International Science Index
Work-Related Shoulder Lesions and Labor Lawsuits in Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study on Worker Health Actions Developed by Employers
Introduction: The present study had the objective to present the profile of workers with shoulder disorders related to labor lawsuits in Brazil. The study analyzed the association between the worker’s health and the actions performed by the companies related to injured professional. The research method performed a retrospective, cross-sectional and quantitative database analysis. The documents of labor lawsuits with shoulder injury registered at the Regional Labor Court in the 15th region (Campinas - São Paulo) were submitted to the medical examination and evaluated during the period from 2012 until 2015. The data collected were age, gender, onset of symptoms, length of service, current occupation, type of shoulder injury, referred complaints, type of acromion, associated or related diseases, company actions as CAT (workplace accident communication), compliance of NR7 by the organization (Environmental Risk Prevention Program - PPRA and Medical Coordination Program in Occupational Health - PCMSO). Results: From the 93 workers evaluated, there was a prevalence of men (58.1%), with a mean age of 42.6 y-o, and 54.8% were included in the age group 35-49 years. Regarding the length of work time in the company, 66.7% have worked for more than 5 years. There was an association between gender and current occupational status (p < 0.005), with predominance of women in household occupation (13 vs. 2) and predominance of unemployed men in job search situation (24 vs. 10) and reintegrated to work by judicial decision (8 vs. 2). There was also a correlation between pain and functional limitation (p < 0.01). There was a positive association of PPRA with the complaint of functional limitation and negative association with pain (p < 0.04). There was also a correlation between the sedentary lifestyle and the presence of PCMSO and PPRA (p < 0.04), and the absence of CAT in the companies (p < 0.001). It was concluded that the appearance or aggravation of osseous and articular shoulder pathologies in workers who have undertaken labor law suits seem to be associated with individual habits or inadequate labor practices. These data can help preventing the occurrence of these lesions by implementing local health promotion policies at work.
Numerical and Experimental Assessment of a PCM Integrated Solar Chimney
Natural ventilation systems have increasingly been the subject of research due to rising energetic consumption within the building sector and increased environmental awareness. In the last two decades, the mounting concern of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for an efficient passive ventilation system have driven the development of new alternative passive technologies such as ventilated facades, trombe walls or solar chimneys. The objective of the study is the assessment of PCM panels in an in situ solar chimney for the establishment of a numerical model. The PCM integrated solar chimney shows slight performance improvement in terms of mass flow rate and external temperature and outlet temperature difference. An increase of 11.3659 m3/h can be observed during low wind speed periods. Additionally, the surface temperature across the chimney goes beyond 45 °C and allows the activation of PCM panels.
Constructal Enhancement of Fins Design Integrated to Phase Change Materials
The latent heat thermal energy storage system is a
thrust area of research due to exuberant thermal energy storage
potential. The thermal performance of PCM is significantly
augmented by installation of the high thermal conductivity fins. The
objective of the present study is to obtain optimum size and location
of the fins to enhance diffusion heat transfer without altering overall
melting time. Hence, the constructal theory is employed to eliminate,
resize, and re-position the fins. A numerical code based on conjugate
heat transfer coupled enthalpy porosity approached is developed to
solve Navier-Stoke and energy equation.The numerical results show
that the constructal fin design has enhanced the thermal performance
along with the increase in the overall volume of PCM when
compared to conventional. The overall volume of PCM is found to be
increased by half of total of volume of fins. The elimination and repositioning
the fins at high temperature gradient from low
temperature gradient is found to be vital.
Parametric and Analysis Study of the Melting in Slabs Heated by a Laminar Heat Transfer Fluid in Downward and Upward Flows
The present work aims to investigate numerically the thermal and flow characteristics of a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) during the melting process of a phase change material (PCM). The LHSU consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of PCM separated by rectangular channels. The melting process is initiated when the LHSU is heated by a heat transfer fluid (HTF: water) flowing in channels in a downward or upward direction. The proposed study is motivated by the need to optimize the thermal performance of the LHSU by accelerating the charging process. A mathematical model is developed and a fixed-grid enthalpy formulation is adopted for modeling the melting process coupling with convection-conduction heat transfer. The finite volume method was used for discretization. The obtained numerical results are compared with experimental, analytical and numerical ones found in the literature and reasonable agreement is obtained. Thereafter, the numerical investigations were carried out to highlight the effects of the HTF flow direction and the aspect ratio of the PCM slabs on the heat transfer characteristics and thermal performance enhancement of the LHSU.
A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing
Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Only Process Corner Monitoring Circuit
A process corner monitoring circuit (PCMC) is presented in this work. The circuit generates a signal, the logical value of which depends on the process corner only. The signal can be used in both digital and analog circuits for testing and compensation of process variations (PV). The presented circuit uses only metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors, which allow increasing its detection accuracy, decrease power consumption and area. Due to its simplicity the presented circuit can be easily modified to monitor parametrical variations of only n-type and p-type MOS (NMOS and PMOS, respectively) transistors, resistors, as well as their combinations. Post-layout simulation results prove correct functionality of the proposed circuit, i.e. ability to monitor the process corner (equivalently die-to-die variations) even in the presence of within-die variations.
Numerical Analysis of the Melting of Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material in a Rectangular Latent Heat Storage Unit
Melting of Paraffin Wax (P116) dispersed with Al2O3 nanoparticles in a rectangular latent heat storage unit (LHSU) is numerically investigated. The storage unit consists of a number of vertical and identical plates of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) separated by rectangular channels in which heat transfer fluid flows (HTF: Water). A two dimensional mathematical model is considered to investigate numerically the heat and flow characteristics of the LHSU. The melting problem was formulated using the enthalpy porosity method. The finite volume approach was used for solving equations. The effects of nanoparticles’ volumetric fraction and the Reynolds number on the thermal performance of the storage unit were investigated.
Switching Studies on Ge15In5Te56Ag24 Thin Films
Germanium Telluride based quaternary thin film switching devices with composition Ge15In5Te56Ag24, have been deposited in sandwich geometry on glass substrate with aluminum as top and bottom electrodes. The bulk glassy form of the said composition is prepared by melt quenching technique. In this technique, appropriate quantity of elements with high purity are taken in a quartz ampoule and sealed under a vacuum of 10-5 mbar. Then, it is allowed to rotate in a horizontal rotary furnace for 36 hours to ensure homogeneity of the melt. After that, the ampoule is quenched into a mixture of ice - water and NaOH to get the bulk ingot of the sample. The sample is then coated on a glass substrate using flash evaporation technique at a vacuum level of 10-6 mbar. The XRD report reveals the amorphous nature of the thin film sample and Energy - Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) confirms that the film retains the same chemical composition as that of the base sample. Electrical switching behavior of the device is studied with the help of Keithley (2410c) source-measure unit interfaced with Lab VIEW 7 (National Instruments). Switching studies, mainly SET (changing the state of the material from amorphous to crystalline) operation is conducted on the thin film form of the sample. This device is found to manifest memory switching as the device remains 'ON' even after the removal of the electric field. Also it is found that amorphous Ge15In5Te56Ag24 thin film unveils clean memory type of electrical switching behavior which can be justified by the absence of fluctuation in the I-V characteristics. The I-V characteristic also reveals that the switching is faster in this sample as no data points could be seen in the negative resistance region during the transition to on state and this leads to the conclusion of fast phase change during SET process. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies are performed on the chosen sample to study the structural changes at the time of switching. SEM studies on the switched Ge15In5Te56Ag24 sample has shown some morphological changes at the place of switching wherein it can be explained that a conducting crystalline channel is formed in the device when the device switches from high resistance to low resistance state. From these studies it can be concluded that the material may find its application in fast switching Non-Volatile Phase Change Memory (PCM) Devices.
Enhancement of Thermal Performance of Latent Heat Solar Storage System
Solar energy is available abundantly in the world, but it is not continuous and its intensity also varies with time. Due to above reason the acceptability and reliability of solar based thermal system is lower than conventional systems. A properly designed heat storage system increases the reliability of solar thermal systems by bridging the gap between the energy demand and availability. In the present work, two dimensional numerical simulation of the melting of heat storage material is presented in the horizontal annulus of double pipe latent heat storage system. Longitudinal fins were used as a thermal conductivity enhancement. Paraffin wax was used as a heat-storage or phase change material (PCM). Constant wall temperature is applied to heat transfer tube. Presented two-dimensional numerical analysis shows the movement of melting front in the finned cylindrical annulus for analyzing the thermal behavior of the system during melting.
Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution
Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.
Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material
The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using Matlab computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.
Theoretical Model of a Flat Plate Solar Collector Integrated with Phase Change Material
The objective of this work was to develop a theoretical model to study the dynamic thermal behavior of a flat plate solar collector integrated with a phase change material (PCM). The PCM acted as a heat source for the solar system during low intensity solar radiation and night. The energy balance equations for the various components of the collector as well as for the PCM were formulated and numerically solved using MATLAB computational program. The effect of natural convection on heat during the melting process was taken into account by using an effective thermal conductivity. The model was used to investigate the effect of inlet water temperature, water mass flow rate, and PCM thickness on the outlet water temperature and the melt fraction during charging and discharging modes. A comparison with a collector without PCM was made. Results showed that charging and discharging processes of PCM have six stages. The adding of PCM caused a decrease in temperature during charge and an increase during discharge. The rise was most enhanced for higher inlet water temperature, PCM thickness and for lower mass flow rate. Analysis indicated that the complete melting time was shorter than the solidification time due to the high heat transfer coefficient during melting. The increases in PCM height and mass flow rate were not linear with the melting and solidification times.
An Analysis on Thermal Energy Storage in Paraffin-Wax Using Tube Array on a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
The aim of the study is to improve the understanding
of latent and sensible thermal energy storage within a paraffin wax
media by an array of cylindrical tubes arranged both in in-line and
staggered layouts. An analytical and experimental study is carried out
in a horizontal shell-and-tube type system during melting process.
Pertamina paraffin-wax was used as a phase change material (PCM),
while the tubes are embedded in the PCM. From analytical study we
can obtain the useful information in designing a thermal energy
storage such as: the motion of interface, amount of material melted at
any time in the process, and the heat storage characteristic during
melting. The use of staggered tubes is proposed compared to in-line
layout in a heat exchanger as thermal storage. The experimental study
is used to verify the validity of the analytical predictions. From the
comparisons, the analytical and experimental data are in a good
Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material
A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.
Thermal Characterization of Smart and Large-Scale Building Envelope System in a Subtropical Climate
The thermal behavior of a large-scale, phase change material (PCM) enhanced building envelope system was studied in regard to the need for pre-fabricated construction in subtropical regions. The proposed large-scale envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum skin, insulation core, phase change material and reinforced gypsum board. The PCM impact on an energy efficiency of an enveloped room was resolved by validation of the EnergyPlus numerical scheme and optimization of a smart material location in the core. The PCM location was optimized by a minimization method of a cooling energy demand. It has been shown that there is good agreement between the test and simulation results. The optimal location of the PCM layer in Hong Kong summer conditions has been then recomputed for core thicknesses of 40, 60 and 80 mm. A non-dimensional value of the optimal PCM location was obtained to be same for all the studied cases and the considered external and internal conditions.
Acceptance of Health Information Application in Smart National Identity Card (SNIC) Using a New I-P Framework
This study discovers a novel framework of individual
level technology adoption known as I-P (Individual- Privacy) towards
health information application in Smart National Identity Card. Many
countries introduced smart national identity card (SNIC) with various
applications such as health information application embedded inside
it. However, the degree to which citizens accept and use some of the
embedded applications in smart national identity remains unknown to
many governments and application providers as well. Moreover, the
factors of trust, perceived risk, Privacy concern and perceived
credibility need to be incorporated into more comprehensive models
such as extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology known as UTAUT2. UTAUT2 is a mainly widespread
and leading theory up to now. This research identifies factors
affecting the citizens’ behavioural intention to use health information
application embedded in SNIC and extends better understanding on
the relevant factors that the government and the application providers
would need to consider in predicting citizens’ new technology
acceptance in the future. We propose a conceptual framework by
combining the UTAUT2 and Privacy Calculus Model constructs and
also adding perceived credibility as a new variable. The proposed
framework may provide assistance to any government planning,
decision, and policy makers involving e-government projects.
Empirical study may be conducted in the future to provide proof and
empirically validate this I-P framework.
Brain Image Segmentation Using Conditional Random Field Based On Modified Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm
Tumor is an uncontrolled growth of tissues in any part
of the body. Tumors are of different types and they have different
characteristics and treatments. Brain tumor is inherently serious and
life-threatening because of its character in the limited space of the
intracranial cavity (space formed inside the skull). Locating the tumor
within MR (magnetic resonance) image of brain is integral part of the
treatment of brain tumor. This segmentation task requires
classification of each voxel as either tumor or non-tumor, based on
the description of the voxel under consideration. Many studies are
going on in the medical field using Markov Random Fields (MRF) in
segmentation of MR images. Even though the segmentation process
is better, computing the probability and estimation of parameters is
difficult. In order to overcome the aforementioned issues, Conditional
Random Field (CRF) is used in this paper for segmentation, along
with the modified artificial bee colony optimization and modified
fuzzy possibility c-means (MFPCM) algorithm. This work is mainly
focused to reduce the computational complexities, which are found in
existing methods and aimed at getting higher accuracy. The
efficiency of this work is evaluated using the parameters such as
region non-uniformity, correlation and computation time. The
experimental results are compared with the existing methods such as
MRF with improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) and MRF-Artificial
Bee Colony (MRF-ABC) algorithm.
Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Using Possibilistic C-Means Algorithm for Evaluation of Facial Surgeries
Human face has a fundamental role in the appearance
of individuals. So the importance of facial surgeries is undeniable.
Thus, there is a need for the appropriate and accurate facial skin
segmentation in order to extract different features. Since Fuzzy CMeans
(FCM) clustering algorithm doesn’t work appropriately for
noisy images and outliers, in this paper we exploit Possibilistic CMeans
(PCM) algorithm in order to segment the facial skin. For this
purpose, first, we convert facial images from RGB to YCbCr color
space. To evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm, the
database of Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran was used.
In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm;
FCM and Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms are also used
for facial skin segmentation. The proposed method shows better
results than the other segmentation methods. Results include
misclassification error (0.032) and the region’s area error (0.045) for
the proposed algorithm.
Numerical Study on Improving Indoor Thermal Comfort Using a PCM Wall
A one-dimensional mathematical model was developed in order to analyze and optimize the latent heat storage wall. The governing equations for energy transport were developed by using the enthalpy method and discretized with volume control scheme. The resulting algebraic equations were next solved iteratively by using TDMA algorithm. A series of numerical investigations were conducted in order to examine the effects of the thickness of the PCM layer on the thermal behavior of the proposed heating system. Results are obtained for thermal gain and temperature fluctuation. The charging discharging process was also presented and analyzed.
The Flexural Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Cement Mortars Using UM Resin
A polymer cement mortar (PCM) has been widely used as the material of repair and restoration work for concrete structure; however a PCM usually induces an environmental pollutant. Therefore, there is a need to develop PCM which is less impact to
environments. Usually, UM resin is known to be harmless to the environment. Accordingly, in this paper, the properties of the PCM using UM resin were studied. The general cement mortar and UM resin were mixed in the specified ratio. A certain percentage of PVA fibers, steel fibers and mixed fibers (PVA fiber and steel fiber) were added to enhance the flexural strength. The flexural tests were performed in order to investigate the flexural strength of each PCM. Experimental results showed that the strength of proposed PCM using UM resin is improved when they are compared with general cement mortar.
Transient Free Laminar Convection in the Vicinity of a Thermal Conductive Vertical Plate
In this paper the influence of a vertical plate’s thermal capacity is numerically investigated in order to evaluate the evolution of the thermal boundary layer structure, as well as the convective heat transfer coefficient and the velocity and temperature profiles. Whereas the heat flux of the heated vertical plate is evaluated under time depending boundary conditions. The main important feature of this problem is the unsteadiness of the physical phenomena. A 2D CFD model is developed with the Ansys Fluent 14.0 environment and is validated using unsteady data obtained for plasterboard studied under a dynamic temperature evolution. All the phenomena produced in the vicinity of the thermal conductive vertical plate (plasterboard) are analyzed and discussed. This work is the first stage of a holistic research on transient free convection that aims, in the future, to study the natural convection in the vicinity of a vertical plate containing Phase Change Materials (PCM).
Lime-Pozzolan Plasters with Enhanced Thermal Capacity
A new type of lightweight plaster with the thermal capacity enhanced by PCM (Phase Change Material) addition is analyzed. The basic physical characteristics, namely the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore size distribution are measured at first. For description of mechanical properties, compressive strength measurements are done. The thermal properties are characterized by transient impulse techniques as well as by DSC analysis that enables determination of the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. The resistivity against the liquid water ingress is described by water absorption coefficient measurement. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.
Development of Cellulose Panels with Porous Structure for Sustainable Building Insulation
The study and development of an innovative material
for building insulation is really important for a sustainable society in order to improve comfort and reducing energy consumption. The aim of this work is the development of insulating panels for
sustainable buildings based on an innovative material made by
cardboard and Phase Change Materials (PCMs).
The research has consisted in laboratory tests whose purpose has been the obtaining of the required properties for insulation panels: lightweight, porous structures and mechanical resistance. PCMs have been used for many years in the building industry as
smart insulation technology because of their properties of storage and release high quantity of latent heat at useful specific temperatures - .
The integration of PCMs into cellulose matrix during the waste paper recycling process has been developed in order to obtain a
Experiments on the productive process for the realization of insulating panels were done in order to make the new material
suitable for building application. The addition of rising agents
demonstrated the possibility to obtain a lighter structure with better
Several tests were conducted to verify the new panel properties. The results obtained have shown the possibility to realize an
innovative and sustainable material suitable to replace insulating panels currently used.
Numerical Study of Natural Convection Effects in Latent Heat Storage using Aluminum Fins and Spiral Fillers
A numerical investigation has carried out to understand the melting characteristics of phase change material (PCM) in a fin type latent heat storage with the addition of embedded aluminum spiral fillers. It is known that melting performance of PCM can be significantly improved by increasing the number of embedded metallic fins in the latent heat storage system but to certain values where only lead to small improvement in heat transfer rate. Hence, adding aluminum spiral fillers within the fin gap can be an option to improve heat transfer internally. This paper presents extensive computational visualizations on the PCM melting patterns of the proposed fin-spiral fillers configuration. The aim of this investigation is to understand the PCM-s melting behaviors by observing the natural convection currents movement and melting fronts formation. Fluent 6.3 simulation software was utilized in producing twodimensional visualizations of melting fractions, temperature distributions and flow fields to illustrate the melting process internally. The results show that adding aluminum spiral fillers in Fin type latent heat storage can promoted small but more active natural convection currents and improve melting of PCM.
Application of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in Maintaining Comfort Temperature inside an Automobile
This paper presents the modeling results of an
innovative system for the temperature control in the interior
compartment of a stationary automobile facing the solar energy from
the sun. A very thin layer of PCM inside a pouch placed in the
ceiling of the car in which the heating energy is absorbed and release
with melting and solidification of phase change materials. As a result
the temperature of the car interior is maintained in the comfort
condition. The amount of required PCM has been calculated to be
about 755 g. The PCM-temperature controlling system is simple and
has a potential to be implemented as a practical solution to prevent
undesirable heating of the automobile-s cabin.
Numerical Investigation on Latent Heat Storage Unit of Different Configurations
The storage of thermal energy as a latent heat of phase
change material (PCM) has created considerable interest among
researchers in recent times. Here, an attempt is made to carry out
numerical investigations to analyze the performance of latent heat
storage units (LHSU) employing phase change material. The
mathematical model developed is based on an enthalpy formulation.
Freezing time of PCM packed in three different shaped containers
viz. rectangular, cylindrical and cylindrical shell is compared. The
model is validated with the results available in the literature. Results
show that for the same mass of PCM and surface area of heat
transfer, cylindrical shell container takes the least time for freezing
the PCM and this geometric effect is more pronounced with an
increase in the thickness of the shell than that of length of the shell.
Exploring the Potential of Phase Change Memories as an Alternative to DRAM Technology
Scalability poses a severe threat to the existing
DRAM technology. The capacitors that are used for storing and
sensing charge in DRAM are generally not scaled beyond 42nm.
This is because; the capacitors must be sufficiently large for reliable
sensing and charge storage mechanism. This leaves DRAM memory
scaling in jeopardy, as charge sensing and storage mechanisms
become extremely difficult. In this paper we provide an overview of
the potential and the possibilities of using Phase Change Memory
(PCM) as an alternative for the existing DRAM technology. The
main challenges that we encounter in using PCM are, the limited
endurance, high access latencies, and higher dynamic energy
consumption than that of the conventional DRAM. We then provide
an overview of various methods, which can be employed to
overcome these drawbacks. Hybrid memories involving both PCM
and DRAM can be used, to achieve good tradeoffs in access latency
and storage density. We conclude by presenting, the results of these
methods that makes PCM a potential replacement for the current
Simulation of Thermal Storage Phase Change Material in Buildings
One of the potential and effective ways of
storing thermal energy in buildings is the integration of brick with phase change materials (PCMs). This paper presents a two-dimensional model for simulating and analyzing of PCM
in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The numerical approach has been used with the real weather data of a selected city of Iran (Tehran). Two kinds of brick integrated PCM are investigated and compared base on
outdoor weather conditions and the amount of energy
consumption. The results show a significant reduction in
maximum entering heat flux to building about 32.8%
depending on PCM quantity. The results are analyzed by
various temperature contour plots. The contour plots
illustrated the time dependent mechanism of entering heat flux for a brick integrated with PCM. Further analysis is developed to investigate the effect of PCM location on the inlet heat flux. The results demonstrated that to achieve maximum performance of PCM it is better to locate PCM near the outdoor.
Optimisation of A Phase Change Thermal Storage System
PCMs have always been viewed as a suitable
candidate for off peak thermal storage, particularly for refrigeration
systems, due to the high latent energy densities of these materials.
However, due to the need to have them encapsulated within a
container this density is reduced. Furthermore, PCMs have a low
thermal conductivity which reduces the useful amount of energy
which can be stored. To consider these factors, the true energy
storage density of a PCM system was proposed and optimised for
PCMs encapsulated in slabs. Using a validated numerical model of
the system, a parametric study was undertaken to investigate the
impact of the slab thickness, gap between slabs and the mass flow
rate. The study showed that, when optimised, a PCM system can
deliver a true energy storage density between 53% and 83% of the
latent energy density of the PCM.
Partial Connection Architecture for Mobile Computing
In mobile computing environments, there are many
new non existing problems in the distributed system, which is
consisted of stationary hosts because of host mobility, sudden
disconnection by handoff in wireless networks, voluntary
disconnection for efficient power consumption of a mobile host, etc.
To solve the problems, we proposed the architecture of Partial
Connection Manager (PCM) in this paper. PCM creates the limited
number of mobile agents according to priority, sends them in parallel
to servers, and combines the results to process the user request rapidly.
In applying the proposed PCM to the mobile market agent service, we
understand that the mobile agent technique could be suited for the
mobile computing environment and the partial connection problem