International Science Index

6
10009999
Historical Development of Bagh-e Dasht in Herat, Afghanistan: A Comprehensive Field Survey of Physical and Social Aspects
Abstract:

Bagh-e Dasht area is situated in the northern part of Herat, an old city in western Afghanistan located on the Silk Road which has received a strong influence from Persian culture. Initially, the Bagh-e Dasht area was developed for gardens and palaces near Joy-e Injil canal during the Timurid Empire in the 15th century. It is assumed Bagh-e Dasht became a settlement in the 16th century during the Safavid Empire. The oldest area is the southern part around the canal bank which is characterized by Dalans, sun-dried brick arcades above which houses are often constructed. Traditional houses in this area are built with domical vault roofs constructed with sun-dried bricks. Bagh-e Dasht is one of the best-preserved settlements of traditional houses in Herat. This study examines the transformation of the Bagh-e Dasht area with a focus on Dalans, where traditional houses with domical vault roofs have been well-preserved until today. The aim of the study is to examine the extent of physical changes to the area as well as changes to houses and the community. This research paper contains original results which have previously not been published in architectural history. The roof types of houses in the area are investigated through examining high resolution satellite images. The boundary of each building and space is determined by both a field survey and aerial photographs of the study area. A comprehensive field survey was then conducted to examine each space and building in the area. In addition, a questionnaire was distributed to the residents of the Dalan houses and interviews were conducted with the Wakil (Chief) of the area, a local historian, residents and traditional builders. The study finds that the oldest part of Bagh-e Dasht area, the south, contains both Dalans and domical vault roof houses. The next oldest part, which is the north, only has domical vault roof houses. The rest of the area only has houses with modernized flat roofs. This observation provides an insight into the process of historical development in the Bagh-e Dasht area.

Paper Detail
286
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5
7517
Endothelial-Cell-Mediated Displacement of Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenesis
Abstract:

Mechanical interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (or collagen gel) is known to influence the sprouting response of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. This influence is believed to impact on the capability of endothelial cells to sense soluble chemical cues. Quantitative analysis of endothelial-cell-mediated displacement of the collagen gel provides a means to explore this mechanical interaction. Existing analysis in this context is generally limited to 2D settings. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical interaction between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix in terms of the endothelial-cellmediated displacement of the collagen gel in both 2D and 3D. Digital image correlation and Digital volume correlation are applied on confocal reflectance image stacks to analyze cell-mediated displacement of the gel. The skeleton of the sprout is extracted from phase contrast images and superimposed on the displacement field to further investigate the link between the development of the sprout and the displacement of the gel.

Paper Detail
1349
downloads
4
12597
The Evaluation and the Comparison of the Effect of Without Engine Power and Power Mechanical Systems on Rice Weed
Abstract:

In order to study the influence of different methods of controlling weeds such as mechanical weeding and mechanical weeder efficiency analysis in mechanical cultivation conditions, in farming year of 2011 an experiment was done in a farm in coupling and development of technology center in Haraz,Iran. The treatments consisted of (I) control treatment: where no weeding was done, (II) use of mechanical weeding without engine and (III) power mechanical weeding. Results showed that experimental treatments had significantly different effects (p=0.05) on yield traits and number of filled grains per panicle, while treatments had the significant effects on grain weight and dry weight of weeds in the first, second and third weeding methods at 1% of confidence level. Treatment (II) had its most significant effect on number of filled grains per panicle and yield performance standpoint, which was 3705.97 kg ha-1 in its highest peak. Treatment (III) was ranked as second influential with 3559.8 kg ha-1. In addition, under (I) treatments, 2364.73 kg ha-1 of yield produced. The minimum dry weights of weeds in all weeding methods were related to the treatment (II), (III) and (I), respectively. The correlation coefficient analysis showed that total yield had a significant positive correlation with the panicle grain yield per plant (r= 0.55*) and the number of grains per panicle-1 (r= 0.57*) and the number of filled grains (r= 0.63*). Total rice yield also had negative correlation of r= -0. 64* with weed dry weight at second weed sampling time (17 DAT). The weed dry weight at third and fourth sampling times (24 and 40 DAT) had negative correlations of -0.65** and r=-0.61* with rice yield, respectively.

Paper Detail
1105
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3
10410
Analysis and Study of Parboiling Method, and the Following Impact on Waste Reduction and Yield Increase of Iranian Rice in Paddy Conversion Phase
Abstract:

An important goal of parboiling is a decrease of rice broken percentage and at the beginning Selected paddy of variety of rice Tarom and soaked at three different temperatures 45 Cº, 65 Cº and 80 Cº orderly for 5 hours, 4 hours and 1.5 hours to moisture of 40 % and then in steaming stage to operate these action two steaming methods are selected steaming under pressure condition and steaming in atmosphere pressure and In the first method after exerting air, the steam pressure is increase to 1 Kg/Cm2 which is done in two different duration times of 2.5 and 5 minutes and in second method used of three times of 5,10 and 15 minutes and dry to 8% moisture and decreases of rice broken percentage at best condition in variety of Tarom of 37.2 % to 7.3 % and increases yield percentage at best condition in variety of Tarom of 69.4 % to 75.93 % and bran percentage decreased in variety of Tarom of 9.53 % to 2.2-3.2 % and this issue cause increases yield percentage in rice and use of This method is very significant for our country because broken percentage of rice in our country is 23-33 %.

Paper Detail
1870
downloads
2
8914
Phylogenetic Inference from 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Horseshoe Crabs, Tachypleus gigas between Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and Cherating, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia
Abstract:
The phylogenetic analysis using the most conservative portions of 18S rRNA gene revealed the phylogenetic relationship among the two populations where DNA divergence showed that the nucleotides diversity value were -0.00838 for the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and -0.00708 for the Cherating, Pahang populations respectively. The net nucleotide divergence among populations (Da) was -0.0073 indicating a low polymorphism among the populations studied. Total number of mutations in the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah samples was higher than Cherating, Pahang samples, which are 73 and 59 respectively while shared mutations across the populations were 8, and reveal the evolutionary in the genome of Malaysian T. gigas. The tree topology of both populations inferred using Neigbour-joining method by comparing 1791 bp of partial 18S rRNA sequence revealed that T. gigas haplotypes were clustered into seven clades, suggesting that they are genetically diverse among populations which derived from a common ancestor.
Paper Detail
1487
downloads
1
1521
Stabilization of the Lorenz Chaotic Equations by Fuzzy Controller
Abstract:
In this paper, a fuzzy controller is designed for stabilization of the Lorenz chaotic equations. A simple Mamdani inference method is used for this purpose. This method is very simple and applicable for complex chaotic systems and it can be implemented easily. The stability of close loop system is investigated by the Lyapunov stabilization criterion. A Lyapunov function is introduced and the global stability is proven. Finally, the effectiveness of this method is illustrated by simulation results and it is shown that the performance of the system is improved.
Paper Detail
1662
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