with 0.10% nanoparticle/polymer concentration ratios. Furthermore, fouling resistance and solute rejection were significantly improved by the incorporation of nanoparticles into the membrane matrix. Specifically, fouling resistance of modified membrane can increase by around 50%.

Paper Detail
1837
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20
3767
Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing
Abstract:
Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles, liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such demands. A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular, elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent Code with all have same cross-sectional area. The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results, however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures including location of shock wave. The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At). Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The numerical result is compared with available experimental data and has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow structure.
Paper Detail
2925
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19
13888
Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for the Binary Mixtures of α-Pinene + Water and α-Terpineol + Water
Abstract:
α-Pinene is the main component of the most turpentine oils. The hydration of α-pinene with acid catalysts leads to a complex mixture of monoterpenes. In order to obtain more valuable products, the α-pinene in the turpentine can be hydrated in dilute mineral acid solutions to produce α-terpineol. The design of separation processes requires information on phase equilibrium and related thermodynamic properties. This paper reports the results of study on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of system containing α- pinene + water and α-terpineol + water. Binary LLE for α-pinene + water system, and α-terpineol + water systems were determined by experiment at 301K and atmospheric pressure. The two component mixture was stirred for about 30min, then the mixture was left for about 2h for complete phase separation. The composition of both phases was analyzed by using a Gas Chromatograph. The experimental data were correlated by considering both NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models. The LLE data for the system of α-pinene + water and α-terpineol + water were correlated successfully by the NRTL model. The experimental data were not satisfactorily fitted by the UNIQUAC model. The NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the system of α-pinene + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.0404%. And the NRTL model (α =0.61) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0058 %. The NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the system of α- terpineol + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.1487% and the NRTL model (α =0.6) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0032%, between the experimental and calculated mole fractions.
Paper Detail
4703
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18
9626
Image Processing Using Color and Object Information for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy
Abstract:

Wireless capsule endoscopy provides real-time images in the digestive tract. Capsule images are usually low resolution and are diverse images due to travel through various regions of human body. Color information has been a primary reference in predicting abnormalities such as bleeding. Often color is not sufficient for this purpose. In this study, we took morphological shapes into account as additional, but important criterion. First, we processed gastric images in order to indentify various objects in the image. Then, we analyzed color information in the object. In this way, we could remove unnecessary information and increase the accuracy. Compared to our previous investigations, we could handle images of various degrees of brightness and improve our diagnostic algorithm.

Paper Detail
1681
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17
11411
Combustion, Emission and Performance Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Methanol Diesel Blends
Abstract:
Combustion, emission and performance characterization of a single cylinder diesel engine using methanol diesel blends was carried out. The blends were 5% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD05) and 10% (v/v) methanol in diesel (MD10). The problem of solubility of methanol and diesel was addressed by an agitator placed inside the fuel tank to prevent phase separation. The results indicated that total combustion duration was reduced by15.8% for MD05 and 31.27% for MD10compared to the baseline data. Ignition delay was increased with increasing methanol volume fraction in the test fuel. Total cyclic heat release was reduced by 1.5% for MD05 and 6.7% for MD10 as compared to diesel baseline. Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons along with smoke were reduced and that of nitrogen oxides were increased with rising methanol contents in the test fuel. Full load brake thermal efficiency was marginally reduced with increased methanol composition in the blend.
Paper Detail
2892
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16
11995
Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Flow over a Three-Dimensional Flat Roof
Abstract:

The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine threedimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data. Wind tunnel measurements and numerical predictions have been compared for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions. The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a three-dimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.

Keywords:
Paper Detail
1422
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15
12443
The Effect of Cyclone Shape and Dust Collector on Gas-Solid Flow and Performance
Abstract:
Numerical analysis of flow characteristics and separation efficiency in a high-efficiency cyclone has been performed. Several models based on the experimental observation for a design purpose were proposed. However, the model is only estimated the cyclone's performance under the limited environments; it is difficult to obtain a general model for all types of cyclones. The purpose of this study is to find out the flow characteristics and separation efficiency numerically. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) was employed instead of a standard k-ε or a k-ω model which was suitable for isotropic turbulence and it could predict the pressure drop and the Rankine vortex very well. For small particles, there were three significant components (entrance of vortex finder, cone, and dust collector) for the particle separation. In the present work, the particle re-entraining phenomenon from the dust collector to the cyclone body was observed after considerable time. This re-entrainment degraded the separation efficiency and was one of the significant factors for the separation efficiency of the cyclone.
Paper Detail
4198
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14
6695
Numerical Study on Parametrical Design of Long Shrouded Contra-Rotating Propulsion System in Hovering
Abstract:
The parametrical study of Shrouded Contra-rotating Rotor was done in this paper based on 2D axisymmetric simulations. The calculations were made with an actuator disk as double rotor model. It objects to explore and quantify the effects of different shroud geometry parameters mainly using the performance of power loading (PL), which could evaluate the whole propulsion system capability as 5 Newtontotal thrust generationfor hover demand. The numerical results show that:The increase of nozzle radius is desired but limited by the flow separation, its optimal design is around 1.15 times rotor radius, the viscosity effects greatly constraint the influence of nozzle shape, the divergent angle around 10.5° performs best for chosen nozzle length;The parameters of inlet such as leading edge curvature, radius and internal shape do not affect thrust great but play an important role in pressure distribution which could produce most part of shroud thrust, they should be chosen according to the reduction of adverse pressure gradients to reduce the risk of boundary separation.
Paper Detail
1600
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13
6210
A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption
Abstract:
We propose a new perspective on speech communication using blind source separation. The original speech is mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune against traditional attacks.
Paper Detail
1259
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12
13417
Modeling Strategy and Numerical Validation of the Turbulent Flow over a two-Dimensional Flat Roof
Abstract:
The construction of a civil structure inside a urban area inevitably modifies the outdoor microclimate at the building site. Wind speed, wind direction, air pollution, driving rain, radiation and daylight are some of the main physical aspects that are subjected to the major changes. The quantitative amount of these modifications depends on the shape, size and orientation of the building and on its interaction with the surrounding environment.The flow field over a flat roof model building has been numerically investigated in order to determine two-dimensional CFD guidelines for the calculation of the turbulent flow over a structure immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer. To this purpose, a complete validation campaign has been performed through a systematic comparison of numerical simulations with wind tunnel experimental data.Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have been tested for five different vertical positions, respectively from the upstream leading edge to the downstream bottom edge of the analyzed model. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the building model have been numerically investigated, allowing a quantification of the capabilities of the CFD code to predict the flow separation and the extension of the recirculation regions.The proposed calculations have allowed the development of a preliminary procedure to be used as a guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and corresponding turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a twodimensional roof architecture dominated by flow separation.
Keywords:
Paper Detail
1350
downloads
11
9428
Modeling and Parametric Study for CO2/CH4 Separation Using Membrane Processes
Abstract:

The upgrading of low quality crude natural gas (NG) is attracting interest due to high demand of pipeline-grade gas in recent years. Membrane processes are commercially proven technology for the removal of impurities like carbon dioxide from NG. In this work, cross flow mathematical model has been suggested to be incorporated with ASPEN HYSYS as a user defined unit operation in order to design the membrane system for CO2/CH4 separation. The effect of operating conditions (such as feed composition and pressure) and membrane selectivity on the design parameters (methane recovery and total membrane area required for the separation) has been studied for different design configurations. These configurations include single stage (with and without recycle) and double stage membrane systems (with and without permeate or retentate recycle). It is shown that methane recovery can be improved by recycling permeate or retentate stream as well as by using double stage membrane systems. The ASPEN HYSYS user defined unit operation proposed in the study has potential to be applied for complex membrane system design and optimization.

Paper Detail
3413
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10
13289
Some Separations in Covering Approximation Spaces
Abstract:
Adopting Zakowski-s upper approximation operator C and lower approximation operator C, this paper investigates granularity-wise separations in covering approximation spaces. Some characterizations of granularity-wise separations are obtained by means of Pawlak rough sets and some relations among granularitywise separations are established, which makes it possible to research covering approximation spaces by logical methods and mathematical methods in computer science. Results of this paper give further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.
Paper Detail
1366
downloads
9
668
Water Boundary Layer Flow Over Rotating Sphere with Mass Transfer
Abstract:

An analysis is performed to study the influence of nonuniform double slot suction on a steady laminar boundary layer flow over a rotating sphere when fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are inverse linear functions of temperature. Nonsimilar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate to the exact point of separation. The difficulties arising at the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate, at the edges of the slot and at the point of separation have been overcome by applying an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique and an appropriate selection of the finer step sizes along the stream-wise direction. The present investigation shows that the point of ordinary separation can be delayed by nonuniform double slot suction if the mass transfer rate is increased and also if the slots are positioned further downstream. In addition, the investigation reveals that double slot suction is found to be more effective compared to a single slot suction in delaying ordinary separation. As rotation parameter increase the point of separation moves upstream direction.

Paper Detail
6024
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