International Science Index
Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing
The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.
Development and Usability Assessment of a Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application for Strength-Monitoring
Resistance exercise bands are a core component of any physical activity strengthening program. Strength training can mitigate the development of sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass or strength and function with aging. Yet, the adherence of such behavioral exercise strategies in a home-based setting are fraught with issues of monitoring and compliance. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band capable of transmitting data to an open-source platform. In this work, we developed an application to capture this information in real-time, and conducted three usability studies in two mixed-aged groups of participants (n=6 each) and a group of older adults with obesity participating in a weight-loss intervention (n=20). The system was favorable, acceptable and provided iterative information that could assist in future deployment on ubiquitous platforms. Our formative work provides the foundation to deliver home-based monitoring interventions in a high-risk, older adult population.
Received Signal Strength Indicator Based Localization of Bluetooth Devices Using Trilateration: An Improved Method for the Visually Impaired People
The instantaneous and spatial localization for visually impaired people in dynamically changing environments with unexpected hazards and obstacles, is the most demanding and challenging issue faced by the navigation systems today. Since Bluetooth cannot utilize techniques like Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Time of Arrival (TOA), it uses received signal strength indicator (RSSI) to measure Receive Signal Strength (RSS). The measurements using RSSI can be improved significantly by improving the existing methodologies related to RSSI. Therefore, the current paper focuses on proposing an improved method using trilateration for localization of Bluetooth devices for visually impaired people. To validate the method, class 2 Bluetooth devices were used along with the development of a software. Experiments were then conducted to obtain surface plots that showed the signal interferences and other environmental effects. Finally, the results obtained show the surface plots for all Bluetooth modules used along with the strong and weak points depicted as per the color codes in red, yellow and blue. It was concluded that the suggested improved method of measuring RSS using trilateration helped to not only measure signal strength affectively but also highlighted how the signal strength can be influenced by atmospheric conditions such as noise, reflections, etc.
Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications
This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition
Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.
Designing Mobile Application to Motivate Young People to Visit Cultural Heritage Sites
This paper presents a mobile phone application developed for sightseeing in Nikko, one of the cultural world heritages in Japan, using the BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacon. Based on our pre-research, we decided to design our application for young people who walk around the area actively, but know little about the tradition and culture of Nikko. One solution is to construct many information boards to explain; however, it is difficult to construct new guide plates in cultural world heritage sites. The smartphone is a good solution to send such information to such visitors. This application was designed using a combination of the smartphone and beacons, set in the area, so that when a tourist passes near a beacon, the application displays information about the area including a map, historical or cultural information about the temples and shrines, and local shops nearby as well as a bus timetable. It is useful for foreigners, too. In addition, we developed quizzes relating to the culture and tradition of Nikko to provide information based on the Zeigarnik effect, a psychological effect. According to the results of our trials, tourists positively evaluated the basic information and young people who used the quiz function were able to learn the historical and cultural points. This application helped young visitors at Nikko to understand the cultural elements of the site. In addition, this application has a function to send notifications. This function is designed to provide information about the local community such as shops, local transportation companies and information office. The application hopes to also encourage people living in the area, and such cooperation from the local people will make this application vivid and inspire young visitors to feel that the cultural heritage site is still alive today. This is a gateway for young people to learn about a traditional place and understand the gravity of preserving such areas.
Comparison of Power Consumption of WiFi Inbuilt Internet of Things Device with Bluetooth Low Energy
The Internet of things (IoT) is currently a highly
researched topic, especially within the context of the smart home.
These are small sensors that are capable of gathering data and
transmitting it to a server. The majority of smart home products use
protocols such as ZigBee or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). As these
small sensors are increasing in number, the need to implement these
with much more capable and ubiquitous transmission technology is
necessary. The high power consumption is the reason that holds
these small sensors back from using other protocols such as the
most ubiquitous form of communication, WiFi. Comparing the power
consumption of existing transmission technologies to one with WiFi
inbuilt, would provide a better understanding for choosing between
these technologies. We have developed a small IoT device with WiFi
capability and proven that it is much more efficient than the first
protocol, 433 MHz. We extend our work in this paper and compare
WiFi power consumption with the other most widely used protocol
BLE. The experimental results in this paper would conclude whether
the developed prototype is capable in terms of power consumption to
replace the existing protocol BLE with WiFi.
An Indoor Guidance System Combining Near Field Communication and Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon Technologies
Users rely increasingly on Location-Based Services (LBS) and automated navigation/guidance systems nowadays. However, while such services are easily implemented in outdoor environments using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, a requirement still exists for accurate localization and guidance schemes in indoor settings. Accordingly, the present study presents a methodology based on GPS, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons, and Near Field Communication (NFC) technology. Through establishing graphic information and the design of algorithm, this study develops a guidance system for indoor and outdoor on smartphones, with aim to provide users a smart life through this system. The presented system is implemented on a smartphone and evaluated on a student campus environment. The experimental results confirm the ability of the presented app to switch automatically from an outdoor mode to an indoor mode and to guide the user to the requested target destination via the shortest possible route.
Intelligent Irrigation Control System Using Wireless Sensors and Android Application
Agriculture is the major occupation in India and forms the backbone of Indian economy in which irrigation plays a crucial role for increasing the quality and quantity of crop yield. In spite of many revolutionary advancements in agriculture, there has not been a dramatic increase in agricultural performance. Lack of irrigation infrastructure and agricultural knowledge are the critical factors influencing agricultural performance. However, by using advanced agricultural equipment, the effect of these factors can be curtailed. The presented system aims at increasing the yield of crops by using an intelligent irrigation controller that makes use of wireless sensors. Sensors are used to monitor primary parameters such as soil moisture, soil pH, temperature and humidity. Irrigation decisions are taken based on the sensed data and the type of crop being grown. The system provides a mobile application in which farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system. Also, the water pump is protected against damages due to voltage variations and dry running.
Performance Analysis of Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Routing Algorithm in Case of Disaster Prediction
Ubiquity of natural disasters during last few decades
have risen serious questions towards the prediction of such events
and human safety. Every disaster regardless its proportion has a
precursor which is manifested as a disruption of some environmental
parameter such as temperature, humidity, pressure, vibrations and
etc. In order to anticipate and monitor those changes, in this paper
we propose an overall system for disaster prediction and monitoring,
based on wireless sensor network (WSN). Furthermore, we introduce
a modified and simplified WSN routing protocol built on the top
of the trickle routing algorithm. Routing algorithm was deployed
using the bluetooth low energy protocol in order to achieve low
power consumption. Performance of the WSN network was analyzed
using a real life system implementation. Estimates of the WSN
parameters such as battery life time, network size and packet delay are
determined. Based on the performance of the WSN network, proposed
system can be utilized for disaster monitoring and prediction due to
its low power profile and mesh routing feature.
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector
In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.
Optimizing Resource Allocation and Indoor Location Using Bluetooth Low Energy
The recent tendency of ”Internet of Things” (IoT) has
developed in the last years, causing the emergence of innovative
communication methods among multiple devices. The appearance of
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has allowed a push to IoT in relation
to smartphones. In this moment, a set of new applications related to
several topics like entertainment and advertisement has begun to be
developed but not much has been done till now to take advantage
of the potential that these technologies can offer on many business
areas and in everyday tasks. In the present work, the application of
BLE technology and smartphones is proposed on some business areas
related to the optimization of resource allocation in huge facilities
like airports. An indoor location system has been developed through
triangulation methods with the use of BLE beacons. The described
system can be used to locate all employees inside the building
in such a way that any task can be automatically assigned to a
group of employees. It should be noted that this system cannot
only be used to link needs with employees according to distances,
but it also takes into account other factors like occupation level or
category. In addition, it has been endowed with a security system
to manage business and personnel sensitive data. The efficiency of
communications is another essential characteristic that has been taken
into account in this work.
The Most Secure Smartphone Operating System: A Survey
In the recent years, a fundamental revolution in the Mobile Phone technology from just being able to provide voice and short message services to becoming the most essential part of our lives by connecting to network and various app stores for downloading software apps of almost every activity related to our life from finding location to banking from getting news updates to downloading HD videos and so on. This progress in Smart Phone industry has modernized and transformed our way of living into a trouble-free world. The smart phone has become our personal computers with the addition of significant features such as multi core processors, multi-tasking, large storage space, bluetooth, WiFi, including large screen and cameras. With this evolution, the rise in the security threats have also been amplified. In Literature, different threats related to smart phones have been highlighted and various precautions and solutions have been proposed to keep the smart phone safe which carries all the private data of a user. In this paper, a survey has been carried out to find out the most secure and the most unsecure smart phone operating system among the most popular smart phones in use today.
Object Motion Tracking Based On Color Detection for Android Devices
This paper presents the development of a robot car
that can track the motion of an object by detecting its color through
an Android device. The employed computer vision algorithm uses the
OpenCV library, which is embedded into an Android application of a
smartphone, for manipulating the captured image of the object. The
captured image of the object is subjected to color conversion and is
transformed to a binary image for further processing after color
filtering. The desired object is clearly determined after removing
pixel noise by applying image morphology operations and contour
definition. Finally, the area and the center of the object are
determined so that object’s motion to be tracked. The smartphone
application has been placed on a robot car and transmits by Bluetooth
to an Arduino assembly the motion directives so that to follow
objects of a specified color. The experimental evaluation of the
proposed algorithm shows reliable color detection and smooth
An Approach for the Integration of the Existing Wireless Networks
The demand of high quality services has fueled
dimensional research and development in wireless communications
and networking. As a result, different wireless technologies like
Wireless LAN, CDMA, GSM, UMTS, MANET, Bluetooth and
satellite networks etc. have emerged in the last two decades. Future
networks capable of carrying multimedia traffic need IP convergence,
portability, seamless roaming and scalability among the existing
networking technologies without changing the core part of the
existing communications networks. To fulfill these goals, the present
networking systems are required to work in cooperation to ensure
technological independence, seamless roaming, high security and
authentication, guaranteed Quality of Services (QoS). In this paper, a
conceptual framework for a cooperative network (CN) is proposed
for integration of heterogeneous existing networks to meet out the
requirements of the next generation wireless networks.
Square Printed Monopole Antenna for Wireless Applications
In this article design and optimization of square printed monopole antenna for wireless application is proposed. Theory of characteristics mode (TCM) is used for analysis of current modes on the antenna. TCM analysis shows that beveled ground plane improves the impedance bandwidth. The antenna operates over the frequency range from 1.860 GHz to 5 GHz for a VSWR ≤ 2, covering the GSM (1900-1990MHz), IMT-2000(1920-2170MHz), Bluetooth (2.400-2484 MHz) and lower band of ultrawideband (UWB). Stable radiation pattern shows minimal pulse distortion. The radiation pattern is omni-directional along the H-plane and figure of eight along the E-plane. Size of proposed antenna is 39 mm x 29 mm x 1.6mm. Antenna is simulated using CAD FEKO suite (6.2) using method of moment. A prototype antenna is fabricated using FR4 dielectric substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 and loss tangent of 0.02 to validate the simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna. Measured results are in good agreement with simulated results.
Hospital Based Electrocardiogram Sensor Grid
The technological concepts such as wireless hospital
and portable cardiac telemetry system require the development of
physiological signal acquisition devices to be easily integrated into
the hospital database. In this paper we present the low cost, portable
wireless ECG acquisition hardware that transmits ECG signals to a
dedicated computer.The front end of the system obtains and
processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a
microcontroller and wireless Bluetooth module. A monitoring
purpose Bluetooth based end user application integrated with patient
database management module is developed for the computers. The
system will act as a continuous event recorder, which can be used to
follow up patients who have been resuscitatedfrom cardiac arrest,
ventricular tachycardia but also for diagnostic purposes for patients
with arrhythmia symptoms. In addition, cardiac information can be
saved into the patient-s database of the hospital.
Image Transmission in Low-Power Networks in Mobile Communications Channel
This paper studies a vital issue in wireless
communications, which is the transmission of images over Wireless
Personal Area Networks (WPANs) through the Bluetooth network. It
presents a simple method to improve the efficiency of error control
code of old Bluetooth versions over mobile WPANs through
Interleaved Error Control Code (IECC) technique. The encoded
packets are interleaved by simple block interleaver. Also, the paper
presents a chaotic interleaving scheme as a tool against bursts of
errors which depends on the chaotic Baker map. Also, the paper
proposes using the chaotic interleaver instead of traditional block
interleaver with Forward Error Control (FEC) scheme. A comparison
study between the proposed and standard techniques for image
transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented.
Simulation results reveal the superiority of the proposed chaotic
interleaving scheme to other schemes. Also, the superiority of FEC
with proposed chaotic interleaver to the conventional interleavers
with enhancing the security level with chaotic interleaving packetby-
Designing of Multi-Agent Rescue Robot: Development and Basic Experiments of Master-Slave Type Rescue Robots
A multi-agent type robot for disaster response in calamity scene is proposed in this paper. The proposed grouped rescue robots can perform cooperative reconnaissance and surveillance to achieve a given rescue mission. The multi-agent rescue of dual set robot consists of one master set and three slave units. The research for this rescue robot system is going to detect at harmful environment where human is unreachable, such as the building is infected with virus or the factory has hazardous liquid in effluent. As a dual set robot, with Bluetooth and communication network, the master set can connect with slave units and send information back to computer by wireless and monitor. Therefore, rescuer can be informed the real-time information in a calamity area. Furthermore, each slave robot is able to obstacle avoidance by ultrasonic sensors, and encodes distance and location by compass. The master robot can integrate every devices information to increase the efficiency of prospected and research unknown area.
Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency
With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in
different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the
paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with
throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless
communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless
networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal
Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition
consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the
throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The
proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate
(CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the
transmission process according to the channel conditions. The
proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the
capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic
and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable
for the low throughput Bluetooth.
Mobile Qibla and Prayer Time Finder using PDA and External Digital Compass
These days people love to travel around the world.
Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still
need to perform their prayers. Normally for travelers, they need to
bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla
pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to determine the Qibla
direction and to know the time for each prayer. As the technology
grows, many PDA equip with maps and GPS to locate their location.
In this paper we present a new electronic device called Mobile Qibla
and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to
determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location using
PDA. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital
compass where it will communicate with PDA using Bluetooth
technology and display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time
automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable and
accurate in determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.
Enhancing Performance of Bluetooth Piconets Using Priority Scheduling and Exponential Back-Off Mechanism
Bluetooth is a personal wireless communication
technology and is being applied in many scenarios. It is an emerging
standard for short range, low cost, low power wireless access
technology. Current existing MAC (Medium Access Control)
scheduling schemes only provide best-effort service for all masterslave
connections. It is very challenging to provide QoS (Quality of
Service) support for different connections due to the feature of
Master Driven TDD (Time Division Duplex). However, there is no
solution available to support both delay and bandwidth guarantees
required by real time applications. This paper addresses the issue of
how to enhance QoS support in a Bluetooth piconet. The Bluetooth
specification proposes a Round Robin scheduler as possible solution
for scheduling the transmissions in a Bluetooth Piconet. We propose
an algorithm which will reduce the bandwidth waste and enhance the
efficiency of network. We define token counters to estimate traffic of
real-time slaves. To increase bandwidth utilization, a back-off
mechanism is then presented for best-effort slaves to decrease the
frequency of polling idle slaves. Simulation results demonstrate that
our scheme achieves better performance over the Round Robin
Multiband CPW-Fed Slot Antenna with L-slot Bowtie Tuning Stub
This paper presents a multiband CPW-fed slot antenna
with L-slot bowtie tuning stub. The proposed antenna has been
designed for PCS 1900, UMTS, WLAN 802.11 a/b/g and bluetooth
applications, with a cost-effective FR4 substrate. The proposed
antenna still radiate as omni-directional in azimuth plane and
sufficient bandwidth for all above mentions. The proposed antenna
works as dual-wideband, bandwidth at low frequency band and high
frequency are about 45.49 % and 22.39 % respectively. The
experimental results of the constructed prototype are presented and
also compared with simulation results using a commercial software
Design and Simulation of Portable Telemedicine System for High Risk Cardiac Patients
Deaths from cardiovascular diseases have decreased substantially over the past two decades, largely as a result of advances in acute care and cardiac surgery. These developments have produced a growing population of patients who have survived a myocardial infarction. These patients need to be continuously monitored so that the initiation of treatment can be given within the crucial golden hour. The available conventional methods of monitoring mostly perform offline analysis and restrict the mobility of these patients within a hospital or room. Hence the aim of this paper is to design a Portable Cardiac Telemedicine System to aid the patients to regain their independence and return to an active work schedule, there by improving the psychological well being. The portable telemedicine system consists of a Wearable ECG Transmitter (WET) and a slightly modified mobile phone, which has an inbuilt ECG analyzer. The WET is placed on the body of the patient that continuously acquires the ECG signals from the high-risk cardiac patients who can move around anywhere. This WET transmits the ECG to the patient-s Bluetooth enabled mobile phone using blue tooth technology. The ECG analyzer inbuilt in the mobile phone continuously analyzes the heartbeats derived from the received ECG signals. In case of any panic condition, the mobile phone alerts the patients care taker by an SMS and initiates the transmission of a sample ECG signal to the doctor, via the mobile network.
Interactive PTZ Camera Control System Using Wii Remote and Infrared Sensor Bar
This paper proposes an alternative control mechanism
for an interactive Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) camera control system.
Instead of using a mouse or a joystick, the proposed mechanism
utilizes a Nintendo Wii remote and infrared (IR) sensor bar. The Wii
remote has buttons that allows the user to control the movement of a
PTZ camera through Bluetooth connectivity. In addition, the Wii
remote has a built-in motion sensor that allows the user to give
control signals to the PTZ camera through pitch and roll movement.
A stationary IR sensor bar, placed at some distance away opposite the
Wii remote, enables the detection of yaw movement. In addition, the
Wii remote-s built-in IR camera has the ability to detect its spatial
position, and thus generates a control signal when the user moves the
Wii remote. Some experiments are carried out and their performances
are compared with an industry-standard PTZ joystick.
Development of an Autonomous Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System
This paper describes the designs of a first and second
generation autonomous gas monitoring system and the successful
field trial of the final system (2nd generation). Infrared sensing
technology is used to detect and measure the greenhouse gases
methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at point sources. The
ability to monitor real-time events is further enhanced through the
implementation of both GSM and Bluetooth technologies to
communicate these data in real-time. These systems are robust,
reliable and a necessary tool where the monitoring of gas events in
real-time are needed.
Design, Development and Implementation of aTemperature Sensor using Zigbee Concepts
This paper deals with the design, development & implementation of a temperature sensor using zigbee. The main aim of the work undertaken in this paper is to sense the temperature and to display the result on the LCD using the zigbee technology. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide. The technology is intended to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. The most capable ZigBee node type is said to require only about 10 % of the software of a typical Bluetooth or Wireless Internet node, while the simplest nodes are about 2 %. However, actual code sizes are much higher, more like 50 % of the Bluetooth code size. ZigBee chip vendors have announced 128-kilobyte devices. In this work undertaken in the design & development of the temperature sensor, it senses the temperature and after amplification is then fed to the micro controller, this is then connected to the zigbee module, which transmits the data and at the other end the zigbee reads the data and displays on to the LCD. The software developed is highly accurate and works at a very high speed. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed.
Zero-knowledge-like Proof of Cryptanalysis of Bluetooth Encryption
This paper presents a protocol aiming at proving that an encryption system contains structural weaknesses without disclosing any information on those weaknesses. A verifier can check in a polynomial time that a given property of the cipher system output has been effectively realized. This property has been chosen by the prover in such a way that it cannot been achieved by known attacks or exhaustive search but only if the prover indeed knows some undisclosed weaknesses that may effectively endanger the cryptosystem security. This protocol has been denoted zero-knowledge-like proof of cryptanalysis. In this paper, we apply this protocol to the Bluetooth core encryption algorithm E0, used in many mobile environments and thus we suggest that its security can seriously be put into question.
Implementation of the Personal Emergency Response System
The aged are faced with increasing risk for falls. The
aged have the easily fragile bones than others. When falls have
occurred, it is important to detect this emergency state because such
events often lead to more serious illness or even death. A
implementation of PDA system, for detection of emergency situation,
was developed using 3-axis accelerometer in this paper as follows.
The signals were acquired from the 3-axis accelerometer, and then
transmitted to the PDA through Bluetooth module. This system can
classify the human activity, and also detect the emergency state like
falls. When the fall occurs, the system generates the alarm on the
PDA. If a subject does not respond to the alarm, the system determines
whether the current situation is an emergency state or not, and then
sends some information to the emergency center in the case of urgent
situation. Three different studies were conducted on 12 experimental
subjects, with results indicating a good accuracy. The first study was
performed to detect the posture change of human daily activity. The
second study was performed to detect the correct direction of fall. The
third study was conducted to check the classification of the daily
physical activity. Each test was lasted at least 1 min. in third study.
The output of acceleration signal was compared and evaluated by
changing a various posture after attaching a 3-axis accelerometer
module on the chest. The newly developed system has some important
features such as portability, convenience and low cost. One of the
main advantages of this system is that it is available at home
healthcare environment. Another important feature lies in low cost to
manufacture device. The implemented system can detect the fall
accurately, so will be widely used in emergency situation.