International Science Index
Comparison between Conventional Bacterial and Algal-Bacterial Aerobic Granular Sludge Systems in the Treatment of Saline Wastewater
The increasing generation of saline wastewater through various industrial activities is becoming a global concern for activated sludge (AS) based biological treatment which is widely applied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As for the AS process, an increase in wastewater salinity has negative impact on its overall performance. The advent of conventional aerobic granular sludge (AGS) or bacterial AGS biotechnology has gained much attention because of its superior performance. The development of algal-bacterial AGS could enhance better nutrients removal, potentially reduce aeration cost through symbiotic algae-bacterial activity, and thus, can also reduce overall treatment cost. Nonetheless, the potential of salt stress to decrease biomass growth, microbial activity and nutrient removal exist. Up to the present, little information is available on saline wastewater treatment by algal-bacterial AGS. To the authors’ best knowledge, a comparison of the two AGS systems has not been done to evaluate nutrients removal capacity in the context of salinity increase. This study sought to figure out the impact of salinity on the algal-bacterial AGS system in comparison to bacterial AGS one, contributing to the application of AGS technology in the real world of saline wastewater treatment. In this study, the salt concentrations tested were 0 g/L, 1 g/L, 5 g/L, 10 g/L and 15 g/L of NaCl with 24-hr artificial illuminance of approximately 97.2 µmol m¯²s¯¹, and mature bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS were used for the operation of two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with a working volume of 0.9 L each, respectively. The results showed that salinity increase caused no apparent change in the color of bacterial AGS; while for algal-bacterial AGS, its color was progressively changed from green to dark green. A consequent increase in granule diameter and fluffiness was observed in the bacterial AGS reactor with the increase of salinity in comparison to a decrease in algal-bacterial AGS diameter. However, nitrite accumulation peaked from 1.0 mg/L and 0.4 mg/L at 1 g/L NaCl in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems, respectively to 9.8 mg/L in both systems when NaCl concentration varied from 5 g/L to 15 g/L. Almost no ammonia nitrogen was detected in the effluent except at 10 g/L NaCl concentration, where it averaged 4.2 mg/L and 2.4 mg/L, respectively, in the bacterial and algal-bacterial AGS systems. Nutrients removal in the algal-bacterial system was relatively higher than the bacterial AGS in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus removals. Nonetheless, the nutrient removal rate was almost 50% or lower. Results show that algal-bacterial AGS is more adaptable to salinity increase and could be more suitable for saline wastewater treatment. Optimization of operation conditions for algal-bacterial AGS system would be important to ensure its stably high efficiency in practice.
Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean
White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.
Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media
A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through
granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent
pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda)
arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e.
it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular
sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence
bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases
in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The
pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder
(polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been
attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder
and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the
system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been
carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains).
The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian
contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly
from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this
distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of
disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is
system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used
for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing
the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the
coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An
experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular
chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.
Productivity Effect of Urea Deep Placement Technology: An Empirical Analysis from Irrigation Rice Farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana
This study examined the effect of Urea Deep Placement (UDP) technology on the output of irrigated rice farmers in the northern region of Ghana. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 142 rice farmers from the Golinga and Bontanga irrigation schemes, around Tamale. A treatment effect model was estimated at two stages; firstly, to determine the factors that influenced farmers’ decision to adopt the UDP technology and secondly, to determine the effect of the adoption of the UDP technology on the output of rice farmers. The significant variables that influenced rice farmers’ adoption of the UPD technology were sex of the farmer, land ownership, off-farm activity, extension service, farmer group participation and training. The results also revealed that farm size and the adoption of UDP technology significantly influenced the output of rice farmers in the northern region of Ghana. In addition to the potential of the technology to improve yields, it also presents an employment opportunity for women and youth, who are engaged in the deep placement of Urea Super Granules (USG), as well as in the transplantation of rice. It is recommended that the government of Ghana work closely with the IFDC to embed the UDP technology in the national agricultural programmes and policies. The study also recommends an effective collaboration between the government, through the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) and the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) to train agricultural extension agents on UDP technology in the rice producing areas of the country.
Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase
Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.
Petro-Mineralogical Studies of Phosphorite Deposit of Sallopat Block of Banswara District, Rajasthan, India
The Paleoproterozoic phosphorite deposit of Sallopat block of Banswara district of Rajasthan belongs to kalinjara formation of lunavada group of Aravalli Super Group. The phosphorites are found to occur as massive, brecciated, laminated and stromatolitic associated with calcareous quartzite, interbedded dolomite and multi coloured chert. The phosphorites are showing alternate brown and grey coloured concentric rims which are composed of phosphate, calcite and quartz minerals. Petro-mineralogical studies of phosphorite samples using petrological microscope, XRD, FEG- SEM and EDX reveal that apatite-(CaF) and apatite-(CaOH) are phosphate minerals which are intermixed with minor amount of carbonate materials. Sporadic findings of the uniform tiny granules of partially anisotropic apatite-(CaF) along with dolomite, calcite, quartz, muscovite, zeolite and other gangue minerals have been observed with the replacement of phosphate material by quartz and carbonate. The presence of microbial filaments of organic matter and alternate concentric rims of stromatolitic structure may suggest that the deposition of the phosphate took place in shallow marine oxidizing environmental conditions leading to the formation of phosphorite layers as primary biogenic precipitates by bacterial or algal activities. Different forms and texture of phosphate minerals may be due to environmental vicissitudes at the time of deposition followed by some replacement processes and biogenic activities.
Cellular Components of the Hemal Node of Egyptian Cattle
10 clinically healthy hemal nodes were collected from male bulls aged 2-3 years. Light microscopy revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisted mainly of collagen fiber surrounding hemal node, numerous erythrocytes were found in wide subcapsular sinus under the capsule. The parenchyma of the hemal node was divided into cortex and medulla. Diffused lymphocytes, and lymphoid follicles, having germinal centers were the main components of the cortex, while in the medulla there was wide medullary sinus, diffused lymphocytes and few lymphoid nodules. The area occupied with lymph nodules was larger than that occupied with non-nodular structure of lymphoid cords and blood sinusoids. Electron microscopy revealed the cellular components of hemal node including elements of circulating erythrocytes intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, reticular cells, macrophages, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells lining the blood sinuses. The lymphocytes were somewhat triangular in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent erythrocytes. Nuclei were triangular to oval in shape, lightly stained with clear nuclear membrane indentation and clear nucleoli. The reticular cells were elongated in shape with cytoplasmic processes extending between adjacent lymphocytes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and few lysosomes were seen in their cytoplasm. Nucleus was elongated in shape with less condensed chromatin. Plasma cells were oval to irregular in shape with numerous dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron lucent material occupying the whole cytoplasm and few mitochondria were found. Nuclei were centrally located and oval in shape with heterochromatin emarginated and often clumped near the nuclear membrane. Occasionally megakaryocytes and mast cells were seen among lymphocytes. Megakaryocytes had multilobulated nucleus and free ribosomes often appearing as small aggregates in their cytoplasm, while mast cell had their characteristic electron dense granule in the cytoplasm, few electron lucent granules were found also, we conclude that, the main function of the hemal node of cattle is proliferation of lymphocytes. No role for plasma cell in erythrophagocytosis could be suggested.
Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump
Cryosorption pumps are considered safe, quiet, and
ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application
from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear
Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases
over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic
temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the
pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon, and
Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of
development of Cryosorption pump and characterization of different
activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the
pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine
the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with
commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel,
bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with
granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that
cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds
than large sized pellets.
Palynomorphological Data of Pollen Grains of Lamium garganicum
This study shows palynomorphological description of
pollen grains of Lamium garganicum, species of the family Labiatae.
Fresh material of this plant is taken in Mount Llogara, in Albania. By
comparison made between palinomorphological characteristics of
pollen grains of Lamium garganicum with those of Lamium
maculatum and Lamium purpureum, showed that granules have
similarities in the number of furrows. The pollen grains of Lamium
garganicum were larger in length and width than those of Lamium
maculatum and almost equal with those of Lamium purpureum.
Furrows are longer than those of pollen grains in Lamium maculatum
and shorter than those of Lamium purpureum. The layer of exine of
Lamium garganicum was thinner than that of two others. The
sculpture of exine was fine reticulate, where reticulas were uniform
whereas in Lamium purpureum was verrucate, with small verrucae; in
Lamium maculatum was reticulate.
Elastic Stress Analysis of Composite Cantilever Beam Loaded Uniformly
In this investigation an elastic stress analysis is carried out a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beam loaded uniformly at the upper surface. The composite beam material consists of low density polyethylene as a thermoplastic (LDFE, f.2.12) and woven steel fibers. Granules of the polyethylene are put into the moulds and they are heated up to 160°C by using electrical resistance. Subsequently, the material is held for 5min under 2.5 MPa at this temperature. The temperature is decreased to 30°C under 15 MPa pressure in 3min. Closed form solution is found satisfying both the governing differential equation and boundary conditions. We investigated orientation angle effect on stress distribution of composite cantilever beams. The results show that orientation angle play an important role in determining the responses of a woven steel fiber reinforced thermoplastic cantilever beams and an optimal design of these structures.
Experimental Study on Adsorption Capacity of Activated Carbon Pairs with Different Refrigerants
This study is experimentally targeting to develop effective in heat and mass transfer processes for the adsorbate to obtain applicable adsorption capacity data. This is done by using fin and tube heat exchanger core and the adsorbate is adhesive over its surface and located as the core of the adsorber. The pairs are activated carbon powder/R-134a, activated carbon powder/R-407c, activated carbon powder/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-507A, activated carbon granules/R-407c and activated carbon granules/R-134a, at different adsorption temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 50°C. The following is results is obtained: at adsorption temperature of 25 °C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.8352kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.1583kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. While, at adsorption temperature of 50°C the maximum adsorption capacity is found to be 0.3207kg/kg for activated carbon powder with R-134a and the minimum adsorption capacity found to be 0.0609kg/kg for activated carbon granules with R-407c. Therefore, the activated carbon powder/R-134a pair is highly recommended to be used as adsorption refrigeration working pair because of its higher maximum adsorption capacity than the other tested pairs, to produce a compact, efficient and reliable for long life performance adsorption refrigeration system.
Some Characteristics of Biodegradable Film Substituted by Yam (Dioscorea alata) Starch from Thailand
Yam starch obtained from the water yam (munlued)
by the wet milling process was studied for some physicochemical
properties. Yam starch film was prepared by casting using glycerol as
a plasticizer. The effect of different glycerol (1.30, 1.65 and
2.00g/100g of filmogenic solution) and starch concentrations (3.30,
3.65 and 4.00g /100g of filmogenic solution) were evaluated on some
characteristics of the film. The temperature for obtaining the
gelatinized starch solution was 70-80°C and then dried at 45°C for 4
hours. The resulting starch from munlued granular morphology was
triangular and the average size of the granule was 26.68 μm. The
amylose content by colorimetric method was 26 % and the gelatinize
temperature was 70-80°C. The appearance of the film was smooth,
transparent, and glossy with average moisture content of 25.96% and
thickness of 0.01mm. Puncture deformation and flexibility increased
with glycerol content. The starch and glycerol concentration were a
significant factor of the yam starch film characteristics. Yam starch
film can be described as a biofilm providing many applications and
developments with the advantage of biodegradability.
The Effect of Granule Size on the Digestibility of Wheat Starch Using an in vitro Model
Wheat has a bimodal starch granule population and the dependency of the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis on particle size has been investigated. Ungelatinised wheaten starch granules were separated into two populations by sedimentation and decantation. Particle size was analysed by laser diffraction and morphological characteristics were viewed using SEM. The sedimentation technique though lengthy, gave satisfactory separation of the granules. Samples (<10μm, >10μm and original) were digested with a-amylase using a dialysis model. Granules of <10μm showed significantly higher rate of reducing sugar release than those >10μm (p<0.05). In contrast, the rate was not significantly different between the original sample and granules >10μm. Moreover, the digestion rate was dependent on particle size whereby smaller granules produced higher rate of release. The methodology and results reported here can be used as a basis for further evaluations designed to delay the release of glucose during the digestion of native starches.
Thermal Treatment Influence on the Quality of Rye Bread Packaged in Different Polymer Films
this study was carried out to investigate the changes in
quality parameters of rye bread packaged in different polymer films
during convection air-flow thermal treatment process. Whole loafs of
bread were placed in polymer pouches, which were sealed in reduced
pressure air ambiance, bread was thermally treated in
at temperature +(130; 140; and 150) ± 5 ºC within 40min, as long as
the core temperature of the samples have reached accordingly
+80±1 ºC. For bread packaging pouches were used: anti-fog
Mylar®OL12AF and thermo resistant combined polymer material.
Main quality parameters was analysed using standard methods:
temperature in bread core, bread crumb and crust firmness value,
starch granules volume and microflora. In the current research it was
proved, that polymer films significantly influence rye bread quality
parameters changes during thermal treatment. Thermo resistant
combined polymer material film could be recommendable for
packaged rye bread pasteurization, for maximal bread quality
Experimental Investigation of a Novel Reaction in Reduction of Sulfates by Natural Gas as a Reducing Agent
In a pilot plant scale of a fluidized bed reactor, a
reduction reaction of sodium sulfate by natural gas has been
investigated. Natural gas is applied in this study as a reductant. Feed
density, feed mass flow rate, natural gas and air flow rate
(independent parameters)and temperature of bed and CO
concentration in inlet and outlet of reactor (dependent parameters)
were monitored and recorded at steady state. The residence time was
adjusted close to value of traditional reaction . An artificial neural
network (ANN) was established to study dependency of yield and
carbon gradient on operating parameters. Resultant 97% accuracy of
applied ANN is a good prove that natural gas can be used as a
reducing agent. Predicted ANN model for relation between other
sources carbon gradient (accuracy 74%) indicates there is not a
meaningful relation between other sources carbon variation and
reduction process which means carbon in granule does not have
significant effect on the reaction yield.
Supplementation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor during in vitro Maturation of Porcine Cumulus Oocyte Complexes and Subsequent Developmental Competence after Parthenogenesis and in vitro Fertilization
In mammalian reproductive tract, the oviduct secretes
huge number of growth factors and cytokines that create an optimal
micro-environment for the initial stages of preimplantation embryos.
Secretion of these growth factors is stage-specific. Among them,
VEGF is a potent mitogen for vascular endothelium and stimulates
vascular permeability. Apart from angiogenesis, VEGF in the oviduct
may be involved in regulating the oocyte maturation and subsequent
developmental process during embryo production in vitro. In
experiment 1, to evaluate the effect of VEGF during IVM of porcine
COC and subsequent developmental ability after PA and SCNT. The
results from these experiments indicated that maturation rates among
the different VEGF concentrations were not significant different. In
experiment 2, total intracellular GSH concentrations of oocytes
matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml) were increased significantly
compared to a control and VEGF group (500 ng/ml). In experiment 3,
the blastocyst formation rates and total cell number per blastocyst
after parthenogenesis of oocytes matured with VEGF (5-50 ng/ml)
were increased significantly compared to a control and VEGF group
(500 ng/ml). Similarly, in experiment 4, the blastocyst formation rate
and total cell number per blastocyst after SCNT and IVF of oocytes
matured with VEGF (5 ng/ml) were significantly higher than that of
oocytes matured without VEGF group. In experiment 5, at 10 hour
after the onset of IVF, pronuclear formation rate was evaluated.
Monospermy was significantly higher in VEGF-matured oocytes than
in the control, and polyspermy and sperm penetration per oocyte
were significantly higher in the control group than in the VEGFmatured
oocytes. Supplementation with VEGF during IVM
significantly improved male pronuclear formation as compared with
the control. In experiment 6, type III cortical granule distribution in
oocytes was more common in VEGF-matured oocytes than in the
control. In conclusion, the present study suggested that
supplementation of VEGF during IVM may enhance the
developmental potential of porcine in vitro embryos through increase
of the intracellular GSH level, higher MPN formation and increased
fertilization rate as a consequence of an improved cytoplasmic
Agent Decision using Granular Computing in Traffic System
In recent years multi-agent systems have emerged as one of the interesting architectures facilitating distributed collaboration and distributed problem solving. Each node (agent) of the network might pursue its own agenda, exploit its environment, develop its own problem solving strategy and establish required communication strategies. Within each node of the network, one could encounter a diversity of problem-solving approaches. Quite commonly the agents can realize their processing at the level of information granules that is the most suitable from their local points of view. Information granules can come at various levels of granularity. Each agent could exploit a certain formalism of information granulation engaging a machinery of fuzzy sets, interval analysis, rough sets, just to name a few dominant technologies of granular computing. Having this in mind, arises a fundamental issue of forming effective interaction linkages between the agents so that they fully broadcast their findings and benefit from interacting with others.
Design of a Grid for Preparation of high Density Granules from Dispersed Materials
New design of a grid for preparation of high density
granules with enhanced mechanical strength by granulation of
dispersed materials is suggested.
A method for hydrodynamic dimensioning of the grid depending
on granulation conditions, hydrodynamic regime of the operation,
dispersity and physicochemical characteristics of the materials to be
granulated was suggested.
The aim of the grid design is to solve the problems arising by the
granulation of disperse materials.
Distributor Plate Design and a System for Collection of Granules in a Device with a Vortex Fluidized Bed
A newly designed gas-distributor for granulation of powdery materials in equilibrated fluidized bed and a system for collecting the granules prepared are suggested. The aim of these designs is to solve the problems arising by the granulation of powdery materials in fluidized bed devices. The gasdistributor and the collection system proved to be reliable at operation; they reduce the size of still zones, effectively disperse the binding solution in the bed and ensure the collection of granules of given diameter
Effect of Heat-Moisture Treatment on the Formation and Properties of Resistant Starches From Mung Bean (Phaseolus radiatus) Starches
Mung bean starches were subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) by different moisture contents (15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%) at 120Ôäâ for 12h. The impact on the yields of resistant starch (RS), microstructure, physicochemical and functional properties was investigated. Compared to native starch, the RS content of heat-moisture treated starches increased significantly. The RS level of HMT-20 was the highest of all the starches. Birefringence was displayed clear at the center of native starch. For HMT starches, pronounced birefringence was exhibited on the periphery of starch granules; however, birefringence disappeared at the centre of some starch granules. The shape of HMT starches hadn-t been changed and the integrity of starch granules was preserved for all the conditions. Concavity could be observed on HMT starches under scanning electronic microscopy. After HMT, apparent amylose contents were increased and starch macromolecule was degraded in comparison with those of native starch. There was a reduction in swelling power on HMT starches, but the solubility of HMT starches was higher than that of native starch. Both of native and HMT starches showed A-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Furthermore, there is a higher intensity at the peak of 15.0 and 22.9 Å than those of native starch.
Effects of Allelochemical Gramine on Metabolic Activity and Ultrastructure of Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa
In this study, inhibition of Microcystis aeruginosa by
antialgal alleochemical gramine, was studied by analyzing algal
metabolic activity (represented by esterase and total dehydrogenase
activities) and cell ultrastructure (showing morphological and
ultrastructure alterations using transmission electron microscopy and
DNA ladder analysis). After gramine exposure, esterase and total
dehydrogenase activities were increased firstly but decreased later. In
contrast with the controls, the cells exposed to gramine showed
apparent ultrastructure alterations with thylakoids in breakage,
phycobilins in decrease, lipid and cyanophycin granules abundant
firstly but dissolved afterwards, DNA in fragementation. The
occurrence of increase of metabolic activity and specific granules
reflected that the resistance of cellular response to gramine was
initiated. DNA fragementation associated with the increase of
metabolic activity and specific granules hinted that gramine caused M.
aeruginosa cells to initiate some morphotype of programmed cell
Applications of Rough Set Decompositions in Information Retrieval
This paper proposes rough set models with three
different level knowledge granules in incomplete information system
under tolerance relation by similarity between objects according to
their attribute values. Through introducing dominance relation on the
discourse to decompose similarity classes into three subclasses: little
better subclass, little worse subclass and vague subclass, it dismantles
lower and upper approximations into three components. By using
these components, retrieving information to find naturally hierarchical
expansions to queries and constructing answers to elaborative queries
can be effective. It illustrates the approach in applying rough set
models in the design of information retrieval system to access different
granular expanded documents. The proposed method enhances rough
set model application in the flexibility of expansions and elaborative
queries in information retrieval.
Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students
Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.
Effect of L-Arginine on Neuromuscular Transmission of the Chick Biventer Cervicis Muscle
In this study, the effect of L-arginine was examined at the neuromuscular junction of the chick biventer cervicis muscle. LArginine at 500 μg/ ml, decreased twitch response to electerical stimulation, and produced rightward shift of the dose- response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol. L-Arginine at 1000μg/ ml produced a strong shift to the right of the dose – response curve for acetylcholine or carbachol with a reduction in the efficacy. The inhibitory effect of L-arginine on the twitch response was blocked by caffeine (200μg/ ml). NO levels were also measured in the chick biventer cervicis muscle homogenates, using spectrophotometric method for the direct detection of NO, nitrite and nitrate. Total nitrite (nitrite + nitrate) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 540 nm after the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by copperized cadmium granules. NO levels were found to be significantly increased in concentrations 500 and 1000μg/ ml of L-arginine in comparison with the control group (p<0.001). These findings indicate a possible role of increased NO levels in the suppressive action of L-arginine on the twitch response. In addition, the results indicate that the post- junctional antagonistic action of L-arginine is probably the result of impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca+2 releases.
Twin-Screw Extruder and Effective Parameters on the HDPE Extrusion Process
In the process of polyethylene extrusion polymer
material similar to powder or granule is under compression, melting
and transmission operation and on base of special form, extrudate has
been produced. Twin-screw extruders are applicable in industries
because of their high capacity. The powder mixing with chemical
additives and melting with thermal and mechanical energy in three
zones (feed, compression and metering zone) and because of gear
pump and screw's pressure, converting to final product in latest plate.
Extruders with twin-screw and short distance between screws are
better than other types because of their high capacity and good
thermal and mechanical stress.
In this paper, process of polyethylene extrusion and various tapes
of extruders are studied. It is necessary to have an exact control on
process to producing high quality products with safe operation and
optimum energy consumption.
The granule size is depending on granulator motor speed. Results
show at constant feed rate a decrease in granule size was found whit
Increase in motor speed. Relationships between HDPE feed rate and
speed of granulator motor, main motor and gear pump are calculated
x = HDPE feed flow rate, yM = Main motor speed
yM = (-3.6076e-3) x^4+ (0.24597) x^3+ (-5.49003) x^2+ (64.22092)
x = HDPE feed flow rate, yG = Gear pump speed
yG = (-2.4996e-3) x^4+ (0.18018) x^3+ (-4.22794) x^2+ (48.45536)
x = HDPE feed flow rate, y = Granulator motor speed
10th Degree Polynomial Fit: y = a+bx+cx^2+dx^3... (3)
a = 1.2751, b = 282.4655, c = -165.2098,
d = 48.3106, e = -8.18715, f = 0.84997
g = -0.056094, h = 0.002358, i = -6.11816e-5
j = 8.919726e-7, k = -5.59050e-9