International Science Index
A 4-Element Corporate Series Feed Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array for 5G Applications
In this paper, a microstrip antenna array is designed for 5G applications. A corporate series feed is considered to operate with a center frequency between 27 to 28 GHz to be able to cover the 5G frequency bands 24.25-27.5 GHz, 26.5-29.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz. The substrate is taken to be Rogers RT/Duroid 6002. The corporate series 5G antenna array is designed stage by stage by taking into consideration a conventional antenna designed at 28 GHz, thereby constructing the 2X1 antenna array before arriving at the final design structure of 4-element corporate series feed antenna array. The discussions concerning S11 parameter, gain and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) for the design structures are considered and all the important findings are tabulated. The proposed antenna array’s S11 parameter was found to be -29.00 dB at a frequency of 27.39 GHz with a good directional gain of 12.12 dB.
Study on Wireless Transmission for Reconnaissance UAV with Wireless Sensor Network and Cylindrical Array of Microstrip Antennas
It is important for a commander to have real-time information to aware situations and to make decision in the battlefield. Results of modern technique developments have brought in this kind of information for military purposes. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is one of the means to gather intelligence owing to its widespread applications. It is still not clear whether or not the mini UAV with short-range wireless transmission system is used as a reconnaissance system in Taiwanese. In this paper, previous experience on the research of the sort of aerial vehicles has been applied with a data-relay system using the ZigBee modulus. The mini UAV developed is expected to be able to collect certain data in some appropriate theaters. The omni-directional antenna with high gain is also integrated into mini UAV to fit the size-reducing trend of airborne sensors. Two advantages are so far obvious. First, mini UAV can fly higher than usual to avoid being attacked from ground fires. Second, the data will be almost gathered during all maneuvering attitudes.
Microstrip Patch Antenna Enhancement Techniques
Microstrip patch antennas are widely used in many wireless communication applications because of their various advantages such as light weight, compact size, inexpensive, ease of fabrication and high reliability. However, narrow bandwidth and low gain are the major drawbacks of microstrip antennas. The radiation properties of microstrip antenna is affected by many designing factors like feeding techniques, manufacturing substrate, patch and ground structure. This manuscript presents a review of the most popular gain and bandwidth enhancement methods of microstrip antenna and reports a brief description of its feeding techniques.
Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications
In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.
A Canadian Leaf Shaped Triple Band Patch Antenna with DGS for X and C-Band Applications
A shaped single feed microstrip antenna is realized for C-Band and X-Band applications. The frequency range of C-band and X-band varies from 4 to 8 Gigahertz and 8 to 12 Gigahertz. The antenna operates under three frequency bands, one under C band and two under X-band applications. Defect on the ground called DGS (Defected Ground Structure) is made to enhance the distinctiveness of the antenna parameters. The design consists of DGS provided to improve the antenna performance. The substrate material used is of the Flame Retardant grade-4 (FR4) epoxy having high mechanical and electrical strength. The design and analysis was done using the FEM (Finite Element Method) based Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) Version 12. For the resonant frequencies of 5.21, 9.17 and 10.45, a value of reflection coefficient obtained is of -39.0, -16.0 and -30.7 dB respectively. Other constraints of antenna such as bandwidth, gain, directivity and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) are also conferred.
Directivity and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Array Antenna with Directors
Methodology is suggested to design a linear rectangular microstrip array antenna based on Yagi antenna theory. The antenna with different directors' lengths as parasitic elements were designed, simulated, and analyzed using HFSS. The calculus and results illustrate the effectiveness of using specific parasitic elements to improve the directivity and gain for microstrip array antenna. The results have shown that the suggested methodology has the potential to be applied for improving the antenna performance. Maximum radiation intensity (Umax) of the order of 0.47w/st was recorded, directivity of 6.58dB, and gain better than 6.07dB are readily achievable for the antenna that working.
A Comparative Study on ANN, ANFIS and SVM Methods for Computing Resonant Frequency of A-Shaped Compact Microstrip Antennas
In this study, three robust predicting methods, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for computing the resonant frequency of A-shaped compact microstrip antennas (ACMAs) operating at UHF band. Firstly, the resonant frequencies of 144 ACMAs with various dimensions and electrical parameters were simulated with the help of IE3D™ based on method of moment (MoM). The ANN, ANFIS and SVM models for computing the resonant frequency were then built by considering the simulation data. 124 simulated ACMAs were utilized for training and the remaining 20 ACMAs were used for testing the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models are compared in the training and test process. The average percentage errors (APE) regarding the computed resonant frequencies for training of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM were obtained as 0.457%, 0.399% and 0.600%, respectively. The constructed models were then tested and APE values as 0.601% for ANN, 0.744% for ANFIS and 0.623% for SVM were achieved. The results obtained here show that ANN, ANFIS and SVM methods can be successfully applied to compute the resonant frequency of ACMAs, since they are useful and versatile methods that yield accurate results.
Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna
The microstrip antennas area has seen some inventive
work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of
antenna theory. A novel and simple wideband monopole antenna is
presented printed on a single dielectric substrate which is fed by a 50
ohm microstrip line having a low-profile antenna structure with two
parallel s-shaped meandered line of same size. This antenna is fed by
a coaxial feeding tube. In this research, S–form microstrip patch antenna is designed from
measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available
bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application
(GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency
band at 1.5 GHz, the simulated results for main parameters such as
return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns, and gains are
also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas,
in simplicity design and supply, can satisfy GPS application. Two
parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path,
introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial
High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique
This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.
Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized Microstrip Antenna Loaded by DNG Metamaterial
In this paper the design, fabrication, and testing of a miniaturized rectangular microstrip patch antenna loaded with DNG metamaterials is reported. The metamaterial is composed of two nested spiral strips and a single straight strip which are etched on two sides of a 5.7 mm×5.7 mm Rogers RT/duroid 5880 with 0.5 mm thickness and dielectric constant of 2.2. Two units of this structure as a double negative (DNG) medium in combination with air as a double positive (DPS) medium are used as substrate of the microstrip patch antenna. By placing these metamaterial structures under the patch, a sub-wavelength resonance occurs which leads to a smaller size patch antenna compared to the conventional antenna at that frequency. The total size of the proposed antenna is reduced 54.6%. The dimensions of the proposed patch antenna are significantly smaller than the wavelength of the operation frequency with respect to the conventional patch antenna. Simulation result and test result for the proposed patch antenna are given and compared.
Proposed Geometric Printed Patch Shapes for Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Antennas
In this paper, a design of ultra wideband (UWB) printed microstrip antennas that fed by microstrip transmission line were presented and printed on a substrate Taconic TLY-5 material with relative dielectric constant of 2.2. The proposed antennas were designed to cover the frequency range of 3.5 to 12 GHz. The antennas of printed patch shapes are rectangular, triangle/rectangular, hexagonal, and circular with the same dimensions of feeder and ground plane. The proposed antennas were simulated using a package of CST microwave studio in the 2 to 12 GHz operating frequency range. Simulation results and comparison for return loss (S11), radiation patterns, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) were presented and discussed over the UWB frequency.
Design, Analysis and Modeling of Dual Band Microstrip Loop Antenna Using Defective Ground Plane
Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands with same structure. Two resonance frequencies are observed with the second operation band at 4.2GHz approximately three times the first resonance frequency at 1.5GHz. Structure is simple loop of microstrip line with characteristic impedance 50 ohms. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS) and shows the nearly one third reductions in size as compared to without DGS. This antenna was simulated on electromagnetic (EM) simulation software and fabricated using microwave integrated circuit technique on RT-Duroid dielectric substrate (εr= 2.22) of thickness (H=15 mils). The designed antenna was tested on automatic network analyzer and shows the good agreement with simulated results. The proposed structure is modeled into an equivalent electrical circuit and simulated on circuit simulator. Subsequently, theoretical analysis was carried out and simulated. The simulated, measured, equivalent circuit response, and theoretical results shows good resemblance. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s wireless communication.
Development of Low-Profile Antenna for Mini UAV with Reconnaissance Mission
Microstrip antennas are conformable to planar and
nonplanar surfaces, simple and inexpensive to fabricate using modern
printed-circuit technology. Circular polarization of low-profile
microstrip patch with high bandwidth is achieved in this research
through the use of a three-cross-arms branch-line coupler with
sequential rotated arrays, another low-profile antenna of hollow
cylinder is also proposed and the function of reconnaissance with
microstrip antenna on Mini UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are
evaluated in practical flight test.
A Microstrip Antenna Design and Performance Analysis for RFID High Bit Rate Applications
Lately, an interest has grown greatly in the usages of
RFID in an un-presidential applications. It is shown in the adaptation
of major software companies such as Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle
the RFID capabilities in their major software products. For example
Microsoft SharePoints 2010 workflow is now fully compatible with
RFID platform. In addition, Microsoft BizTalk server is also capable
of all RFID sensors data acquisition. This will lead to applications
that required high bit rate, long range and a multimedia content in
nature. Higher frequencies of operation have been designated for
RFID tags, among them are the 2.45 and 5.8 GHz. The higher the
frequency means higher range, and higher bit rate, but the drawback
is the greater cost. In this paper we present a single layer, low
profile patch antenna operates at 5.8 GHz with pure resistive input
impedance of 50 and close to directive radiation. Also, we propose
a modification to the design in order to improve the operation band
width from 8.7 to 13.8
Simulation and Design of Single Fed Circularly Polarized Triangular Microstrip Antenna with Wide Band Tuning Stub
Recently, several designs of single fed circularly
polarized microstrip antennas have been studied. Relatively, a few
designs for achieving circular polarization using triangular microstrip
antenna are available. Typically existing design of single fed
circularly polarized triangular microstrip antennas include the use of
equilateral triangular patch with a slit or a horizontal slot on the patch
or addition a narrow band stub on the edge or a vertex of triangular
In other word, with using a narrow band tune stub on middle of an
edge of triangle causes of facility to compensate the possible
fabrication error and substrate materials with easier adjusting the
tuner stub length. Even though disadvantages of this method is very
long of stub (approximate 1/3 length of triangle edge). In this paper,
instead of narrow band stub, a wide band stub has been applied,
therefore the length of stub by this method has been decreased
around 1/10 edge of triangle in addition changing the aperture angle
of stub, provides more facility for designing and producing circular
Design Analysis of a Slotted Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Communication
In this paper, a new design technique for enhancing
bandwidth that improves the performance of a conventional
microstrip patch antenna is proposed. This paper presents a novel
wideband probe fed inverted slotted microstrip patch antenna. The
design adopts contemporary techniques; coaxial probe feeding,
inverted patch structure and slotted patch. The composite effect of
integrating these techniques and by introducing the proposed patch,
offer a low profile, broadband, high gain, and low cross-polarization
level. The results for the VSWR, gain and co-and cross-polarization
patterns are presented. The antenna operating the band of 1.80-2.36
GHz shows an impedance bandwidth (2:1 VSWR) of 27% and a gain
of 10.18 dBi with a gain variation of 1.12 dBi. Good radiation
characteristics, including a cross-polarization level in xz-plane less
than -42 dB, have been obtained.
Asymptotic Approach for Rectangular Microstrip Patch antenna With Magnetic Anisotropy and Chiral Substrate
The effect of a chiral bianisotropic substrate on the
complex resonant frequency of a rectangular microstrip resonator has
been studied on the basis of the integral equation formulation. The
analysis is based on numerical resolution of the integral equation
using Galerkin procedure for moment method in the spectral domain.
This work aim first to study the effect of the chirality of a
bianisotopic substrate upon the resonant frequency and the half
power bandwidth, second the effect of a magnetic anisotropy via an
asymptotic approach for very weak substrate upon the resonant
frequency and the half power bandwidth has been investigated. The
obtained results are compared with previously published work [11-9],
they were in good agreement.
Compact Slotted Broadband Antenna for Wireless Applications
This paper presents the theoretical investigation of a
slotted patch antenna. The main objective of proposed work is to
obtain a large bandwidth antenna with reduced size. The antenna has
a compact size of 21.1mm x 20.25mm x 8.5mm. Two designs with
minor variation are studied which provide wide impedance
bandwidths of 24.056% and 25.63% respectively with the use of
parasitic elements when excited by a probe feed. The advantages of
this configuration are its compact size and the wide range of
frequencies covered. A parametric study is also conducted to
investigate the characteristics of the antenna under different
conditions. The measured return loss and radiation pattern indicate
the suitability of this design for WLAN applications, namely, Wi-
Max, 802.11a/b/g and ISM bands.