Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).
Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is a disease based on insulin hormone disorders and causes high blood glucose. Clinical findings determine that diabetes can be diagnosed by electrophysiological signals obtained from the vital organs. 'Diabetic Retinopathy' is one of the most common eye diseases resulting on diabetes and it is the leading cause of vision loss due to structural alteration of the retinal layer vessels. In this study, features of horizontal and vertical Video-Oculography (VOG) signals have been used to classify non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy disease. Twenty-five features are acquired by using discrete wavelet transform with VOG signals which are taken from 21 subjects. Two models, based on multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function, are recommended in the diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. The proposed models also can detect level of the disease. We show comparative classification performance of the proposed models. Our results show that proposed the RBF model (100%) results in better classification performance than the MLP model (94%).
Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the development of retinal microaneurysms. The damage can be prevented if disease is treated in its early stages. In this paper, we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifiers for automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils. The Nearest Neighbor classifier is used as a baseline for comparison. Detected microaneurysms are validated with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of each method are also compared.
Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) coupled with Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular in the diagnosis and therapy planning of medical ailments utilizing the digital content of medical images. This paper presents a survey of some of the promising approaches used in the detection of abnormalities in retina images as well in mammographic screening and detection of regions of interest in MRI scans of the brain. We also describe our proposed algorithm to detect hard exudates in fundus images of the retina of Diabetic Retinopathy patients.
Microaneurysm is a key indicator of diabetic retinopathy that can potentially cause damage to retina. Early detection and automatic quantification are the keys to prevent further damage. In this paper, which focuses on automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and automatic microaneurysm pixel classification. We found that the best feature set is a combination of 10 features: the pixel-s intensity of shade corrected image, the pixel hue, the standard deviation of shade corrected image, DoG4, the area of the candidate MA, the perimeter of the candidate MA, the eccentricity of the candidate MA, the circularity of the candidate MA, the mean intensity of the candidate MA on shade corrected image and the ratio of the major axis length and minor length of the candidate MA. The overall sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 84.82%, 99.99%, 89.01%, and 99.99%, respectively.
This paper presents a method for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the powerful preprocessing techniques such as the contrast enhancement, Gabor wavelet transform for vessel segmentation, mathematical morphology and Earth Mover-s distance (EMD) as the matching process. The OD detection algorithm is based on matching the expected directional pattern of the retinal blood vessels. Vessel segmentation method produces segmentations by classifying each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, based on the pixel-s feature vector. Feature vectors are composed of the pixel-s intensity and 2D Gabor wavelet transform responses taken at multiple scales. A simple matched filter is proposed to roughly match the direction of the vessels at the OD vicinity using the EMD. The minimum distance provides an estimate of the OD center coordinates. The method-s performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE and STARE databases. On the DRIVE database the OD center was detected correctly in all of the 40 images (100%) and on the STARE database the OD was detected correctly in 76 out of the 81 images, even in rather difficult pathological situations.
Intravitreal injection (IVI) is the most common treatment for eye posterior segment diseases such as endopthalmitis, retinitis, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, uveitis, and retinal detachment. Most of the drugs used to treat vitreoretinal diseases, have a narrow concentration range in which they are effective, and may be toxic at higher concentrations. Therefore, it is critical to know the drug distribution within the eye following intravitreal injection. Having knowledge of drug distribution, ophthalmologists can decide on drug injection frequency while minimizing damage to tissues. The goal of this study was to develop a computer model to predict intraocular concentrations and pharmacokinetics of intravitreally injected drugs. A finite volume model was created to predict distribution of two drugs with different physiochemical properties in the rabbit eye. The model parameters were obtained from literature review. To validate this numeric model, the in vivo data of spatial concentration profile from the lens to the retina were compared with the numeric data. The difference was less than 5% between the numerical and experimental data. This validation provides strong support for the numerical methodology and associated assumptions of the current study.
In this paper, a new automated methodology to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically in retinal images from patients with risk of being affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (ME) is presented. The detection procedure comprises two independent methodologies. On one hand, a location methodology obtains a pixel that belongs to the OD using image contrast analysis and structure filtering techniques and, on the other hand, a boundary segmentation methodology estimates a circular approximation of the OD boundary by applying mathematical morphology, edge detection techniques and the Circular Hough Transform. The methodologies were tested on a set of 1200 images composed of 229 retinographies from patients affected by DR with risk of ME, 431 with DR and no risk of ME and 540 images of healthy retinas. The location methodology obtained 98.83% success rate, whereas the OD boundary segmentation methodology obtained good circular OD boundary approximation in 94.58% of cases. The average computational time measured over the total set was 1.67 seconds for OD location and 5.78 seconds for OD boundary segmentation.