International Science Index
Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination
Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.
Mixed Mode Fracture Analyses Using Finite Element Method of Edge Cracked Heavy Spinning Annulus Pulley
Rotating disk is one of the most indispensable parts of a rotating machine. Rotating disk has found many applications in the diverging field of science and technology. In this paper, we have taken into consideration the problem of a heavy spinning disk mounted on a rotor system acted upon by boundary traction. Finite element modelling is used at various loading condition to determine the mixed mode stress intensity factors. The effect of combined shear and normal traction on the boundary is incorporated in the analysis under the action of gravity. The variation near the crack tip is characterized in terms of the stress intensity factor (SIF) with an aim to find the SIF for a wide range of parameters. The results of the finite element analyses carried out on the compressed disk of a belt pulley arrangement using fracture mechanics concepts are shown. A total of hundred cases of the problem are solved for each of the variations in loading arc parameter and crack orientation using finite element models of the disc under compression. All models were prepared and analyzed for the uncracked disk, disk with a single crack at different orientation emanating from shaft hole as well as for a disc with pair of cracks emerging from the same center hole. Curves are plotted for various loading conditions. Finally, crack propagation paths are determined using kink angle concepts.
Investigation of Crack Formation in Ordinary Reinforced Concrete Beams and in Beams Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Sheet: Theory and Experiment
This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and has been solved by using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. Experiments were performed on the sequential quasistatic four-point bending of the beam leading to the formation of cracks in concrete. At each loading stage, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. At the first stage the conservative process of deformation is realized. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the beams strengthened by carbon-fiber sheet before loading and at the intermediate stage of loading after the grouting of initial cracks. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring of cracking and for assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures.
Peeling Behavior of Thin Elastic Films Bonded to Rigid Substrate of Random Surface Topology
We study the fracture mechanics of peeling of thin films perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate of any random surface topology using an analytical formulation. A generalized theoretical model has been developed to determine the peel strength of thin elastic films. It is demonstrated that an improvement in the peel strength can be achieved by modifying the surface characteristics of the rigid substrate. Characterization study has been performed to analyze the effect of different parameters on effective peel force from the rigid surface. Different surface profiles such as circular and sinusoidal has been considered to demonstrate the bonding characteristics of film-substrate interface. Condition for the instability in the debonding of the film is analyzed, where the localized self-debonding arises depending upon the film and surface characteristics. This study is towards improved adhesion strength of thin films to rigid substrate using different textured surfaces.
Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs
Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.
Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets
So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.
Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines
Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subjected to several hundred million stress cycles caused by the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes highcycle fatigue, which could govern the design of the tower. Maintaining the support structure after the wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life has become a common practice; however, quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower is not usual. In this paper the effect of fatigue damage in the wind turbine structure is studied whit the use of fracture mechanics, and a method to estimate the reliability over time of the structure is proposed. A representative wind turbine located in Oaxaca, Mexico is then studied. It is found that the system reliability is significantly affected by the accumulation of fatigue damage.
Degree of Bending in Axially Loaded Tubular KT-Joints of Offshore Structures: Parametric Study and Formulation
The fatigue life of tubular joints commonly found in
offshore industry is not only dependent on the value of hot-spot stress
(HSS), but is also significantly influenced by the through-thethickness
stress distribution characterized by the degree of bending
(DoB). The determination of DoB values in a tubular joint is essential
for improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation using the stresslife
(S–N) method and particularly for predicting the fatigue crack
growth based on the fracture mechanics (FM) approach. In the
present paper, data extracted from finite element (FE) analyses of
tubular KT-joints, verified against experimental data and parametric
equations, was used to investigate the effects of geometrical
parameters on DoB values at the crown 0°, saddle, and crown 180°
positions along the weld toe of central brace in tubular KT-joints
subjected to axial loading. Parametric study was followed by a set of
nonlinear regression analyses to derive DoB parametric formulas for
the fatigue analysis of KT-joints under axial loads. The tubular KTjoint
is a quite common joint type found in steel offshore structures.
However, despite the crucial role of the DoB in evaluating the fatigue
performance of tubular joints, this paper is the first attempt to study
and formulate the DoB values in KT-joints.
A Study of Shear Stress Intensity Factor of PP and HDPE by a Modified Experimental Method together with FEM
Shear testing is one of the most complex testing areas where available methods and specimen geometries are different from each other. Therefore, a modified shear test specimen (MSTS) combining the simple uniaxial test with a zone of interest (ZOI) is tested which gives almost the pure shear. In this study, material parameters of polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) are first measured by tensile tests with a dogbone shaped specimen. These parameters are then used as an input for the finite element analysis. Secondly, a specially designed specimen (MSTS) is used to perform the shear stress tests in a tensile testing machine to get the results in terms of forces and extension, crack initiation etc. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is also performed on the shear fracture surface to find material behavior. These experiments are then simulated by finite element method and compared with the experimental results in order to confirm the simulation model. Shear stress state is inspected to find the usability of the proposed shear specimen. Finally, a geometry correction factor can be established for these two materials in this specific loading and geometry with notch using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). By these results, strain energy of shear failure and stress intensity factor (SIF) of shear of these two polymers are discussed in the special application of the screw cap opening of the medical or food packages with a temper evidence safety solution.
Axisymmetric Vibrations of Layered Cylindrical Shells with Cracks
Vibrations of circular cylindrical shells made of
layered composite materials are considered. The shells are weakened
by circumferential cracks. The influence of circumferential cracks
with constant depth on the vibration of the shell is prescribed with the
aid of a matrix of local flexibility coupled with the coefficient of the
stress intensity known in the linear elastic fracture mechanics.
Numerical results are presented for the case of the shell with one
An Adaptive Dynamic Fracture for 3D Fatigue Crack Growth Using X-FEM
In recent years, a new numerical method has been
developed, the extended finite element method (X-FEM). The
objective of this work is to exploit the (X-FEM) for the treatment of
the fracture mechanics problems on 3D geometries, where we
showed the ability of this method to simulate the fatigue crack
growth into two cases: edge and central crack. In the results we
compared the six first natural frequencies of mode shapes uncracking
with the cracking initiation in the structure, and showed the stress
intensity factor (SIF) evolution function as crack size propagation
into structure, the analytical validation of (SIF) is presented. For to
evidence the aspects of this method, all result is compared between
FEA and X-FEM.
Ductile Crack Growth in Surface Cracked Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels are usually operating at temperatures
where the conditions of linear elastic fracture mechanics are no
longer met because massive plasticity precedes crack propagation. In
this work the development of a surface crack in a pressure vessel
subject to bending and tension under elastic-plastic fracture
mechanics conditions was investigated. Finite element analysis was
used to evaluate the hydrostatic stress, the J-integral and crack
growth for semi-elliptical surface-breaking cracks. The results
showed non-uniform stress triaxiality and crack driving force around
the crack front at large deformation levels. Different ductile crack
extensions were observed which emphasis the dependent of ductile
tearing on crack geometry and type of loading. In bending the crack
grew only beneath the surface, and growth was suppressed at the
deepest segment. This contrasts to tension where the crack breaks
through the thickness with uniform growth along the entire crack
front except at the free surface. Current investigations showed that
the crack growth developed under linear elastic fracture mechanics
conditions will no longer be applicable under ductile tearing
Mode III Interlaminar Fracture in Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates
In the present study, fracture behavior of woven
fabric-reinforced glass/epoxy composite laminates under mode III
crack growth was experimentally investigated and numerically
modeled. Two methods were used for the calculation of the strain
energy release rate: the experimental compliance calibration (CC)
method and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). To
achieve this aim ECT (Edge Crack Torsion) was used to evaluate
fracture toughness in mode III loading (out of plane-shear) at
different crack lengths. Load–displacement and associated energy
release rates were obtained for various case of interest. To
calculate fracture toughness JIII, two criteria were considered
including non-linearity and maximum points in load-displacement
curve and it is observed that JIII increases with the crack length
increase. Both the experimental compliance method and the virtual
crack closure technique proved applicable for the interpretation of the
fracture mechanics data of woven glass/epoxy laminates in mode III.
Stress Intensity Factors for Plates with Collinear and Non-Aligned Straight Cracks
Multi-site damage (MSD) has been a challenge to
aircraft, civil and power plant structures. In real life components are subjected to cracking at many vulnerable locations such as the bolt
holes. However, we do not consider for the presence of multiple cracks. Unlike components with a single crack, these components are
difficult to predict. When two cracks approach one another, their
stress fields influence each other and produce enhancing or shielding effect depending on the position of the cracks. In the present study,
numerical studies on fracture analysis have been conducted by using
the developed code based on the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) technique and finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS for computing SIF of plates with multiple cracks.
Various parametric studies have been carried out and the results have
been compared with literature where ever available and also with the solution, obtained by using ABAQUS. By conducting extensive
numerical studies expressions for SIF have been obtained for collinear cracks and non-aligned cracks.
The Effect of Stress Biaxiality on Crack Shape Development
The development of shape and size of a crack in a
pressure vessel under uniaxial and biaxial loadings is important in
fitness-for-service evaluations such as leak-before-break. In this
work finite element modelling was used to evaluate the mean stress
and the J-integral around a front of a surface-breaking crack. A
procedure on the basis of ductile tearing resistance curves of high and
low constrained fracture mechanics geometries was developed to
estimate the amount of ductile crack extension for surface-breaking
cracks and to show the evolution of the initial crack shape. The
results showed non-uniform constraint levels and crack driving forces
around the crack front at large deformation levels. It was also shown
that initially semi-elliptical surface cracks under biaxial load
developed higher constraint levels around the crack front than in
uniaxial tension. However similar crack shapes were observed with
more extensions associated with cracks under biaxial loading.
Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes
The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack
Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall
Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of
critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack
growth continues to be an important component of research for
several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the
understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the
determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context,
studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant
(NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic
loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle
fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.
Identification of Ductile Damage Parameters for Austenitic Steel
The modeling of inelastic behavior of plastic materials requires measurements providing information on material response to different multiaxial loading conditions. Different triaxiality conditions and values of Lode parameters have to be
covered for complex description of the material plastic behavior.
Samples geometries providing material plastic behavoiur over the range of interest are proposed with the use of FEM analysis. Round samples with 3 different notches and smooth surface are used
together with butterfly type of samples tested at angle ranging for 0 to
90°. Identification of ductile damage parameters is carried out on
the basis of obtained experimental data for austenitic stainless steel.
The obtained material plastic damage parameters are subsequently applied to FEM simulation of notched CT normally samples used for
fracture mechanics testing and results from the simulation are
compared with real tests.
Effect of Miniature Cracks on the Fracture Strength and Strain of Tensile Armour Wires
Tensile armour wires provide a flexible pipe's
resistance to longitudinal stresses. Flexible pipe manufacturers need
to know the effect of defects such as scratches and cracks, with
dimensions less than 0.2mm which is the limit of the current nondestructive
detection technology, on the fracture stress and fracture
strain of the wire for quality assurance purposes. Recent research
involving the determination of the fracture strength of cracked wires
employed laboratory testing and classical fracture mechanics
approach using non-standardised fracture mechanics specimens
because standard test specimens could not be manufactured from the
wires owing to their sizes. In this work, the effect of miniature
cracks on the fracture properties of tensile armour wires was
investigated using laboratory and finite element tensile testing
simulations with the phenomenological shear fracture model. The
investigation revealed that the presence of cracks shallower than
0.2mm is worse on the fracture strain of the wire.
Scatter Analysis of Fatigue Life and Pore Size Data of Die-Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy
Scatter behavior of fatigue life in die-cast AM60B
alloy was investigated. For comparison, those in rolled AM60B alloy
and die-cast A365-T5 aluminum alloy were also studied. Scatter
behavior of pore size was also investigated to discuss dominant
factors for fatigue life scatter in die-cast materials. Three-parameter
Weibull function was suitable to explain the scatter behavior of both
fatigue life and pore size. The scatter of fatigue life in die-cast
AM60B alloy was almost comparable to that in die-cast A365-T5
alloy, while it was significantly large compared to that in the rolled
AM60B alloy. Scatter behavior of pore size observed at fracture
nucleation site on the fracture surface was comparable to that
observed on the specimen cross-section and also to that of fatigue
life. Therefore, the dominant factor for large scatter of fatigue life in
die-cast alloys would be the large scatter of pore size. This
speculation was confirmed by the fracture mechanics fatigue life
prediction, where the pore observed at fatigue crack nucleation site
was assumed as the pre-existing crack.
Mathematical Modeling of an Avalanche Release and Estimation of Flow Parameters by Numerical Method
Avalanche release of snow has been modeled in the present studies. Snow is assumed to be represented by semi-solid and the governing equations have been studied from the concept of continuum approach. The dynamical equations have been solved for two different zones [starting zone and track zone] by using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Effect of density (ρ), Eddy viscosity (η), Slope angle (θ), Slab depth (R) on the flow parameters have been observed in the present studies. Numerical methods have been employed for computing the non linear differential equations. One of the most interesting and fundamental innovation in the present studies is getting initial condition for the computation of velocity by numerical approach. This information of the velocity has obtained through the concept of fracture mechanics applicable to snow. The results on the flow parameters have found to be in qualitative agreement with the published results.
Development of a Sliding-tearing Mode Fracture Mechanical Tool for Laminated Composite Materials
This work presents the mixed-mode II/III prestressed split-cantilever beam specimen for the fracture testing of composite materials. In accordance with the concept of prestressed composite beams one of the two fracture modes is provided by the prestressed state of the specimen, and the other one is increased up to fracture initiation by using a testing machine. The novel beam-like specimen is able to provide any combination of the mode-II and mode-III energy release rates. A simple closed-form solution is developed using beam theory as a data reduction scheme and for the calculation of the energy release rates in the new configuration. The applicability and the limitations of the novel fracture mechanical test are demonstrated using unidirectional glass/polyester composite specimens. If only crack propagation onset is involved then the mixed-mode beam specimen can be used to obtain the fracture criterion of transparent composite materials in the GII - GIII plane in a relatively simple way.
Analysis of Explosive Shock Wave and its Application in Snow Avalanche Release
Avalanche velocity (from start to track zone) has been estimated in the present model for an avalanche which is triggered artificially by an explosive devise. The initial development of the model has been from the concept of micro-continuum theories , underwater explosions  and from fracture mechanics  with appropriate changes to the present model. The model has been computed for different slab depth R, slope angle θ, snow density ¤ü, viscosity μ, eddy viscosity η*and couple stress parameter η. The applicability of the present model in the avalanche forecasting has been highlighted.
Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System
Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.
The Relationship between Fugacity and Stress Intensity Factor for Corrosive Environment in Presence of Hydrogen Embrittlement
Hydrogen diffusion is the main problem for corrosion fatigue in corrosive environment. In order to analyze the phenomenon, it is needed to understand their behaviors specially the hydrogen behavior during the diffusion. So, Hydrogen embrittlement and prediction its behavior as a main corrosive part of the fractions, needed to solve combinations of different equations mathematically. The main point to obtain the equation, having knowledge about the source of causing diffusion and running the atoms into materials, called driving force. This is produced by either gradient of electrical or chemical potential. In this work, we consider the gradient of chemical potential to obtain the property equation. In diffusion of atoms, some of them may be trapped but, it could be ignorable in some conditions. According to the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement, the thermodynamic and chemical properties of hydrogen are considered to justify and relate them to fracture mechanics. It is very important to get a stress intensity factor by using fugacity as a property of hydrogen or other gases. Although, the diffusive behavior and embrittlement event are common and the same for other gases but, for making it more clear, we describe it for hydrogen. This considering on the definite gas and describing it helps us to understand better the importance of this relation.
Fatigue Failure of Structural Steel – Analysis Using Fracture Mechanics
Fatigue is the major threat in service of steel structure
subjected to fluctuating loads. With the additional effect of corrosion
and presence of weld joints the fatigue failure may become more
critical in structural steel. One of the apt examples of such structural
is the sailing ship. This is experiencing a constant stress due to
floating and a pulsating bending load due to the waves. This paper
describes an attempt to verify theory of fatigue in fracture mechanics
approach with experimentation to determine the constants of crack
growth curve. For this, specimen is prepared from the ship building
steel and it is subjected to a pulsating bending load with a known
defect. Fatigue crack and its nature is observed in this experiment.
Application of fracture mechanics approach in fatigue with a simple
practical experiment is conducted and constants of crack growth
equation are investigated.
Geometry Calibration Factors of Modified Arcan Fracture Test for Welded Joint
In this study the mixed mode fracture mechanics
parameters were investigated for high tensile steel butt welded joint
based on modified Arcan test and finite element analysis was used to
evaluate the effect of crack length on fracture criterion. The nondimensional
stress intensity factors, strain energy release rates and Jintegral
energy on crack tip were obtained for various in-plane
loading combinations on Arcan specimen starting from pure mode-I
to pure mode-II loading conditions. The specimen and apparatus were
modeled by finite element method and analyzed under various
loading angles (between 0 to 90 degrees with 15 degree interval) to
simulate the pure mode-I, II and mixed mode fracture. Since the
analytical results are independent from elasticity modules for
isotropic materials, therefore the results in elastic fields can be used
for Arcan specimens. The main objective of this study was to
evaluate the geometric calibration factors for modified Arcan test
specimen in order to obtain fracture toughness under mixed mode
Fracture Toughness Characterization of Carbon-Epoxy Composite using Arcan Specimen
In this study the behavior of interlaminar fracture of
carbon-epoxy thermoplastic laminated composite is investigated
numerically and experimentally. Tests are performed with Arcan
specimens. Testing with Arcan specimen gives the opportunity of
utilizing just one kind of specimen for extracting fracture properties
for mode I, mode II and different mixed mode ratios of materials with
exerting load via different loading angles. Variation of loading angles
in range of 0-90° made possible to achieve different mixed mode
ratios. Correction factors for various conditions are obtained from
ABAQUS 2D finite element models which demonstrate the finite
shape of Arcan specimens used in this study. Finally, applying the
correction factors to critical loads obtained experimentally, critical
interlaminar fracture toughness of this type of carbon- epoxy
composite has been attained.
Numerical Investigation of Delamination in Carbon-Epoxy Composite using Arcan Specimen
In this paper delamination phenomenon in
Carbon-Epoxy laminated composite material is investigated
numerically. Arcan apparatus and specimen is modeled in ABAQUS
finite element software for different loading conditions and crack
geometries. The influence of variation of crack geometry on
interlaminar fracture stress intensity factor and energy release rate for
various mixed mode ratios and pure mode I and II was studied. Also,
correction factors for this specimen for different crack length ratios
were calculated. The finite element results indicate that for loading
angles close to pure mode-II loading, a high ratio of mode-II to
mode-I fracture is dominant and there is an opposite trend for loading
angles close to pure mode-I loading. It confirms that by varying the
loading angle of Arcan specimen pure mode-I, pure mode-II and a
wide range of mixed-mode loading conditions can be created and
tested. Also, numerical results confirm that the increase of the mode-
II loading contribution leads to an increase of fracture resistance in
the CF/PEI composite (i.e., a reduction in the total strain energy
release rate) and the increase of the crack length leads to a reduction
of interlaminar fracture resistance in the CF/PEI composite (i.e., an
increase in the total interlaminar strain energy release rate).
Mixed-Mode Study of Rock Fracture Mechanics by using the Modified Arcan Specimen Test
This paper studies mixed-mode fracture mechanics in
rock based on experimental and numerical analyses. Experiments
were performed on sharp-cracked specimens using the modified
Arcan specimen test loading device. The modified Arcan specimen
test was, in association with a special loading device, an appropriate
apparatus for experimental mixed-mode fracture analysis. By
varying the loading angle from 0° to 90°, pure mode-I, pure mode-II
and a wide range of mixed-mode data were obtained experimentally.
Using the finite element results, correction factors applied to the
rectangular fracture specimen. By employing experimentally
measured critical loads and the aid of the finite element method,
mixed-mode fracture toughness for the limestone under consideration
Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Stress Intensity Factor by Digital Image Correlation and Intelligent Hybrid Method
Displacement measurement was conducted on compact normal and shear specimens made of acrylic homogeneous material subjected to mixed-mode loading by digital image correlation. The intelligent hybrid method proposed by Nishioka et al. was applied to the stress-strain analysis near the crack tip. The accuracy of stress-intensity factor at the free surface was discussed from the viewpoint of both the experiment and 3-D finite element analysis. The surface images before and after deformation were taken by a CMOS camera, and we developed the system which enabled the real time stress analysis based on digital image correlation and inverse problem analysis. The great portion of processing time of this system was spent on displacement analysis. Then, we tried improvement in speed of this portion. In the case of cracked body, it is also possible to evaluate fracture mechanics parameters such as the J integral, the strain energy release rate, and the stress-intensity factor of mixed-mode. The 9-points elliptic paraboloid approximation could not analyze the displacement of submicron order with high accuracy. The analysis accuracy of displacement was improved considerably by introducing the Newton-Raphson method in consideration of deformation of a subset. The stress-intensity factor was evaluated with high accuracy of less than 1% of the error.