International Science Index

8
10009355
Hormones and Mineral Elements Associated with Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women in Eastern Slovakia
Abstract:

Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease that results in reduced quality of life, causes decreased bone strength, and changes in their microarchitecture. Mostly postmenopausal women are at risk. In our study, we measured anthropometric parameters of postmenopausal women (104 women of control group – CG and 105 women of osteoporotic group - OG) and determined TSH hormone levels and PTH as well as mineral elements - Ca, P, Mg and enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Through the correlation analysis in CG, we have found association based on age and BMI, P and Ca, as well as Mg and Ca; in OG we determined interdependence based on an association of age and BMI, age and Ca. Using the Student's t test, we found significantly important differences in biochemical parameters of Mg (p ˂ 0,001) and TSH (p ˂ 0,05) between CG and OG.

Paper Detail
408
downloads
7
10001805
Varieties of Capitalism and Small Business CSR: A Comparative Overview
Abstract:

Given the limited research on Small and Mediumsized Enterprises’ (SMEs) contribution to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and even scarcer research on Swiss SMEs, this paper helps to fill these gaps by enabling the identification of supranational SME parameters. Thus, the paper investigates the current state of SME practices in Switzerland and across 15 other countries. Combining the degree to which SMEs demonstrate an explicit (or business case) approach or see CSR as an implicit moral activity with the assessment of their attributes for “variety of capitalism” defines the framework of this comparative analysis. To outline Swiss small business CSR patterns in particular, 40 SME owner-managers were interviewed. A secondary data analysis of studies from different countries laid groundwork for this comparative overview of small business CSR. The paper identifies Swiss small business CSR as driven by norms, values, and by the aspiration to contribute to society, thus, as an implicit part of the day-to-day business. Similar to most Central European, Mediterranean, Nordic, and Asian countries, explicit CSR is still very rare in Swiss SMEs. Astonishingly, also British and American SMEs follow this pattern in spite of their strong and distinctly liberal market economies. Though other findings show that nationality matters this research concludes that SME culture and an informal CSR agenda are strongly formative and superseding even forces of market economies, nationally cultural patterns, and language. Hence, classifications of countries by their market system, as found in the comparative capitalism literature, do not match the CSR practices in SMEs as they do not mirror the peculiarities of their business. This raises questions on the universality and generalisability of unmediated, explicit management concepts, especially in the context of small firms.

Paper Detail
1947
downloads
6
9998745
RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Polymorphism in the Collection of Rye Cultivars
Abstract:

In the present study, RAPD-PCR was used to assess genetic diversity of the rye including landrances and new rye cultivars coming from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN). Five arbitrary random primers were used to determine RAPD polymorphism in the set of 38 rye genotypes. These primers amplified altogether 43 different DNA fragments with an average number of 8.6 fragments per genotypes. The number of fragments ranged from 7 (RLZ 8, RLZ 9 and RLZ 10) to 12 (RLZ 6). DI and PIC values of all RAPD markers were higher than 0.8 that generally means high level of polymorphism detected between rye genotypes. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The cultivars were grouped into two main clusters. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

Paper Detail
2327
downloads
5
9998879
Production Planning and Scheduling and SME
Abstract:

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are the backbone of central Europe’s economies and have a significant contribution to the gross domestic product. Production planning and scheduling (PPS) is still a crucial element in manufacturing industries of the 21st century even though this area of research is more than a century old. The topic of PPS is well researched especially in the context of large enterprises in the manufacturing industry. However the implementation of PPS methodologies within SME is mostly unobserved. This work analyzes how PPS is implemented in SME with the geographical focus on Switzerland and its vicinity. Based on restricted resources compared to large enterprises, SME have to face different challenges. The real problem areas of selected enterprises in regards of PPS are identified and evaluated. For the identified real-life problem areas of SME clear and detailed recommendations are created, covering concepts and best practices and the efficient usage of PPS. Furthermore the economic and entrepreneurial value for companies is lined out and why the implementation of the introduced recommendations is advised.

Paper Detail
1745
downloads
4
12914
Unified, Low-Cost Analysis Framework for the Cycling Situation in Cities
Abstract:
We propose a low-cost uniform analysis framework allowing comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the bicycling experience within and between cities. A primary component is an expedient, one-page mobility survey from which mode share is calculated. The bicycle mode share of many cities remains unknown, creating a serious barrier for both scientists and policy makers aiming to understand and increase rates of bicycling. Because of its low cost and expedience, this framework could be replicated widely, uniformly filling the data gap. The framework has been applied to 13 Central European cities with success. Data is collected on multiple modes with specific questions regarding both behavior and quality of travel experience. Individual preferences are also collected, examining the conditions under which respondents would change behavior to adopt more sustainable modes (bicycling or public transportation). A broad analysis opportunity results, intended to inform policy choices.
Paper Detail
1134
downloads
3
10581
Analysis on the Relationship between Rating and Economic Growth for the European Union Emergent Economies
Abstract:
This article analyses the relationship between sovereign credit risk rating and gross domestic product for Central and Eastern European Countries for the period 1996 – 2010. In order to study the metioned relationship, we have used a numerical transformation of the risk qualification, thus: we marked 0 the lowest risk; then, we went on ascending, with a pace of 5, up to the score of 355 corresponding to the maximum risk. The used method of analysis is that of econometric modelling with EViews 7.0. programme. This software allows the analysis of data into a pannel type system, involving a mix of periods of time and series of data for different entities. The main conclusion of the work is the one confirming the negative relationship between the sovereign credit risk and the gross domestic product for the Central European and Eastern countries during the reviewed period.
Paper Detail
2119
downloads
2
14537
Barriers and Conflicts in Relationships of Small Firms – Insights from Central Europe
Abstract:
This paper contributes to our knowledge about buyerseller relations by identifying barriers and conflict situations associated with maintaining and developing durable business relationships by small companies. The contribution of prior studies with regard to negative aspects of marketing relationships is presented in the first section. The international research results are discussed with regard to the existing conceptualizations and main research implications identified at the end.
Paper Detail
957
downloads
1
11058
Identification of Flexographic-printed Newspapers with NIR Spectral Imaging
Abstract:
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a widely used method for material identification for laboratory and industrial applications. While standard spectrometers only allow measurements at one sampling point at a time, NIR Spectral Imaging techniques can measure, in real-time, both the size and shape of an object as well as identify the material the object is made of. The online classification and sorting of recovered paper with NIR Spectral Imaging (SI) is used with success in the paper recycling industry throughout Europe. Recently, the globalisation of the recycling material streams caused that water-based flexographic-printed newspapers mainly from UK and Italy appear also in central Europe. These flexo-printed newspapers are not sufficiently de-inkable with the standard de-inking process originally developed for offset-printed paper. This de-inking process removes the ink from recovered paper and is the fundamental processing step to produce high-quality paper from recovered paper. Thus, the flexo-printed newspapers are a growing problem for the recycling industry as they reduce the quality of the produced paper if their amount exceeds a certain limit within the recovered paper material. This paper presents the results of a research project for the development of an automated entry inspection system for recovered paper that was jointly conducted by CTR AG (Austria) and PTS Papiertechnische Stiftung (Germany). Within the project an NIR SI prototype for the identification of flexo-printed newspaper has been developed. The prototype can identify and sort out flexoprinted newspapers in real-time and achieves a detection accuracy for flexo-printed newspaper of over 95%. NIR SI, the technology the prototype is based on, allows the development of inspection systems for incoming goods in a paper production facility as well as industrial sorting systems for recovered paper in the recycling industry in the near future.
Paper Detail
1216
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