International Science Index
Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq
Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient’s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.
Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data
Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.
Sickle Cell Disease: Review of Managements in Pregnancy and the Outcome in Ampang Hospital, Selangor
The aim of this study is the review of the management practices of sickle cell disease patients during pregnancy, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcome at Ampang Hospital, Selangor. The study consisted of a review of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease under follow up at the Hematology Clinic, Ampang Hospital over the last seven years to assess their management and maternal-fetal outcome. The results of the review show that Ampang Hospital is considered the public hematology centre for sickle cell disease and had successfully managed three pregnancies throughout the last seven years. Patients’ presentations, managements and maternal-fetal outcome were compared and reviewed for academic improvements. All three patients were seen very early in their pregnancy and had been given a regime of folic acid, antibiotics and thrombo-prophylactic drugs. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal well being was done by the hematologists and obstetricians. Among the patients, there were multiple admissions during the pregnancy for either a painful sickle cell bone crisis, haemolysis following an infection and anemia requiring phenotype- matched blood and exchange transfusions. Broad spectrum antibiotics coverage during and infection, hydration, pain management and venous-thrombolism prophylaxis were mandatory. The pregnancies managed to reach near term in the third trimester but all required emergency caesarean section for obstetric indications. All pregnancies resulted in live births with good fetal outcome. During post partum all were nursed closely in the high dependency units for further complications and were discharged well. Post partum follow up and contraception counseling was comprehensively given for future pregnancies. Sickle cell disease is uncommonly seen in the East, especially in the South East Asian region, yet more cases are seen in the current decade due to improved medical expertise and advance medical laboratory technologies. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for sickle cell patients as increased thrombosis event and risk of infections can lead to multiple crisis, haemolysis, anemia and vaso-occlusive complications including eclampsia, cerebrovasular accidents and acute bone pain. Patients mostly require multiple blood product transfusions thus phenotype-matched blood is required to reduce the risk of alloimmunozation. Emphasizing the risks and complications in preconception counseling and establishing an ultimate pregnancy plan would probably reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality to the mother and unborn child. Early management for risk of infection, thromboembolic events and adequate hydration is mandatory. A holistic approach involving multidisciplinary team care between the hematologist, obstetricians, anesthetist, neonatologist and close nursing care for both mother and baby would ensure the best outcome. In conclusion, sickle cell disease by itself is a high risk medical condition and pregnancy would further amplify the risk. Thus, close monitoring with combine multidisciplinary care, counseling and educating the patients are crucial in achieving the safe outcome.
Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan
This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.
The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital
Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently crosschecked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014 – September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.
Incidence of Acinetobacter in Fresh Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)
The research aims to investigate the occurrence of
multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of
carrot in its transmission in a rapidly growing urban population.
Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater
irrigation farms and are analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened
by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates is tested
against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and
A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively.
Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A.
baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and
co-trimoxazole were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from
37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs
tested. There were similarities in the resistances shown by A.
baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones and β- lactame drug
families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside
demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Significant correlation in similarities were
observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%)
A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and high multi drug
resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A.
lwoffii respectively. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen
in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a
rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture
contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.
Microbiological Profile of UTI along with Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern with Special Reference to Nitrofurantoin
Urinary Tract Infections are considered as one of the
most common bacterial infections with an estimated annual global
incidence of 150 million. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the
major threats due to wide spread usage of uncontrolled antibiotics. In
this study, a total number of 9149 urine samples were collected from
R.H Patiala and processed in the Department of Microbiology G. M.
C Patiala (January 2013 to December 2013). Urine samples were
inoculated on MacConkey’s and blood agar plates and incubated at
370C for 24 hrs. The organisms were identified by colony characters,
Gram’s staining, and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial
susceptibility of the isolates was determined against various
antimicrobial agents (Hi – Media Mumbai India) by Kirby Bauer
DISK diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. Maximum patients were in the age group of 21-30 yrs followed by
31-40 yrs. Males (34%) are less prone to urinary tract infections than
females (66%). Culture was positive in 25% of the samples.
Escherichia coli was the most common isolate 60.3% followed by
Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.5%, Proteus spp. 9% and Staphylococcus
aureus 7.6%. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to,
carbepenems, Aztreonam, Amikacin, and Piperacillin + Tazobactum.
All the isolates showed a good sensitivity towards Nitrofurantoin
(82%). ESBL production was found to be 70.6% in Escherichia coli
and 29.4% in Klebsiella pneumonia. Susceptibility of ESBL
producers to Imipenem, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were found to
be 100%, 76%, and 75% respectively. Uropathogens are increasingly
showing resistance to many antibiotics making empiric management
of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and
Ciprofloxacin should not be used in empiric treatment. Nitrofurantoin
could be used in lower urinary tract infection. Knowledge of
uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a
geographical region will help in appropriate and judicious antibiotic
usage in a health care setup.
Robust Batch Process Scheduling in Pharmaceutical Industries: A Case Study
Batch production plants provide a wide range of
scheduling problems. In pharmaceutical industries a batch process
is usually described by a recipe, consisting of an ordering of tasks
to produce the desired product. In this research work we focused
on pharmaceutical production processes requiring the culture of
a microorganism population (i.e. bacteria, yeasts or antibiotics).
Several sources of uncertainty may influence the yield of the culture
processes, including (i) low performance and quality of the cultured
microorganism population or (ii) microbial contamination. For
these reasons, robustness is a valuable property for the considered
application context. In particular, a robust schedule will not collapse
immediately when a cell of microorganisms has to be thrown away
due to a microbial contamination. Indeed, a robust schedule should
change locally in small proportions and the overall performance
measure (i.e. makespan, lateness) should change a little if at all.
In this research work we formulated a constraint programming
optimization (COP) model for the robust planning of antibiotics
production. We developed a discrete-time model with a multi-criteria
objective, ordering the different criteria and performing a
lexicographic optimization. A feasible solution of the proposed
COP model is a schedule of a given set of tasks onto available
resources. The schedule has to satisfy tasks precedence constraints,
resource capacity constraints and time constraints. In particular
time constraints model tasks duedates and resource availability
time windows constraints. To improve the schedule robustness, we
modeled the concept of (a, b) super-solutions, where (a, b) are input
parameters of the COP model. An (a, b) super-solution is one in
which if a variables (i.e. the completion times of a culture tasks)
lose their values (i.e. cultures are contaminated), the solution can be
repaired by assigning these variables values with a new values (i.e.
the completion times of a backup culture tasks) and at most b other
variables (i.e. delaying the completion of at most b other tasks).
The efficiency and applicability of the proposed model is
demonstrated by solving instances taken from a real-life
pharmaceutical company. Computational results showed that
the determined super-solutions are near-optimal.
Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin- Staphylococcus aureus Infections
Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common
antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a
hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In
this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as
cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical
protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis
revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins.
Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is
neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor
of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase,
suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might
be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and
Kinetic and Removable of Amoxicillin Using Aliquat336 as a Carrier via a HFSLM
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic which is widely used to
treat various infections in both human beings and animals. However,
when amoxicillin is released into the environment, it is a major
problem. Amoxicillin causes bacterial resistance to these drugs and
failure of treatment with antibiotics. Liquid membrane is of great
interest as a promising method for the separation and recovery of the
target ions from aqueous solutions due to the use of carriers for the
transport mechanism, resulting in highly selectivity and rapid
transportation of the desired metal ions. The simultaneous processes
of extraction and stripping in a single unit operation of liquid
membrane system are very interesting. Therefore, it is practical to
apply liquid membrane, particularly the HFSLM for industrial
applications as HFSLM is proved to be a separation process with
lower capital and operating costs, low energy and extractant with
long life time, high selectivity and high fluxes compared with solid
membranes. It is a simple design amenable to scaling up for industrial
applications. The extraction and recovery for (Amoxicillin) through
the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) using
aliquat336 as a carrier were explored with the experimental data. The
important variables affecting on transport of amoxicillin viz.
extractant concentration and operating time were investigated. The
highest AMOX- extraction percentages of 85.35 and Amoxicillin
stripping of 80.04 were achieved with the best condition at 6 mmol/L
[aliquat336] and operating time 100 min. The extraction reaction
order (n) and the extraction reaction rate constant (kf) were found to
be 1.00 and 0.0344 min-1, respectively.
Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Green Turtles are Indicators of Environmental Pollution
Freshly laid eggs from green turtles, Chelonia mydas,
were randomly collected from Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Oman.
Eggshells taken from eggs and sand collected from the body chamber
were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and
Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP).
Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P<0.05) between
nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the
other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to
eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and
yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Ak = amikacin, Ak = amikacin,
Amp= ampicillin, Gm= gentamycin, Cn = chloramphenicol, Min =
minocycline, N = Neomycin, S= streptomycin, Smx =
sulphamethoxazole, Tmp = trimethoprim, Tob = tobramycin was
tested. More than 40% of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-10
antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The
value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of
human contaminated effluents.
Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota
Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity.
These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the
microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics.
For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and
antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The
extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a
very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is
performed by GC / MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds
in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in
the majority are the α-Pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the
Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic
Information regarding early onset neonatal sepsis
(EONS) pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives
showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative
pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has
changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative
microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to
describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk
of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals
between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven was
found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram
positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). All grams positive and most gram
negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only
two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male was
possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains
uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum
antibiotics still required continuous surveillance.
Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts
Medicinal plants are now gaining attractiveness in
treatment of bacterial infections and food preservation. The objective
of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of some medicinal
plants on pathogenic bacteria. Screening of antibacterial activity of
aqueous and methanol extracts of some plants: Jojoba, Ginger, Sage,
Thyme and Clove against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium,
Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli
were investigated. Antibacterial activity was performed by agar
diffusion and disc diffusion method. Jatropha, Jojoba, Clove and
Ginger extracts showed notable bacterial activity in the first
screening step then selected to be tested against Bacillus cereus
(Gram+), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) and Salmonella
typhimurium (Gram−) and their effect was compared using
antibiotics as control. Screening results showed potential antibacterial
activity of the tested plant extracts against the screened bacterial
strains. It was found that methanol extracts exhibited higher
antibacterial activity than aqueous extracts. Methanol extract of
Jatropha showed the highest inhibition zone against Staphylococcus
aureus (Gram+) with 24.00 mm diameter, compared to the other
plant extracts followed by clove. Meanwhile, the inhibition zones of
methanol extracts of Jojoba and Ginger were the same (12mm).The
Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to aqueous
and methanol extracts than Gram-negative bacteria.
Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate
The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.
Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Administration on Some Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat
Fluoroquinolones are a group of antibiotics widely used because of their broad spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were administered to rats at therapeutic doses to evaluate their effects on plasma arylesterase activity, as well as, on hepatic advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as measures of oxidative stress. Ciprofloxacin (80 mg/kg body weight) and levofloxacin (40 mg/kg body weight) were administered to male albino rats for 7 and 14 days. The data obtained demonstrated that plasma arylesterase activity was significantly decreased by both drugs with ciprofloxacin administration inhibiting the activity by 29% and 30% while Levofloxacin treatment resulted in 35% and 30% inhibition, after 7 and 14 days treatment respectively. Hepatic AOPP and MDA levels were both elevated by these antibiotics. This study supplies further evidence that fluoroquinolones at therapeutic doses promote oxidative stress.
Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Aminoreductone against Pathogenic Bacteria in Comparison with Other Antibiotics
Antimicrobial activities of aminoreductone (AR), a product formed in the initial stage of Maillard reaction, were screened against pathogenic bacteria. A significant growth inhibition of AR against all 7 isolates (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC® 14028™, Bacillus cereus ATCC® 13061™, Bacillus subtilis ATCC® 11774™, Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922™, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™, Listeria innocua ATCC® 33090™) were observed by the standard disc diffusion methods. The inhibition zone for each isolate by AR (2.5 mg) ranged from 15±0mm to 28.3±0.4mm in diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AR ranging from 20mM to 26mM was proven in the 7 isolates tested. AR also showed the similar effect of growth inhibition in comparison with antibiotics frequently used for the treatment of infections bacteria, such as amikacin, ciprofloxacin, meropennem and levofloxacin. The results indicated that foods containing AR are valuable sources of bioactive compounds towards pathogenic bacteria.
Effect of Euphorbia Pulcherrima Leaf and Inflorescence Extract on Various Cytomorphological Parameters of Aspergillus fumigatus
Microorganisms can be removed, inhibited or killed by physical agents, physical processes or chemical agents but they have their inherent disadvantages such as increased resistance against antibiotics etc. Since, plants have endless ability to synthesize aromatic substances which act as the master agents for plant defense mechanisms against microorganisms, insects and herbivores. Thus, secondary metabolites or phytochemicals obtained from plants can be used as agents of disease control nowadays. In the present study effect of different concentrations of acetone fraction of leaves and alcohol fraction of inflorescence of Euphorbia pulcherrima on various cytomorphological parameters i.e. cell number, mycelium width, conidial size, conidiophore size etc. of Aspergillus fumigatus has been studied. Change in mycelium/ hyphal cell width, conidium size, conidiophore size etc. was measured with the help of a previously calibrated oculometer. To study effect on morphology, fungal mycelium along with conidiophore and conidia were stained with cotton blue and mounted in lactophenol and observed microscopically. Inhibitory action of the acetone extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima leaf on growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but significant inhibition of growth was started at7.81μg/ml concentration of the extract. Complete inhibition was observed at 15.62μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that at 3.95, 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml extract concentration hyphal cell width was found to be increased from 1.44μm in control to 3.86, 5.24 and 8.98 μm respectively giving a beaded appearance to the mycelium. Vesicle size was reduced from 24.78x20.08μm (control) to 11.34x10.06μm at 3.95μg/ml concentration. At 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata were observed. Inhibitory action of the alcohol extract of inflorescence on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was also studied. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but complete inhibition was observed at 62.5μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal cell width of Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be increased from 1.67μm in control to 5.84μm at MIC i.e. at 62.5μg/ml. Vesicle size was reduced from 44.76x 24.22μm (control) to 11.36x 6.80μm at 15.62μg/ml concentrations. At 31.25 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata was found. Spore germination was completely found to be inhibited at 3.95μg/ml concentration. Similarly 92.87% reduction in vesicle size was observed at 15.62μg/ml concentration. It is evident from the results that plant extracts inhibit fungal growth and this inhibition is concentration dependent.
Microorganisms Isolated from Surgical Wounds Infection and Treatment with Different Natural Products and Medications
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common
nosocomial infection in surgical patients resulting in significant
increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality. The commonly
causative bacteria developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics
available. The aim of this study was to isolation and identification the
most common bacteria that cause SSIs in Medical Research Institute,
and to compare their sensitivity to selected group of antibiotics and
natural products (garlic, oregano, olive, and Nigella sativa oils). The
isolated pathogens collected from infected surgical wounds were
identified, and their sensitivities to the antibiotics commonly
available for clinical use, and also to the different concentrations of
the used natural products were investigated. The results indicate to
the potential therapeutic effect of the tested natural products in
treatment of surgical wound infections.
Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria
Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global
health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve
76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known
pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It
has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died
from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at
all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and
inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and
gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The
laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and
fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity
of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative
bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic
sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also
showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested
bacteria than the employed antibiotics.
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of
the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily
to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of
water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal
treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point
of product. There are different substances, which can be added to
milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are
detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide,
antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the
aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk,
skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances
(formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide,
disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal
treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have
significant influence on freezing point of it.
Food Safety Management: Concerns from EU Tourists in Thailand
Culinary culture differences can cause health
problems for international tourists in Thailand. This paper drew upon
data collected from an international tourist survey conducted in
Bangkok, Thailand during summer of 2012. Summer is the period
that a variety food safety issues and incidents are often publicized in
Thailand. The survey targeted European Union tourists- concerns
toward a variety of food safety issues that they encountered during
their trip in Thailand. A total of 400 respondents were elicited as data
input for t-test, and one way ANOVA test. The findings revealed an
astonishing result that up to 46.5 percent of respondents were sick at
least one time or more in Thailand. However, the majority of
respondents trusted that the Thai hotel and Thai restaurants would
ensure food safety, but they did not trust street vendors to ensure food
safety. The level of food safety concern can be ranked from most
concern to least concern by using the value of mean scores as
follows: 1) artificial coloring, 2) use of preservatives, 3) antibiotics,
4) growth hormones, 5) chemical residues, and 6) bacterial
contamination. The overall mean score for level of concerns was
3.493 with standard deviation of 1.677 which did not indicate a very
high level of concern. In addition, the result for t-test and one way
ANOVA test revealed that there was not much effect from the
demographic differences to level of food safety concerns.
Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Multi Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Multidrug resistant organisms have been taunting the
medical world for the last few decades. Even with new antibiotics
developed, resistant strains have emerged soon after. With the
advancement of nanotechnology, we investigated colloidal silver
nanoparticles for its antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas
aeruginosa. This organism is a multidrug resistant which contributes
to the high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.
Five multidrug resistant strains were used in this study. The
antimicrobial effect was studied using the disc diffusion and broth
dilution techniques. An inhibition zone of 11 mm was observed with
10 μg dose of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited MIC of
50 μg/ml when added at the lag phase and the subinhibitory
concentration was measured as 100 μg/ml. The MIC50 value showed
to be 15 μg/ml. This study suggests that silver nanoparticles can be
further developed as an antimicrobial agent, hence decreasing the
burden of the multidrug resistance phenomena.
Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Animal Farming Aquatic Environments and Meats in a Peri-Urban Community in South Korea
The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal
farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to
the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was
to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of
bacterial isolates collected from aquatic environments and meats in a
peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial
susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of
resistance (~ 26.04 %) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin,
norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for
multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were
displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of
multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different
antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics.
Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the
resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups.
Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the
resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes
Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum
Pollution Induced Community Tolerance(PICT) of Microorganisms in Soil Incubated with Different Levels of PB
Soil microbial activity is adversely affected by pollutants such as heavy metals, antibiotics and pesticides. Organic amendments including sewage sludge, municipal compost and vermicompost are recently used to improve soil structure and fertility. But, these materials contain heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu that are toxic to soil microorganisms and may lead to occurrence of more tolerant microbes. Among these, Pb is the most abundant and has more negative effect on soil microbial ecology. In this study, Pb levels of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg Pb [as Pb(NO3)2] per kg soil were added to the pots containing 2 kg of a loamy soil and incubated for 6 months at 25°C with soil moisture of - 0.3 MPa. Dehydrogenase activity of soil as a measure of microbial activity was determined on 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after incubation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as an electron acceptor in this assay. PICTs (IC50 values) were calculated for each Pb level and incubation time. Soil microbial activity was decreased by increasing Pb level during 30 days of incubation but the induced tolerance appeared on day 90 and thereafter. During 90 to 180 days of incubation, the PICT was gradually developed by increasing Pb level up to 200 mg kg-1, but the rate of enhancement was steeper at higher concentrations.
Protein Production by Bacillus Subtilis Atcc 21332 in the Presence of Cymbopogon Essential Oils
Proteins levels produced by bacteria may be increased
in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It
appears that many antimicrobial agents or antibiotics, when used at
low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress
gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect.
There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of
antibiotics or natural compounds in nature as a specific chemical
signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore,
this study was focusing on the effect of essential oils from
Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. nardus in regulating proteins
production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. The Minimum
Inhibition Concentrations (MICs) of both essential oils on B. subtilis
were determined by using microdilution assay, resulting 0.2% and
1.56% for each C. flexuosus and C. nardus subsequently. The
bacteria were further exposed to each essential oils at concentration
of 0.01XMIC for 2 days. The proteins were then isolated and
analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein profile showed that a band
with approximate size of 250 kD was appeared for the treated
bacteria with essential oils. Thus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 in
stressful condition with the presence of essential oils at low
concentration could induce the protein production.
A New blaVIM Gene in a Pseudomonas putida Isolated from ENT Units in Sulaimani Hospitals
A total of twenty tensile biopsies were collected from
children undergoing tonsillectomy from teaching hospital ENT
department and Kurdistan private hospital in sulaimani city. All
biopsies were homogenized and cultured; the obtained bacterial
isolates were purified and identified by biochemical tests and VITEK
2 compact system. Among the twenty studied samples, only one
Pseudomonas putida with probability of 99% was isolated.
Antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disk diffusion
method, Pseudomonas putida showed resistance to all antibiotics
used except vancomycin. The isolate further subjected to PCR and
DNA sequence analysis of blaVIM gene using different set of primers
for different regions of VIM gene. The results were found to be PCR
positive for the blaVIM gene. To determine the sequence of blaVIM
gene, DNA sequencing performed. Sequence alignment of blaVIM
gene with previously recorded blaVIM gene in NCBI- database showed
that P. putida isolate have different blaVIM gene.
Increase of Peroxidase Activity of Haptoglobin (2-2)-Hemoglobin at Pathologic Temperature and Presence of Antibiotics
Free Hemoglobin promotes the accumulation of
hydroxyl radicals by the heme iron, which can react with endogenous
hydrogen peroxide to produce free radicals which may cause severe
oxidative cell damage. Haptoglobin binds to Hemoglobin strongly
and Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin binding is irreversible. Peroxidase
activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex was assayed by
following increase of absorption of produced tetraguaiacol as the
second substrate of Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex at 470 nm and
42°C by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results have shown that
peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex is
modulated via homotropic effect of hydrogen peroxide as allostric
substrate. On the other hand antioxidant property of Haptoglobin(2-
2)-Hemoglobin was increased via heterotropic effect of the two drugs
(especially ampicillin) on peroxidase activity of the complex. Both
drugs also have mild effect on quality of homotropic property of
peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex.
Therefore, in vitro studies show that the two drugs may help Hp-Hb
complex to remove hydrogen peroxide from serum at pathologic
temperature ature (42 C).
Technique for Processing and Preservation of Human Amniotic Membrane for Ocular Surface Reconstruction
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is a useful
biological material for the reconstruction of damaged ocular surface.
The processing and preservation of HAM is critical to prevent the
patients undergoing amniotic membrane transplant (AMT) from cross
infections. For HAM preparation human placenta is obtained after an
elective cesarean delivery. Before collection, the donor is screened
for seronegativity of HCV, Hbs Ag, HIV and Syphilis. After
collection, placenta is washed in balanced salt solution (BSS) in
sterile environment. Amniotic membrane is then separated from the
placenta as well as chorion while keeping the preparation in BSS.
Scrapping of HAM is then carried out manually until all the debris is
removed and clear transparent membrane is acquired. Nitrocellulose
membrane filters are then placed on the stromal side of HAM, cut
around the edges with little membrane folded towards other side
making it easy to separate during surgery. HAM is finally stored in
solution of glycerine and Dulbecco-s Modified Eagle Medium
(DMEM) in 1:1 ratio containing antibiotics. The capped borosil vials
containing HAM are kept at -80°C until use. This vial is thawed to
room temperature and opened under sterile operation theatre
conditions at the time of surgery.
Antibacterial Capacity of Plumeria alba Petals
Antibacterial activity of Plumeria alba (Frangipani)
petals methanolic extracts were evaluated against Escherichia coli,
Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus,
Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens by using disk
diffusion method. Concentration extracts (80 %) showed the highest
inhibition zone towards Escherichia coli (14.3 mm). Frangipani
extract also showed high antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus vulgaris and Serratia
marcescens, but not more than the zones of the positive control used.
Comparison between two broad specrum antibiotics to frangipani
extracts showed that the 80 % concentration extracts produce the
same zone of inhibition as Streptomycin. Frangipani extracts showed
no bacterial activity towards Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. There are differences in the
sensitivity of different bacteria to frangipani extracts, suggesting that
frangipani-s potency varies between these bacteria. The present
results indicate that frangipani showed significant antibacterial
activity especially to Escherichia coli.