International Science Index
Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method
In this study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50 and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at 400 °C, resulting in three different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10% and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 400 °C temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.
Influence of the Granular Mixture Properties on the Rheological Properties of Concrete: Yield Stress Determination Using Modified Chateau et al. Model
The prediction of the rheological behavior of concrete is at the center of current concerns of the concrete industry for different reasons. The shortage of good quality standard materials combined with variable properties of available materials imposes to improve existing models to take into account these variations at the design stage of concrete. The main reasons for improving the predictive models are, of course, saving time and cost at the design stage as well as to optimize concrete performances. In this study, we will highlight the different properties of the granular mixtures that affect the rheological properties of concrete. Our objective is to identify the intrinsic parameters of the aggregates which make it possible to predict the yield stress of concrete. The work was done using two typologies of grains: crushed and rolled aggregates. The experimental results have shown that the rheology of concrete is improved by increasing the packing density of the granular mixture using rolled aggregates. The experimental program realized allowed to model the yield stress of concrete by a modified model of Chateau et al. through a dimensionless parameter following Krieger-Dougherty law. The modelling confirms that the yield stress of concrete depends not only on the properties of cement paste but also on the packing density of the granular skeleton and the shape of grains.
Impact of Fischer-Tropsch Wax on Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Waste Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen: An Energy-Sustainability Nexus
In an energy-intensive world, minimizing energy consumption is paramount to cost saving and reducing the carbon footprint. Improving mixture procedures utilizing warm mix additive Fischer-Tropsch (FT) wax in ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and modified bitumen highlights a greener and sustainable approach to modified bitumen. In this study, the impact of FT wax on optimized EVA/waste crumb rubber modified bitumen is assayed with a maximum loading of 2.5%. The rationale of the FT wax loading is to maintain the original maximum loading of EVA in the optimized mixture. The phase change abilities of FT wax enable EVA co-crystallization with the support of the elastomeric backbone of crumb rubber. Less than 1% loading of FT wax worked in the EVA/crumb rubber modified bitumen energy-sustainability nexus. Response surface methodology approach to the mixture design is implemented amongst the different loadings of FT wax, EVA for a consistent amount of crumb rubber and bitumen. Rheological parameters (complex shear modulus, phase angle and rutting parameter) were the factors used as performance indicators of the different optimized mixtures. The low temperature chemistry of the optimized mixtures is analyzed using elementary beam theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. Master curves and black space diagrams are developed and used to predict age-induced cracking of the different long term aged mixtures. Modified binder rheology reveals that the strain response is not linear and that there is substantial re-arrangement of polymer chains as stress is increased, this is based on the age state of the mixture and the FT wax and EVA loadings. Dominance of individual effects is evident over effects of synergy in co-interaction of EVA and FT wax. All-inclusive FT wax and EVA formulations were best optimized in mixture 4 with mixture 7 reflecting increase in ease of workability. Findings show that interaction chemistry of bitumen, crumb rubber EVA, and FT wax is first and second order in all cases involving individual contributions and co-interaction amongst the components of the mixture.
Combination of Standard Secondary Raw Materials and New Production Waste Materials in Green Concrete Technology
This paper deals with the possibility of safe incorporation fluidised bed combustion fly ash (waste material) into cement matrix together with next commonly used secondary raw material, which is high-temperature fly ash. Both of these materials have a very high pozzolanic ability, and the right combination could bring important improvements in both the physico-mechanical properties and the better durability of a cement composite. This paper tries to determine the correct methodology for designing green concrete by using modern methods measuring rheology of fresh concrete and following hydration processes. The use of fluidised bed combustion fly ash in cement composite production as an admixture is not currently common, but there are some real possibilities for its potential. The most striking negative aspect is its chemical composition which supports the development of new product formation, influencing the durability of the composite. Another disadvantage is the morphology of grains, which have a negative effect on consistency. This raises the question of how this waste can be used in concrete production to emphasize its positive properties and eliminate negatives. The focal point of the experiment carried out on cement pastes was particularly on the progress of hydration processes, aiming for the possible acceleration of pozzolanic reactions of both types of fly ash.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid
The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Comparison of Regime Transition between Ellipsoidal and Spherical Particle Assemblies in a Model Shear Cell
This paper presents a numerical investigation of regime transition of flow of ellipsoidal particles and a comparison with that of spherical particle assembly. Particle assemblies constituting spherical and ellipsoidal particle of 2.5:1 aspect ratio are examined at separate instances in similar flow conditions in a shear cell model that is numerically developed based on the discrete element method. Correlations among elastically scaled stress, kinetically scaled stress, coordination number and volume fraction are investigated, and show important similarities and differences for the spherical and ellipsoidal particle assemblies. In particular, volume fractions at points of regime transition are identified for both types of particles. It is found that compared with spherical particle assembly, ellipsoidal particle assembly has higher volume fraction for the quasistatic to intermediate regime transition and lower volume fraction for the intermediate to inertial regime transition. Finally, the relationship between coordination number and volume fraction shows strikingly distinct features for the two cases, suggesting that different from spherical particles, the effect of the shear rate on the coordination number is not significant for ellipsoidal particles. This work provides a glimpse of currently running work on one of the most attractive scopes of research in this field and has a wide prospect in understanding rheology of more complex shaped particles in light of the strong basis of simpler spherical particle rheology.
Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation
Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.
Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement
In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.
Rheological Characteristics of Ice Slurries Based on Propylene- and Ethylene-Glycol at High Ice Fractions
Ice slurries are considered as a promising phase-changing secondary fluids for air-conditioning, packaging or cooling industrial processes. An experimental study has been here carried out to measure the rheological characteristics of ice slurries. Ice slurries consist in a solid phase (flake ice crystals) and a liquid phase. The later is composed of a mixture of liquid water and an additive being here either (1) Propylene-Glycol (PG) or (2) Ethylene-Glycol (EG) used to lower the freezing point of water. Concentrations of 5%, 14% and 24% of both additives are investigated with ice mass fractions ranging from 5% to 85%. The rheological measurements are carried out using a Discovery HR-2 vane-concentric cylinder with four full-length blades. The experimental results show that the behavior of ice slurries is generally non-Newtonian with shear-thinning or shear-thickening behaviors depending on the experimental conditions. In order to determine the consistency and the flow index, the Herschel-Bulkley model is used to describe the behavior of ice slurries. The present results are finally validated against an experimental database found in the literature and the predictions of an Artificial Neural Network model.
Role of Sodium Concentration, Waiting Time and Constituents’ Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Alkali Activated Slag Concrete
In this paper, rheological behavior of alkali activated slag concretes were investigated depending on the sodium concentration (SC), waiting time (WT) after production, and constituents’ temperature (CT) parameters. For this purpose, an experimental program was conducted with four different SCs of 1.85, 3.0, 4.15, and 5.30%, three different WT of 0 (just after production), 15, and 30 minutes and three different CT of 18, 30, and 40 °C. Solid precursors are activated by water glass and sodium hydroxide solutions with silicate modulus (Ms = SiO2/Na2O) of 1. Slag content and (water + activator solution)/slag ratio were kept constant in all mixtures. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values were defined for each mixture by using the ICAR rheometer. Test results were demonstrated that all of the three studied parameters have tremendous effect on the yield stress and plastic viscosity values of the alkali activated slag concretes. Increasing the SC, WT, and CT drastically augmented the rheological parameters. At the 15 and 30 minutes WT after production, most of the alkali activated slag concretes were set instantaneously, and rheological measurements were not performed.
Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts
The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.
Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds
The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.
Landfill Failure Mobility Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach
Ever increasing population growth of major urban centers and environmental challenges in siting new landfills have resulted in a growing trend in design of mega-landfills some with extraordinary heights and dangerously steep slopes. Landfill failure mobility risk analysis is one of the most uncertain types of dynamic rheology models due to very large inherent variabilities in the heterogeneous solid waste material shear strength properties. The waste flow of three historic dumpsite and two landfill failures were back-analyzed using run-out modeling with DAN-W model. The travel distances of the waste flow during landfill failures were calculated approach by taking into account variability in material shear strength properties. The probability distribution function for shear strength properties of the waste material were grouped into four major classed based on waste material compaction (landfills versus dumpsites) and composition (high versus low quantity) of high shear strength waste materials such as wood, metal, plastic, paper and cardboard in the waste. This paper presents a probabilistic method for estimation of the spatial extent of waste avalanches, after a potential landfill failure, to create maps of vulnerability scores to inform property owners and residents of the level of the risk.
50/50 Oil-Water Ratio Invert Emulsion Drilling Mud Using Vegetable Oil as Continuous Phase
Formulation of a low oil-water ratio drilling mud with vegetable oil continuous phase without adversely affecting the mud rheology and stability has been a major challenge. A low oil-water ratio is beneficial in producing low fluid loss which is essential for wellbore stability. This study examined the possibility of 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud using a vegetable oil continuous phase. Jatropha oil was used as continuous phase. 12 ml of egg yolk which was separated from the albumen was added as the primary emulsifier additive. The rheological, stability and filtration properties were examined. The plastic viscosity and yield point were found to be 36cp and 17 Ib/100 ft2 respectively. The electrical stability at 48.9ºC was 353v and the 30 minutes fluid loss was 6ml. The results compared favourably with a similar formulation using 70/30 oil - water ratio giving plastic viscosity of 31cp, yield point of 17 Ib/100 ft2, electrical stability value of 480v and 12ml for the 30 minutes fluid loss. This study indicates that with a good mud composition using guided empiricism, 50/50 oil-water ratio invert emulsion drilling mud is feasible with a vegetable oil continuous phase. The choice of egg yolk as emulsifier additive is for compatibility with the vegetable oil and environmental concern. The high water content with no fluid loss additive will also minimise the cost of mud formulation.
Effect of Modified Layered Silicate Nanoclay on the Dynamic Viscoelastic Properties of Thermoplastic Polymers Nanocomposites
This work aims to investigate the structure–property
relationship in ternary nanocomposites consisting of polypropylene
as the matrix, polyamide 66 as the minor phase and treated nanoclay
DELLITE 67G as the reinforcement. All PP/PA66/Nanoclay systems
with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride PP-g-MAH as a
compatibilizer were prepared via melt compounding and
characterized in terms of nanoclay content. Morphological structure
was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The rheological
behavior of the nanocomposites was determined by various methods,
viz melt flow index (MFI) and parallel plate rheological
measurements. The PP/PP-g-MAH/PA66 nanocomposites showed a homogeneous
morphology supporting the compatibility improvement between PP,
PA66, and nanoclay. SEM results revealed the formation of
nanocomposites as the nanoclay was intercalated and exfoliated. In
the ternary nanocomposites, the rheological behavior showed that, the
complex viscosity is increased with increasing the nanoclay. The results showed that the use of nanoclay affects the variations
of storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″) and the melt elasticity.
Rheological Properties of Dough and Sensory Quality of Crackers with Dietary Fibers
The possibility of application the dietary fibers in
production of crackers was observed in this work, as well as their
influence on rheological and textural properties on the dough for
crackers and influence on sensory properties of obtained crackers.
Three different dietary fibers, oat, potato and pea fibers, replaced
10% of wheat flour. Long fermentation process and baking test
method were used for crackers production. The changes of dough for
crackers were observed by rheological methods of determination the
viscoelastic dough properties and by textural measurements. Sensory
quality of obtained crackers was described using quantity descriptive
method (QDA) by trained members of descriptive panel. Additional
analysis of crackers surface was performed by videometer. Based on
rheological determination, viscoelastic properties of dough for
crackers were reduced by application of dietary fibers. Manipulation
of dough with 10% of potato fiber was disabled, thus the recipe
modification included increase in water content at 35%. Dough
compliance to constant stress for samples with dietary fibers
decreased, due to more rigid and stiffer dough consistency compared
to control sample. Also, hardness of dough for these samples
increased and dough extensibility decreased. Sensory properties of
final products, crackers, were reduced compared to control sample.
Application of dietary fibers affected mostly hardness, structure and
crispness of the crackers. Observed crackers were low marked for
flavor and taste, due to influence of fibers specific aroma. The sample
with 10% of potato fibers and increased water content was the most
adaptable to applied stresses and to production process. Also this
sample was close to control sample without dietary fibers by
evaluation of sensory properties and by results of videometer method.
Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin
Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various
fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10% of Portland cement CEM I
42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity
metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties.
Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying
system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and
hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures
the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for
coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all
fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference
sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and
adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of
metakaolin used in cement pastes.
Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.
Rheological Properties of Polysulfone-Sepiolite Nanocomposites
Polysulfone (PSU) is a specialty engineering polymer
having various industrial applications. PSU is especially used in
waste water treatment membranes due to its good mechanical
properties, structural and chemical stability. But it is a hydrophobic
material and therefore its surface aim to pollute easily. In order to
resolve this problem and extend the properties of membrane, PSU
surface is rendered hydrophilic by addition of the sepiolite
nanofibers. Sepiolite is one of the natural clays, which is a hydrate
magnesium silicate fiber, also one of the well known layered clays of
the montmorillonites where has several unique channels and pores
within. It has also moisture durability, strength and low price.
Sepiolite channels give great capacity of absorption and good surface
properties. In this study, nanocomposites of commercial PSU and
Sepiolite were prepared by solvent mixing method. Different organic
solvents and their mixtures were used. Rheological characteristics of
PSU-Sepiolite solvent mixtures were analyzed, the solubility of
nanocomposite content in those mixtures were studied.
Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid
Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.
CFD Simulation of Surge Wave Generated by Flow-Like Landslides
The damage caused by surge waves generated in water
bodies by flow-like landslides can be very high in terms of human
lives and economic losses. The complicated phenomena occurred in
this highly unsteady process are difficult to model because three
interacting phases: air, water and sediment are involved. The problem
therefore is challenging since the effects of non-Newtonian fluid
describing the rheology of the flow-like landslides, multi-phase flow
and free surface have to be included in the simulation. In this work, the
commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FLUENT is
used to model the surge waves due to flow-like landslides. The
comparison between the numerical results and experimental data
reported in the literature confirms the accuracy of the method.
Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge
Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.
The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen
In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must
have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these
properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to
modify the bitumen properties. In this paper the effect of Styrene-
Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on
rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the
rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with
3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were
analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of
SBR has the best performance than the other samples.
Packing Theory for Natural and Crushed Aggregate to Obtain the Best Mix of Aggregate: Research and Development
Concrete performance is strongly affected by the
particle packing degree since it determines the distribution of the
cementitious component and the interaction of mineral particles. By
using packing theory designers will be able to select optimal
aggregate materials for preparing concrete with low cement content,
which is beneficial from the point of cost. Optimum particle packing
implies minimizing porosity and thereby reducing the amount of
cement paste needed to fill the voids between the aggregate particles,
taking also the rheology of the concrete into consideration. For
reaching good fluidity superplasticizers are required. The results from
pilot tests at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) show various
forms of the proposed theoretical models, and the empirical approach
taken in the study seems to provide a safer basis for developing new,
improved packing models.
Experimental Study of Light Crude Oil-Water Emulsions
This paper made an attempt to investigate the problem associated with enhancement of emulsions of light crude oil-water recovery in an oil field of Algerian Sahara. Measurements were taken through experiments using RheoStress (RS600). Factors such as shear rate, temperature and light oil concentration on the viscosity behavior were considered. Experimental measurements were performed in terms of shear stress–shear rate, yield stress and flow index on mixture of light crude oil–water. The rheological behavior of emulsion showed Non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior (Herschel-Bulkley). The experiments done in the laboratory showed the stability of some water in light crude oil emulsions form during consolidate oil recovery process. To break the emulsion using additives may involve higher cost and could be very expensive. Therefore, further research should be directed to find solution of these problems that have been encountered.
Deflocculation and Gelation of Porcelain Ceramics
Deflocculation and gel characterization were
investigated for three different composition of porcelain slips at
specific gravity 1.8. The suspensions were dispersed with sodium
silicate (Na2SiO3) in under-deflocculated slips and fully deflocculated
slips. The rheology characterization of slips was conducted by the
deflocculation curves and the gel curves. The results showed that
decreasing the amount of the ball clay composition in the slips
consumed less dosages of the dispersants. The under-deflocculated
slips tended to have a gelation rate faster than the fully deflocculated
Rheology of Composites with Nature Vegetal Origin Fibers
Conventional materials like glass, wood or metals
replacement with polymer materials is still continuing. More simple
thus cheaper production is the main reason. However due to high
energy and petrochemical prices are polymer prices increasing too.
That´s why various kinds of fillers are used to make polymers
cheaper. Of course target is to maintain or improve properties of
these compounds. In this paper are solved rheology issues of
polymers compounded with vegetal origin fibers.
Effect of Natural Animal Fillers on Polymer Rheology Behaviour
This paper deals with the evaluation of flow properties
of polymeric matrix with natural animal fillers. Technical university
of Liberec cooperates on the long-term development of “green
materials“ that should replace conventionally used materials
(especially in automotive industry). Natural fibres (of animal and
plant origin) from all over the world are collected and adapted
(drying, cutting etc.) for extrusion processing. Inside the extruder
these natural additives are blended with polymeric (synthetic and
biodegradable - PLA) matrix and created compound is subsequently
cut for pellets in the wet way. These green materials with unique
recipes are then studied and their mechanical, physical and
processing properties are determined. The main goal of this research
is to develop new ecological materials very similar to unfilled
polymers. In this article the rheological behaviour of chosen natural
animal fibres is introduced considering their shape and surface that
were observed with use of SEM microscopy.
Comparative Study on Production of Fructooligosaccharides by p. Simplicissimum Using Immobilized Cells and Conventional Reactor System
Fructooligosaccharides derived from microbial enzyme especially from fungal sources has been received particular attention due to its beneficial effects as prebiotics and mass production. However, fungal fermentation is always cumbersome due to its broth rheology problem that will eventually affect the production of FOS. This study investigated the efficiency of immobilized cell system using rotating fibrous bed bioreactor (RFBB) in producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS). A comparative picture with respect to conventional stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB) and RFBB has been presented. To demonstrate the effect of agitation intensity and aeration rate, a laboratory-scale bioreactor 2.5 L was operated in three phases (high, medium, low) for 48 hours. Agitation speed has a great influence on P. simplicissimum fermentation for FOS production, where the volumetric FOS productivity using RFBB is increased with almost 4 fold compared to the FOS productivity in CSTB that only 0.319 g/L/h. Rate of FOS production increased up to 1.2 fold when immobilized cells system was employed at aeration rate similar to the freely suspended cells at 2.0 vvm.
Micro Environmental Concrete
Reactive powder concretes (RPC) are characterized by
particle diameter not exceeding 600 μm and having very high
compressive and tensile strengths. This paper describes a new
generation of micro concrete, which has an initial, as well as a final,
high physicomechanical performance. To achieve this, we replaced
the Portland cement (15% by weight) by materials rich in Silica (Slag
and Dune Sand).
The results obtained from tests carried out on RPC show that
compressive and tensile strengths increase when adding the additions,
thus improving the compactness of mixtures via filler and pozzolanic
With a reduction of the aggregate phase in the RPC and the
abundance of dune sand (south Algeria) and slag (industrial byproduct
of blast furnace), the use of the RPC will allow Algeria to
fulfil economical as well as ecological requirements.