International Science Index
The Mouth and Gastrointestinal Tract of the African Lung Fish Protopterus annectens in River Niger at Agenebode, Nigeria
The West African Lung fishes are fishes rich in protein and serve as an important source of food supply for man. The kind of food ingested by this group of fishes is dependent on the alimentary canal as well as the fish’s digestive processes which provide suitable modifications for maximum utilization of food taken. A study of the alimentary canal of P. annectens will expose the best information on the anatomy and histology of the fish. Samples of P. annectens were dissected to reveal the liver, pancreas and entire gut wall. Digital pictures of the mouth, jaws and the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) were taken. The entire gut was identified, sectioned and micro graphed. P. annectens was observed to possess a terminal mouth that opens up to 10% of its total body length, an adaptive feature to enable the fish to swallow the whole of its pry. Its dentition is made up of incisors- scissor-like teeth which also help to firmly grip, seize and tear through the skin of prey before swallowing. A short, straight and longitudinal GIT was observed in P. annectens which is known to be common feature in lungfishes, though it is thought to be a primitive characteristic similar to the lamprey. The oesophagus is short and distensible similar to other predatory and carnivorous species. Food is temporarily stored in the stomach before it is passed down into the intestine. A pyloric aperture is seen at the end of the double folded pyloric valve which leads into an intestine that makes up 75% of the whole GIT. The intestine begins at the posterior end of the pyloric aperture and winds down in six coils through the whole length intestine and ends at the cloaca. From this study it is concluded that P. annectens possess a composite GIT with organs similar to other lung fishes; it is a detritor with carnivorous abilities.
Grade and Maximum Tumor Dimension as Determinants of Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer (EEC)
Introduction: Endometrial Cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy primarily treated with complete surgical staging, which may include complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The role of lymphadenectomy is controversial, especially the intraoperative indications for the procedure. Three factors are important in decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy: Myometrial invasion, maximum tumor dimension, and histology. Many institutions incorporate these criteria in varying degrees in the decision to proceed with lymphadenectomy. This investigation assesses the use of intraoperatively measured MTD with and without pre-operative histologic grade. Methods: This study compared retrospectively EEC patients with intraoperatively measured MTD ≤2 cm to those with MTD >2 cm from January 1, 2002 to August 31, 2017. This assessment compared those with MTD ≤ 2cm with endometrial biopsy (EB) grade 1-2 to patients with MTD > 2cm with EB grade 3. Lymph node metastasis (LNM), recurrence, and survival were compared in these groups. Results: This study reviewed 222 patient cases. In tumors > 2 cm, LNM occurred in 20% cases while in tumors ≤ 2 cm, LNM was found in 6% cases (p=0.04). Recurrence and mean survival based on last follow up visit in these two groups were not statistically different (p=0.78 and 0.36 respectively). Data demonstrated a trend that when combined with preoperative EB International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grade, a higher proportion of patients with EB FIGO Grade 3 and MTD > 2 cm had LNM compared to those with EB FIGO Grade 1-2 and MTD ≤ 2 cm (43% vs, 11%, p=0.06). LNM was found in 15% of cases in which lymphadenectomy was performed based on current practices, whereas if the criteria of EB FIGO 3 and MTD > 2 cm were used the incidence of LNM would have been 44% cases. However, using this criterion, two patients would not have had their nodal metastases detected. Compared to the current practice, the sensitivity and specificity of the proposed criteria would be 60% and 81%, respectively. The PPV and NPV would be 43% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that MTD combined with EB FIGO grade can detect LNM in a higher proportion of cases when compared to current practice. MTD combined with EB FIGO grade may eliminate the need of frozen section sampling in a substantial number of cases.
A 3-Year Evaluation Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Corresponding Histology
Background and Objectives: Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been increasing world-wide. In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and its efficiency in early detecting neoplastic lesions of thyroid gland over a 3-year period. Methods: Data have been retrieved from pathology files in King Khalid Hospital. For each patient, age, gender, FNA, site & size of nodule and final histopathologic diagnosis were recorded. Results: Study included 490 cases where 419 of them were female and 71 male. Male to female ratio was 1:6. Mean age was 43 years for males and 38 for females. Cases with confirmed histopathology were 131. In 101/131 (77.1%), concordance was found between FNA and histology. In 30/131 (22.9%), there was discrepancy in diagnosis. Total malignant cases were 43, out of which 14 (32.5%) were true positive and 29 (67.44%) were false negative. No false positive cases could be found in our series. Conclusion: FNA could diagnose benign nodules in all cases, however, in malignant cases, ultrasound findings have to be taken into consideration to avoid missing of a microcarcinoma in the contralateral lobe.
Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory C: Laboratory Exposed Snails to Chemical Mixtures
Snails are considered as suitable diagnostic organisms for heavy metal–contaminated sites. Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are used in this work as pollution bioindicators after exposure to chemical mixtures consisted of heavy metals (HM); zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb); and persistent organic pollutants; Decabromodiphenyl ether 98% (D) and Aroclor 1254 (A). The impacts of these tested chemicals, individual and mixtures, on liver and kidney functions, antioxidant enzymes, complete blood picture, and tissue histology were studied. Results showed that Cu was proved to be the highly toxic against snails than Zn and Pb where LC50 values were 1.362, 213.198 and 277.396 ppm, respectively. Also, B. alexandrina snails exposed to the mixture of HM (¼ LC5 Cu, Pb and Zn) showed the highest bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn in their whole tissue, the most significant increase in AST, ALT & ALP activities and the highest significant levels of total protein, albumin and globulin. Results showed significant alterations in CAT activity in snail tissue extracts while snail samples exposed to most experimental tests showed significant increase in GST activity. Snail samples that exposed to HM mixtures showed a significant decrease in total hemocytes count while snail samples that exposed to mixtures containing A & D showed a significant increase in total hemocytes and Hyalinocytes. Histopathological alterations in snail samples exposed to individual HM and their mixtures for 4 weeks showed degeneration, edema, hyper trophy and vaculation in head-foot muscle, degeneration and necrotic changes in the digestive gland and accumulation in most tested organs. Also, the hermaphrodite gland showed mature ova with irregular shape and reduction in sperm number. In conclusion, the resulted damage and alterations in B. alexandrina studied parameters can be used as bioindicators to the presence of pollutants in its habitats.
Hepatoprotective Effect of Oleuropein against Cisplatin-Induced Liver Damage in Rat
Cisplatin (CIS) is one of the most effective an anticancer drug and also toxic to cells by activating oxidative stress. Oleuropein (OLE) has key role against oxidative stress in mammalian cells, but the role of this antioxidant in the toxicity of CIS remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of OLE on CIS-induced liver damages in male rats. With this aim, male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: Control group; the group treated with 7 mg/kg/day CIS; the groups treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day OLE (i.p.); and the groups treated with OLE for three days starting at 24 h following CIS injection. After 4 days of injections, serum was provided to assess the blood AST, ALT and LDH values. The liver tissues were removed for histological, biochemical (TAC, TOS and MDA) and genotoxic evaluations. In the CIS treated group, the whole liver tissue showed significant histological changes. Also, CIS significantly increased both the incidence of oxidative stress and the induction of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, the rats taking CIS have abnormal results on liver function tests. However, these parameters reached to the normal range after administration of OLE for 3 days. Finally, OLE demonstrated an acceptable high potential and was effective in attenuating CIS-induced liver injury. In this trial, the 200 mg/kg dose of OLE firstly appeared to induce the most optimal protective response.
Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle
10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.
Use of Smartphone in Practical Classes to Facilitate Teaching and Learning of Microscopic Analysis and Interpretation of Tissues Sections
An unrecorded experiment of use of the smartphone
as a tool for practical classes of histology is presented in this paper.
Behavior and learning of students of science courses at the University
were analyzed and compared as well as the mode of teaching of this
discipline and the appreciation of the students, using either digital
photographs taken by phone or drawings for record microscopic
observations, analyze and interpret histological sections of human or
Gonadotoxic and Cytotoxic Effect of Induced obesity via Monosodium Glutamate on Mus musculus Testis Cytoarchitecture and Sperm Parameter
Impaired fertility may be the result of indirect
consumption of anti-fertility agents through food. Monosodium
glutamate (MSG) has been widely used as food additive, flavour
enhancer and included in vaccines. This study focuses in determining
the gonadotoxic and cytotoxic effect of MSG on selected sperm
parameters such as sperm viability, sperm membrane integrity and
testes cytoarchitecture of male mice via histological examination to
determine its effect on spermatogenesis. Twenty-four Mus musculus
were randomly divided into 4 groups and given intraperitoneal
injections (IP) daily for 14 days of different MSG concentrations at
250, 500 and 1000mg/kg MSG to body weight to induce obesity.
Saline was given to control group. Mice were sacrificed and analysis
revealed abnormalities in values for sperm parameters and damages
to testes cytoarchitecture of male mice. The results recorded
decreased viability (p<0.05) and integrity of sperm membrane
(p>0.05) with degenerative structures in seminiferous tubule of
testes. The results indicated various implications of MSG on male
mice reproductive system which has consequences in fertility
Attenuation of Pancreatic Histology, Hematology and Biochemical Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta excelsa or locally known as sentang are
frequently used as a traditional medicine by diabetes patients in
Malaysia. However, less attention has been given to their toxicity
effect. Thus, the study is an attempt to examine the protective effect
of A. excelsa on the pancreas and to determine possible toxicity
mediated by the extract. Diabetes was induced experimentally in rats
by high-fat-diet for 16 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of
streptozotocin at dosage of 35 mg/kg of body weight. Declination of
the fasting blood glucose level was observed after continuous
administration of A. excelsa for 14 days twice daily. This is due to the
refining structure of the pancreas. However, surprisingly, the plant
extract reduced the leukocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCHC and
lymphocytes. In addition, the rat treated with the plant extract
exhibited increment in AST and eosinocytes level. Overall, the
finding shows that A. excelsa possesses antidiabetic activity by
improving the structure of pancreatic islet of Langerhans but
involved in ameliorating of hematology and biochemical parameters.
Histological Study of Postmortem Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Royal Thai Navy Sea Turtle Nursery, Phang-nga, Thailand
The problem on the conservation programme of the Royal Thai Navy Sea Turtle Nursery, Phang-nga Province, Thailand is high mortality rate of juvenile green sea turtle (Cheloniamydas) on nursing period. So, during May to October 2012, postmortem examinations of juvenile green sea turtle were performed to determine the causes of dead. Fresh tissues of postmortem of 15 juvenile green sea turtles (1-3 months old) were investigated using paraffin section technique. The results showed normal ultrastructure of all tissue organs. These instances reviewed the health and stability of the environments in which juvenile green sea turtles live and concern for the survival rate. The present article also provides guidance for a review of the biology, guidelines for appropriate postmortem tissue, normal histology and sampling collection and procedures. The data also provides information for conservation of this endangered species in term of acknowledging and encouraging people to protect the animals and their habitats in nature.
Morpho-histological Study of the Bursa of Fabricius of Broiler Chickens during Post-hashing Age
The study of morphometric and histologic evolutions
of the Bursa of Fabricus during 27 weeks of post-hashing age,
realized on 88 subjects of broiler chicken they permitted to collect
information about the morpho-histological aspect according to their
post-hashing age; showed the size and the weight of the Bursa of
Fabricius which reach their maximum between the 10th and the 11th
week of age and the physiologic involution phenomena. These
variations are in close relationship to the sexual maturity. These
results can be used in the diagnosis of viral disease such as the
Gumboro disease, Marek disease.
A Preliminary Study of Drug Perfusion Enhancement by Microstreaming Induced by an Oscillating Microbubble
Microbubbbles incorporating ultrasound have been used to increase the efficacy of targeted drug delivery, because microstreaming induced by cavitating bubbles affects the drug perfusion into the target cells and tissues. In order to clarify the physical effects of microstreaming on drug perfusion into tissues, a preliminary experimental study of perfusion enhancement by a stably oscillating microbubble was performed. Microstreaming was induced by an oscillating bubble at 15 kHz, and perfusion of dye into an agar phantom was optically measured by histology on agar phantom. Surface color intensity and the penetration length of dye in the agar phantom were increased more than 70% and 30%, respectively, due to the microstreaming induced by an oscillating bubble. The mass of dye perfused into a tissue phantom for 30 s was increased about 80% in the phantom with an oscillating bubble. This preliminary experiment shows the physical effects of steady streaming by an oscillating bubble can enhance the drug perfusion into the tissues while minimizing the biological effects.
Effect of Plasma Therapy on Epidermal Regeneration
The purpose of our study was to compare spontaneous
re-epithelisation characteristics versus assisted re-epithelisation. In
order to assess re-epithelisation of the injured skin, we have imagined
and designed a burn wound model on Wistar rat skin. Our aim was to
create standardised, easy reproducible and quantifiable skin lesions
involving entire epidermis and superficial dermis. We then have
applied the above mentioned therapeutic strategies to compare
regeneration of epidermis and dermis, local and systemic parameter
changes in different conditions. We have enhanced the reepithelisation
process under a moist atmosphere of a polyurethane
wound dress modified with helium non-thermal plasma, and with the
aid of direct cold-plasma treatment respectively. We have followed
systemic parameters change: hematologic and biochemical
parameters, and local features: oxidative stress markers and histology
of skin in the above mentioned conditions. Re-epithelisation is just a
part of the skin regeneration process, which recruits cellular
components, with the aid of epidermal and dermal interaction via
Rigorous Electromagnetic Model of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging Applied to Automated Histology of Prostate Tissue Specimens
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging
is an emerging technique that provides both chemically and
spatially resolved information. The rich chemical content of data
may be utilized for computer-aided determinations of structure and
pathologic state (cancer diagnosis) in histological tissue sections for
prostate cancer. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of prostate tissue has
shown that tissue type (histological) classification can be performed to
a high degree of accuracy  and cancer diagnosis can be performed
with an accuracy of about 80%  on a microscopic (≈ 6μm)
length scale. In performing these analyses, it has been observed
that there is large variability (more than 60%) between spectra from
different points on tissue that is expected to consist of the same
essential chemical constituents. Spectra at the edges of tissues are
characteristically and consistently different from chemically similar
tissue in the middle of the same sample. Here, we explain these
differences using a rigorous electromagnetic model for light-sample
interaction. Spectra from FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of chemically
heterogeneous samples are different from bulk spectra of individual
chemical constituents of the sample. This is because spectra not
only depend on chemistry, but also on the shape of the sample.
Using coupled wave analysis, we characterize and quantify the nature
of spectral distortions at the edges of tissues. Furthermore, we
present a method of performing histological classification of tissue
samples. Since the mid-infrared spectrum is typically assumed to
be a quantitative measure of chemical composition, classification
results can vary widely due to spectral distortions. However, we
demonstrate that the selection of localized metrics based on chemical
information can make our data robust to the spectral distortions
caused by scattering at the tissue boundary.
In vivo Introduced Extracellular Ubiquitin Regulates Intracellular Processes
Extracellular ubiquitin in vivo effect on regenerative liver cells and liver histoarchitectonics has been studied. Experiments were performed on mature female white rats. Partial hepatectomy was made using the modified method of Higgins and Anderson. Standard histopathological assessment of liver tissue was used. Proliferative activity of hepatocytes was analyzed by colchicine mitotic index and immunohistochemical staining on ki67. We have found that regardless of number of injections and dose of extracellular ubiquitin liver histology has not been changed, so at tissue level no effect was observed. In vivo double injection of ubiquitin significantly decreases the mitotic activity at 32 hour point after partial hepatectomy. Thus, we can conclude that in vivo injected extracellular ubiquitin inhibits proliferative activity of hepatocytes in partially hepatectomyzed rats.
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Bone Callus Growth in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Model
Ultrasound is useful in demonstrating bone mineral
density of regenerating osseous tissue as well as structural alterations.
A proposed ultrasound method, which included ultrasonography and
acoustic parameters measurement, was employed to evaluate its
efficacy in monitoring the bone callus changes in a rabbit tibial
distraction osteogenesis (DO) model.
The findings demonstrated that ultrasonographic images depicted
characteristic changes of the bone callus, typical of histology findings,
during the distraction phase. Follow-up acoustic parameters
measurement of the bone callus, including speed of sound, reflection
and attenuation, showed significant linear changes over time during
the distraction phase. The acoustic parameters obtained during the
distraction phase also showed moderate to strong correlation with
consolidated bone callus density and micro-architecture measured by
micro-computed tomography at the end of the consolidation phase.
The results support the preferred use of ultrasound imaging in the
early monitoring of bone callus changes during DO treatment.
Preliminary Toxicological Evaluations of Polypeptide-K Isolated from Momordica Charantia in Laboratory Rats
This study examined the toxicological effects and
safety of polypeptide k isolated from the seeds of Momordica
charantia in laboratory rats. 30 male Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks
old, bodyweight 180-200 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups
(1000 mg/kg, 500 mg and 0 mg/kg). Rats were acclimatized to
laboratory conditions for 7 days and at day 8 rats were dosed orally
with polypeptide k (in 2% DMSO/normal saline) and the controls
received the dosed vehicle only. Rats were then observed for 72
hours before sacrificed. Rats were anaesthetized by pentobarbital
(50 mg/kg ip) and 2-3.0 mL of blood was taken by cardiac puncture
and rats were scarified by anaesthetic overdose. Immediately, organs
(heart, lungs, liver, kidneys) were weigh and taken for histology.
Organ sections were then evaluated by a histopathologist. Serum
samples were assayed for liver functions (ALT and γ-GT) and kidney
functions (BUN and creatinine). All rats showed normal behavior
after the dosing and no statistical changes were observed in all blood
parameters and organ weight. Histological examinations revealed
normal organ structures. In conclusion, dosing of rats up to 1000
mg/kg did not have any effects on the rat behavior, liver or kidney
functions nor histology of the selected organs.
Investigation of the Tattooed Skin by OCT
The intention of this lessons is to assess the probability
of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for biometric recognition.
The OCT is the foundation on an optical signal acquisition and
processing method and has the micrometer-resolution. In this study,
we used the porcine skin for verifying the abovementioned means. The
porcine tissue was sound acknowledged for structural and
immunohistochemical similarity with human skin, so it could be
suitable for pre-clinical trial as investigational specimen. For this
reason, it was tattooed by the tattoo machine with the tattoo-pigment.
We detected the pattern of the tattooed skin by the OCT according to
needle speed. The result was consistent with the histology images.
This result showed that the OCT was effective to examine the tattooed
skin section noninvasively. It might be available to identify
morphological changes inside the skin.
Gastroprotective Activity of Swietenia Mahagoni Seed Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats
Swietenia mahagoni have been used in traditional
medicine for treatment of different diseases. Present study was
performed to evaluate anti-ulcerogenic activity of ethanol seed
extract against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Six
groups of rats were orally pre-treated respectively with
carboxymethyl cellulose, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 50, 100, 200 and 400
mg/kg plant extract one hour before oral administration of absolute
ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After additional hour, rats
were sacrificed and ulcer areas of gastric walls were determined.
Grossly, carboxymethyl cellulose group exhibited severe mucosal
injury, whereas pre-treatment with plant extract exhibited significant
protection of gastric mucosa. Histology, carboxymethyl cellulose
group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa; edema and
leucocytes infiltration of sub mucosa compared to plant extract which
showed gastric protection. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any
toxicological signs in rats. Conclusions, results suggest that S.
mahagoni promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and
Influence of Calcium Intake Level to Osteoporptic Vertebral bone and Degenerated Disc in Biomechanical Study
The aim of the present study is to analyze the generation of osteoporotic vertebral bone induced by lack of calcium during growth period and analyze its effects for disc degeneration, based on biomechanical and histomorphometrical study. Mechanical and histomorphological characteristics of lumbar vertebral bones and discs of rats with calcium free diet (CFD) were detected and tracked by using high resolution in-vivo micro-computed tomography (in-vivo micro-CT), finite element (FE) and histological analysis. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, approximate weight 170g) were randomly divided into two groups (CFD group: 10, NOR group: 10). The CFD group was maintained on a refmed calcium-controlled semisynthetic diet without added calcium, to induce osteoporosis. All lumbar (L 1-L6) were scanned by using in vivo micro-CT with 35i.un resolution at 0, 4, 8 weeks to track the effects of CFD on the generation of osteoporosis. The fmdings of the present study indicated that calcium insufficiency was the main factor in the generation of osteoporosis and it induced lumbar vertebral disc degeneration. This study is a valuable experiment to firstly evaluate osteoporotic vertebral bone and disc degeneration induced by lack of calcium during growth period from a biomechanical and histomorphometrical point of view.
Differentiation of Gene Expression Profiles Data for Liver and Kidney of Pigs
Using DNA microarrays the comparative analysis of a
gene expression profiles is carried out in a liver and kidneys of pigs.
The hypothesis of a cross hybridization of one probe with different
cDNA sites of the same gene or different genes is checked up, and it
is shown, that cross hybridization can be a source of essential errors
at revealing of a key genes in organ-specific transcriptome. It is
reveald that distinctions in profiles of a gene expression are well coordinated
with function, morphology, biochemistry and histology of