International Science Index
Bidirectional Discriminant Supervised Locality Preserving Projection for Face Recognition
Dimensionality reduction and feature extraction are of
crucial importance for achieving high efficiency in manipulating
the high dimensional data. Two-dimensional discriminant locality
preserving projection (2D-DLPP) and two-dimensional discriminant
supervised LPP (2D-DSLPP) are two effective two-dimensional
projection methods for dimensionality reduction and feature
extraction of face image matrices. Since 2D-DLPP and 2D-DSLPP
preserve the local structure information of the original data and
exploit the discriminant information, they usually have good
recognition performance. However, 2D-DLPP and 2D-DSLPP
only employ single-sided projection, and thus the generated low
dimensional data matrices have still many features. In this paper,
by combining the discriminant supervised LPP with the bidirectional
projection, we propose the bidirectional discriminant supervised LPP
(BDSLPP). The left and right projection matrices for BDSLPP can
be computed iteratively. Experimental results show that the proposed
BDSLPP achieves higher recognition accuracy than 2D-DLPP,
2D-DSLPP, and bidirectional discriminant LPP (BDLPP).
Adversarial Disentanglement Using Latent Classifier for Pose-Independent Representation
The large pose discrepancy is one of the critical
challenges in face recognition during video surveillance. Due to
the entanglement of pose attributes with identity information, the
conventional approaches for pose-independent representation lack
in providing quality results in recognizing largely posed faces. In
this paper, we propose a practical approach to disentangle the pose
attribute from the identity information followed by synthesis of a face
using a classifier network in latent space. The proposed approach
employs a modified generative adversarial network framework
consisting of an encoder-decoder structure embedded with a classifier
in manifold space for carrying out factorization on the latent
encoding. It can be further generalized to other face and non-face
attributes for real-life video frames containing faces with significant
attribute variations. Experimental results and comparison with state
of the art in the field prove that the learned representation of the
proposed approach synthesizes more compelling perceptual images
through a combination of adversarial and classification losses.
Pareidolia and Perception of Anger in Vehicle Styles: Survey Results
Most people see human faces in car front and back ends because of the process of pareidolia. 96 people were surveyed to see how many of them saw a face in the vehicle styling. Participants were aged 18 to 72 years. 94% of the participants saw faces in the front-end design of production models. All participants that recognized faces indicated that most styles showed some degree of an angry expression. It was found that women were more likely to see faces in inanimate objects. However, with respect to whether women were more likely to perceive anger in the vehicle design, the results need further clarification. Survey responses were correlated to the design features of vehicles to determine what cues the respondents were likely looking at when responding. Whether the features looked anthropomorphic was key to anger perception. Features such as the headlights which could represent eyes and the air intake that could represent a mouth had high correlations to trends in scores. Results are compared among models, makers, by groupings of body styles classifications for the top 12 brands sold in the US, and by year for the top 20 models sold in the US in 2016. All of the top models sold increased in perception of an angry expression over the last 20 years or since the model was introduced, but the relative change varied by body style grouping.
Performance Assessment of Multi-Level Ensemble for Multi-Class Problems
Many supervised machine learning tasks require
decision making across numerous different classes. Multi-class
classification has several applications, such as face recognition, text
recognition and medical diagnostics. The objective of this article is
to analyze an adapted method of Stacking in multi-class problems,
which combines ensembles within the ensemble itself. For this
purpose, a training similar to Stacking was used, but with three
levels, where the final decision-maker (level 2) performs its training
by combining outputs from the tree-based pair of meta-classifiers
(level 1) from Bayesian families. These are in turn trained by pairs
of base classifiers (level 0) of the same family. This strategy seeks to
promote diversity among the ensembles forming the meta-classifier
level 2. Three performance measures were used: (1) accuracy, (2)
area under the ROC curve, and (3) time for three factors: (a)
datasets, (b) experiments and (c) levels. To compare the factors,
ANOVA three-way test was executed for each performance measure,
considering 5 datasets by 25 experiments by 3 levels. A triple
interaction between factors was observed only in time. The accuracy
and area under the ROC curve presented similar results, showing
a double interaction between level and experiment, as well as for
the dataset factor. It was concluded that level 2 had an average
performance above the other levels and that the proposed method
is especially efficient for multi-class problems when compared to
Automated Video Surveillance System for Detection of Suspicious Activities during Academic Offline Examination
This research work aims to develop a system that will analyze and identify students who indulge in malpractices/suspicious activities during the course of an academic offline examination. Automated Video Surveillance provides an optimal solution which helps in monitoring the students and identifying the malpractice event immediately. This work is organized into three modules. The first module deals with performing an impersonation check using a PCA-based face recognition method which is done by cross checking his profile with the database. The presence or absence of the student is even determined in this module by implementing an image registration technique wherein a grid is formed by considering all the images registered using the frontal camera at the determined positions. Second, detecting such facial malpractices in which a student gets involved in conversation with another, trying to obtain unauthorized information etc., based on the threshold range evaluated by considering his/her mouth state whether open or closed. The third module deals with identification of unauthorized material or gadgets used in the examination hall by training the positive samples of the object through various stages. Here, a top view camera feed is analyzed to detect the suspicious activities. The system automatically alerts the administration when any suspicious activities are identified, thereby reducing the error rate caused due to manual monitoring. This work is an improvement over our previous work published in identifying suspicious activities done by examinees in an offline examination.
Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses
Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.
Facial Recognition on the Basis of Facial Fragments
There are many articles that attempt to establish the role of different facial fragments in face recognition. Various approaches are used to estimate this role. Frequently, authors calculate the entropy corresponding to the fragment. This approach can only give approximate estimation. In this paper, we propose to use a more direct measure of the importance of different fragments for face recognition. We propose to select a recognition method and a face database and experimentally investigate the recognition rate using different fragments of faces. We present two such experiments in the paper. We selected the PCNC neural classifier as a method for face recognition and parts of the LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) face database as training and testing sets. The recognition rate of the best experiment is comparable with the recognition rate obtained using the whole face.
A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches
Automatic detection of facial feature points plays
an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking,
human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of
facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or
three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In
this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have
been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class
of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent
facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In
the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the
2.5D Face Recognition Using Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform
In this paper, we present a novel 2.5D face recognition method based on Gabor Discrete Cosine Transform (GDCT). In the proposed method, the Gabor filter is applied to extract feature vectors from the texture and the depth information. Then, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used for dimensionality and redundancy reduction to improve computational efficiency. The system is combined texture and depth information in the decision level, which presents higher performance compared to methods, which use texture and depth information, separately. The proposed algorithm is examined on publically available Bosphorus database including models with pose variation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a higher performance compared to the benchmark.
An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains
In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.
Feature Vector Fusion for Image Based Human Age Estimation
Human faces, as important visual signals, express a significant amount of nonverbal info for usage in human-to-human communication. Age, specifically, is more significant among these properties. Human age estimation using facial image analysis as an automated method which has numerous potential real‐world applications. In this paper, an automated age estimation framework is presented. Support Vector Regression (SVR) strategy is utilized to investigate age prediction. This paper depicts a feature extraction taking into account Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), which can be utilized for robust face recognition framework. It applies GLCM operation to remove the face's features images and Active Appearance Models (AAMs) to assess the human age based on image. A fused feature technique and SVR with GA optimization are proposed to lessen the error in age estimation.
Extended Set of DCT-TPLBP and DCT-FPLBP for Face Recognition
In this paper, we describe an application for face
recognition. Many studies have used local descriptors to characterize
a face, the performance of these local descriptors remain low by
global descriptors (working on the entire image). The application of
local descriptors (cutting image into blocks) must be able to store
both the advantages of global and local methods in the Discrete
Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. This system uses neural network
techniques. The letter method provides a good compromise between
the two approaches in terms of simplifying of calculation and
classifying performance. Finally, we compare our results with those
obtained from other local and global conventional approaches.
Face Recognition Using Discrete Orthogonal Hahn Moments
One of the most critical decision points in the design of a
face recognition system is the choice of an appropriate face representation.
Effective feature descriptors are expected to convey sufficient, invariant
and non-redundant facial information. In this work we propose a set of
Hahn moments as a new approach for feature description. Hahn moments
have been widely used in image analysis due to their invariance, nonredundancy
and the ability to extract features either globally and locally.
To assess the applicability of Hahn moments to Face Recognition we
conduct two experiments on the Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL)
database and University of Notre-Dame (UND) X1 biometric collection.
Fusion of the global features along with the features from local facial
regions are used as an input for the conventional k-NN classifier. The
method reaches an accuracy of 93% of correctly recognized subjects for
the ORL database and 94% for the UND database.
Methods of Geodesic Distance in Two-Dimensional Face Recognition
In this paper, we present a comparative study of three
methods of 2D face recognition system such as: Iso-Geodesic Curves
(IGC), Geodesic Distance (GD) and Geodesic-Intensity Histogram
(GIH). These approaches are based on computing of geodesic
distance between points of facial surface and between facial curves.
In this study we represented the image at gray level as a 2D surface in
a 3D space, with the third coordinate proportional to the intensity
values of pixels. In the classifying step, we use: Neural Networks
(NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machines
(SVM). The images used in our experiments are from two wellknown
databases of face images ORL and YaleB. ORL data base was
used to evaluate the performance of methods under conditions where
the pose and sample size are varied, and the database YaleB was used
to examine the performance of the systems when the facial
expressions and lighting are varied.
Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition
This paper presents two techniques, local feature
extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum
modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical
information to improve the performance of face recognition
system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub
block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this
block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using
DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high
frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the
spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non-
Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several
Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best
feature representation can be modelled using probability density
function. The recognition process is performed using maximum
likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components.
The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved
92% recognition rates.
Quantitative Analysis of PCA, ICA, LDA and SVM in Face Recognition
Face recognition is a technique to automatically
identify or verify individuals. It receives great attention in
identification, authentication, security and many more applications.
Diverse methods had been proposed for this purpose and also a lot of
comparative studies were performed. However, researchers could not
reach unified conclusion. In this paper, we are reporting an extensive
quantitative accuracy analysis of four most widely used face
recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA),
Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Linear Discriminant
Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) using AT&T,
Sheffield and Bangladeshi people face databases under diverse
situations such as illumination, alignment and pose variations.
Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration
In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy Descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.
Face Recognition Based On Vector Quantization Using Fuzzy Neuro Clustering
A face recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame. A lot of algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Vector Quantization (VQ) based face recognition is a novel approach for face recognition. Here a new codebook generation for VQ based face recognition using Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) is proposed. IAFC is a fuzzy neural network which incorporates a fuzzy learning rule into a competitive neural network. The performance of proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using publicly available AT&T database, Yale database, Indian Face database and a small face database, DCSKU database created in our lab. In all the databases the proposed approach got a higher recognition rate than most of the existing methods. In terms of Equal Error Rate (ERR) also the proposed codebook is better than the existing methods.
Video-Based Face Recognition Based On State-Space Model
This paper proposes a video-based framework for face recognition to identify which faces appear in a video sequence. Our basic idea is like a tracking task - to track a selection of person candidates over time according to the observing visual features of face images in video frames. Hence, we employ the state-space model to formulate video-based face recognition by dividing this problem into two parts: the likelihood and the transition measures. The likelihood measure is to recognize whose face is currently being observed in video frames, for which two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis is employed. The transition measure estimates the probability of changing from an incorrect recognition at the previous stage to the correct person at the current stage. Moreover, extra nodes associated with head nodes are incorporated into our proposed state-space model. The experimental results are also provided to demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our proposed approach.
Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis
In face recognition, feature extraction techniques
attempts to search for appropriate representation of the data. However,
when the feature dimension is larger than the samples size, it brings
performance degradation. Hence, we propose a method called
Normalization Discriminant Independent Component Analysis
(NDICA). The input data will be regularized to obtain the most
reliable features from the data and processed using Independent
Component Analysis (ICA). The proposed method is evaluated on
three face databases, Olivetti Research Ltd (ORL), Face Recognition
Technology (FERET) and Face Recognition Grand Challenge
(FRGC). NDICA showed it effectiveness compared with other
unsupervised and supervised techniques.
Object Recognition on Horse Riding Simulator System
In recent years, IT convergence technology has been developed to get creative solution by combining robotics or sports science technology. Object detection and recognition have mainly applied to sports science field that has processed by recognizing face and by tracking human body. But object detection and recognition using vision sensor is challenge task in real world because of illumination. In this paper, object detection and recognition using vision sensor applied to sports simulator has been introduced. Face recognition has been processed to identify user and to update automatically a person athletic recording. Human body has tracked to offer a most accurate way of riding horse simulator. Combined image processing has been processed to reduce illumination adverse affect because illumination has caused low performance in detection and recognition in real world application filed. Face has recognized using standard face graph and human body has tracked using pose model, which has composed of feature nodes generated diverse face and pose images. Face recognition using Gabor wavelet and pose recognition using pose graph is robust to real application. We have simulated using ETRI database, which has constructed on horse riding simulator.
2D Spherical Spaces for Face Relighting under Harsh Illumination
In this paper, we propose a robust face relighting
technique by using spherical space properties. The proposed method
is done for reducing the illumination effects on face recognition.
Given a single 2D face image, we relight the face object by
extracting the nine spherical harmonic bases and the face spherical
illumination coefficients. First, an internal training illumination
database is generated by computing face albedo and face normal
from 2D images under different lighting conditions. Based on the
generated database, we analyze the target face pixels and compare
them with the training bootstrap by using pre-generated tiles. In this
work, practical real time processing speed and small image size were
considered when designing the framework. In contrast to other works,
our technique requires no 3D face models for the training process
and takes a single 2D image as an input. Experimental results on
publicly available databases show that the proposed technique works
well under severe lighting conditions with significant improvements
on the face recognition rates.
Face Localization and Recognition in Varied Expressions and Illumination
In this paper, we propose a robust scheme to work face alignment and recognition under various influences. For face representation, illumination influence and variable expressions are the important factors, especially the accuracy of facial localization and face recognition. In order to solve those of factors, we propose a robust approach to overcome these problems. This approach consists of two phases. One phase is preprocessed for face images by means of the proposed illumination normalization method. The location of facial features can fit more efficient and fast based on the proposed image blending. On the other hand, based on template matching, we further improve the active shape models (called as IASM) to locate the face shape more precise which can gain the recognized rate in the next phase. The other phase is to process feature extraction by using principal component analysis and face recognition by using support vector machine classifiers. The results show that this proposed method can obtain good facial localization and face recognition with varied illumination and local distortion.
Neural Network Based Approach for Face Detection cum Face Recognition
Automatic face detection is a complex problem in
image processing. Many methods exist to solve this problem such as
template matching, Fisher Linear Discriminate, Neural Networks,
SVM, and MRC. Success has been achieved with each method to
varying degrees and complexities. In proposed algorithm we used
upright, frontal faces for single gray scale images with decent
resolution and under good lighting condition. In the field of face
recognition technique the single face is matched with single face
from the training dataset. The author proposed a neural network
based face detection algorithm from the photographs as well as if any
test data appears it check from the online scanned training dataset.
Experimental result shows that the algorithm detected up to 95%
accuracy for any image.
Face Recognition using a Kernelization of Graph Embedding
Linearization of graph embedding has been emerged
as an effective dimensionality reduction technique in pattern
recognition. However, it may not be optimal for nonlinearly
distributed real world data, such as face, due to its linear nature. So, a
kernelization of graph embedding is proposed as a dimensionality
reduction technique in face recognition. In order to further boost the
recognition capability of the proposed technique, the Fisher-s
criterion is opted in the objective function for better data
discrimination. The proposed technique is able to characterize the
underlying intra-class structure as well as the inter-class separability.
Experimental results on FRGC database validate the effectiveness of
the proposed technique as a feature descriptor.
Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition
Although face recognition seems as an easy task for
human, automatic face recognition is a much more challenging task
due to variations in time, illumination and pose. In this paper, the
influence of time-lapse on visible and thermal images is examined.
Orthogonal moment invariants are used as a feature extractor to
analyze the effect of time-lapse on thermal and visible images and the
results are compared with conventional Principal Component
Analysis (PCA). A new triangle square ratio criterion is employed
instead of Euclidean distance to enhance the performance of nearest
neighbor classifier. The results of this study indicate that the ideal
feature vectors can be represented with high discrimination power
due to the global characteristic of orthogonal moment invariants.
Moreover, the effect of time-lapse has been decreasing and enhancing
the accuracy of face recognition considerably in comparison with
PCA. Furthermore, our experimental results based on moment
invariant and triangle square ratio criterion show that the proposed
approach achieves on average 13.6% higher in recognition rate than
Face Recognition using Features Combination and a New Non-linear Kernel
To improve the classification rate of the face
recognition, features combination and a novel non-linear kernel are
proposed. The feature vector concatenates three different radius of
local binary patterns and Gabor wavelet features. Gabor features are
the mean, standard deviation and the skew of each scaling and
orientation parameter. The aim of the new kernel is to incorporate
the power of the kernel methods with the optimal balance between
the features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method,
numerous methods are tested by using four datasets, which are
consisting of various emotions, orientations, configuration,
expressions and lighting conditions. Empirical results show the
superiority of the proposed technique when compared to other
Face Recognition with PCA and KPCA using Elman Neural Network and SVM
In this paper, in order to categorize ORL database face
pictures, principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Kernel Principal
Component Analysis (KPCA) methods by using Elman neural
network and Support Vector Machine (SVM) categorization methods
are used. Elman network as a recurrent neural network is proposed
for modeling storage systems and also it is used for reviewing the
effect of using PCA numbers on system categorization precision rate
and database pictures categorization time. Categorization stages are
conducted with various components numbers and the obtained results
of both Elman neural network categorization and support vector
machine are compared. In optimum manner 97.41% recognition
accuracy is obtained.
Low Resolution Face Recognition Using Mixture of Experts
Human activity is a major concern in a wide variety of
applications, such as video surveillance, human computer interface
and face image database management. Detecting and recognizing
faces is a crucial step in these applications. Furthermore, major
advancements and initiatives in security applications in the past years
have propelled face recognition technology into the spotlight. The
performance of existing face recognition systems declines significantly
if the resolution of the face image falls below a certain level.
This is especially critical in surveillance imagery where often, due to
many reasons, only low-resolution video of faces is available. If these
low-resolution images are passed to a face recognition system, the
performance is usually unacceptable. Hence, resolution plays a key
role in face recognition systems. In this paper we introduce a new
low resolution face recognition system based on mixture of expert
neural networks. In order to produce the low resolution input images
we down-sampled the 48 × 48 ORL images to 12 × 12 ones using
the nearest neighbor interpolation method and after that applying
the bicubic interpolation method yields enhanced images which is
given to the Principal Component Analysis feature extractor system.
Comparison with some of the most related methods indicates that
the proposed novel model yields excellent recognition rate in low
resolution face recognition that is the recognition rate of 100% for
the training set and 96.5% for the test set.
Face Texture Reconstruction for Illumination Variant Face Recognition
In illumination variant face recognition, existing
methods extracting face albedo as light normalized image may lead to
loss of extensive facial details, with light template discarded. To
improve that, a novel approach for realistic facial texture
reconstruction by combining original image and albedo image is
proposed. First, light subspaces of different identities are established
from the given reference face images; then by projecting the original
and albedo image into each light subspace respectively, texture
reference images with corresponding lighting are reconstructed and
two texture subspaces are formed. According to the projections in
texture subspaces, facial texture with normal light can be synthesized.
Due to the combination of original image, facial details can be
preserved with face albedo. In addition, image partition is applied to
improve the synthesization performance. Experiments on Yale B and
CMUPIE databases demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms the
others both in image representation and in face recognition.