International Science Index

32
10009629
Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq
Abstract:

Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient’s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Paper Detail
453
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31
10009192
Description of Reported Foodborne Diseases in Selected Communities within the Greater Accra Region-Ghana: Epidemiological Review of Surveillance Data
Abstract:

Background: Acute gastroenteritis is one of the frequently reported Out-Patient Department (OPD) cases. However, the causative pathogens of these cases are rarely identified at the OPD due to delay in laboratory results or failure to obtain specimens before antibiotics is administered. Method: A retrospective review of surveillance data from the Adentan Municipality, Accra, Ghana that were recorded in the National foodborne disease surveillance system of Ghana, was conducted with the main aim of describing the epidemiology and food practice of cases reported from the Adentan Municipality. The study involved a retrospective review of surveillance data kept on patients who visited health facilities that are involved in foodborne disease surveillance in Ghana, from January 2015 to December 2016. Results: A total of 375 cases were reviewed and these were classified as viral hepatitis (hepatitis A and E), cholera (Vibrio cholerae), dysentery (Shigella sp.), typhoid fever (Salmonella sp.) or gastroenteritis. Cases recorded were all suspected case and the average cases recorded per week was 3. Typhoid fever and dysentery were the two main clinically diagnosed foodborne illnesses. The highest number of cases were observed during the late dry season (Feb to April), which marks the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. Relatively high number of cases was also observed during the late wet seasons (Jul to Oct) when the rainfall is the heaviest. Home-made food and street vended food were the major sources of suspected etiological food, recording 49.01% and 34.87% of the cases respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases recorded were classified as gastroenteritis due to the absence of laboratory confirmation. Few cases were classified as typhoid fever and dysentery based on clinical symptoms presented. Patients reporting with foodborne diseases were found to consume home meal and street vended foods as their predominant source of food.

Paper Detail
316
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30
10007680
Sickle Cell Disease: Review of Managements in Pregnancy and the Outcome in Ampang Hospital, Selangor
Abstract:
The aim of this study is the review of the management practices of sickle cell disease patients during pregnancy, as well as the maternal and neonatal outcome at Ampang Hospital, Selangor. The study consisted of a review of pregnant patients with sickle cell disease under follow up at the Hematology Clinic, Ampang Hospital over the last seven years to assess their management and maternal-fetal outcome. The results of the review show that Ampang Hospital is considered the public hematology centre for sickle cell disease and had successfully managed three pregnancies throughout the last seven years. Patients’ presentations, managements and maternal-fetal outcome were compared and reviewed for academic improvements. All three patients were seen very early in their pregnancy and had been given a regime of folic acid, antibiotics and thrombo-prophylactic drugs. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal well being was done by the hematologists and obstetricians. Among the patients, there were multiple admissions during the pregnancy for either a painful sickle cell bone crisis, haemolysis following an infection and anemia requiring phenotype- matched blood and exchange transfusions. Broad spectrum antibiotics coverage during and infection, hydration, pain management and venous-thrombolism prophylaxis were mandatory. The pregnancies managed to reach near term in the third trimester but all required emergency caesarean section for obstetric indications. All pregnancies resulted in live births with good fetal outcome. During post partum all were nursed closely in the high dependency units for further complications and were discharged well. Post partum follow up and contraception counseling was comprehensively given for future pregnancies. Sickle cell disease is uncommonly seen in the East, especially in the South East Asian region, yet more cases are seen in the current decade due to improved medical expertise and advance medical laboratory technologies. Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for sickle cell patients as increased thrombosis event and risk of infections can lead to multiple crisis, haemolysis, anemia and vaso-occlusive complications including eclampsia, cerebrovasular accidents and acute bone pain. Patients mostly require multiple blood product transfusions thus phenotype-matched blood is required to reduce the risk of alloimmunozation. Emphasizing the risks and complications in preconception counseling and establishing an ultimate pregnancy plan would probably reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality to the mother and unborn child. Early management for risk of infection, thromboembolic events and adequate hydration is mandatory. A holistic approach involving multidisciplinary team care between the hematologist, obstetricians, anesthetist, neonatologist and close nursing care for both mother and baby would ensure the best outcome. In conclusion, sickle cell disease by itself is a high risk medical condition and pregnancy would further amplify the risk. Thus, close monitoring with combine multidisciplinary care, counseling and educating the patients are crucial in achieving the safe outcome.
Paper Detail
848
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29
10007908
Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan
Abstract:

This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Paper Detail
674
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28
10003765
The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital
Abstract:
Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently crosschecked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014 – September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.
Paper Detail
1486
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27
10003296
Incidence of Acinetobacter in Fresh Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus)
Abstract:
The research aims to investigate the occurrence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and are analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates is tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There were similarities in the resistances shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones and β- lactame drug families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Significant correlation in similarities were observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.
Paper Detail
1205
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26
10002617
Microbiological Profile of UTI along with Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern with Special Reference to Nitrofurantoin
Abstract:
Urinary Tract Infections are considered as one of the most common bacterial infections with an estimated annual global incidence of 150 million. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to wide spread usage of uncontrolled antibiotics. In this study, a total number of 9149 urine samples were collected from R.H Patiala and processed in the Department of Microbiology G. M. C Patiala (January 2013 to December 2013). Urine samples were inoculated on MacConkey’s and blood agar plates and incubated at 370C for 24 hrs. The organisms were identified by colony characters, Gram’s staining, and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined against various antimicrobial agents (Hi – Media Mumbai India) by Kirby Bauer DISK diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. Maximum patients were in the age group of 21-30 yrs followed by 31-40 yrs. Males (34%) are less prone to urinary tract infections than females (66%). Culture was positive in 25% of the samples. Escherichia coli was the most common isolate 60.3% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.5%, Proteus spp. 9% and Staphylococcus aureus 7.6%. Most of the urinary isolates were sensitive to, carbepenems, Aztreonam, Amikacin, and Piperacillin + Tazobactum. All the isolates showed a good sensitivity towards Nitrofurantoin (82%). ESBL production was found to be 70.6% in Escherichia coli and 29.4% in Klebsiella pneumonia. Susceptibility of ESBL producers to Imipenem, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were found to be 100%, 76%, and 75% respectively. Uropathogens are increasingly showing resistance to many antibiotics making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin should not be used in empiric treatment. Nitrofurantoin could be used in lower urinary tract infection. Knowledge of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a geographical region will help in appropriate and judicious antibiotic usage in a health care setup.
Paper Detail
1313
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25
10002269
Robust Batch Process Scheduling in Pharmaceutical Industries: A Case Study
Abstract:
Batch production plants provide a wide range of scheduling problems. In pharmaceutical industries a batch process is usually described by a recipe, consisting of an ordering of tasks to produce the desired product. In this research work we focused on pharmaceutical production processes requiring the culture of a microorganism population (i.e. bacteria, yeasts or antibiotics). Several sources of uncertainty may influence the yield of the culture processes, including (i) low performance and quality of the cultured microorganism population or (ii) microbial contamination. For these reasons, robustness is a valuable property for the considered application context. In particular, a robust schedule will not collapse immediately when a cell of microorganisms has to be thrown away due to a microbial contamination. Indeed, a robust schedule should change locally in small proportions and the overall performance measure (i.e. makespan, lateness) should change a little if at all. In this research work we formulated a constraint programming optimization (COP) model for the robust planning of antibiotics production. We developed a discrete-time model with a multi-criteria objective, ordering the different criteria and performing a lexicographic optimization. A feasible solution of the proposed COP model is a schedule of a given set of tasks onto available resources. The schedule has to satisfy tasks precedence constraints, resource capacity constraints and time constraints. In particular time constraints model tasks duedates and resource availability time windows constraints. To improve the schedule robustness, we modeled the concept of (a, b) super-solutions, where (a, b) are input parameters of the COP model. An (a, b) super-solution is one in which if a variables (i.e. the completion times of a culture tasks) lose their values (i.e. cultures are contaminated), the solution can be repaired by assigning these variables values with a new values (i.e. the completion times of a backup culture tasks) and at most b other variables (i.e. delaying the completion of at most b other tasks). The efficiency and applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by solving instances taken from a real-life pharmaceutical company. Computational results showed that the determined super-solutions are near-optimal.
Paper Detail
1601
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24
10001695
Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin- Staphylococcus aureus Infections
Abstract:
Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5.
Paper Detail
1420
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23
10001923
Kinetic and Removable of Amoxicillin Using Aliquat336 as a Carrier via a HFSLM
Abstract:
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic which is widely used to treat various infections in both human beings and animals. However, when amoxicillin is released into the environment, it is a major problem. Amoxicillin causes bacterial resistance to these drugs and failure of treatment with antibiotics. Liquid membrane is of great interest as a promising method for the separation and recovery of the target ions from aqueous solutions due to the use of carriers for the transport mechanism, resulting in highly selectivity and rapid transportation of the desired metal ions. The simultaneous processes of extraction and stripping in a single unit operation of liquid membrane system are very interesting. Therefore, it is practical to apply liquid membrane, particularly the HFSLM for industrial applications as HFSLM is proved to be a separation process with lower capital and operating costs, low energy and extractant with long life time, high selectivity and high fluxes compared with solid membranes. It is a simple design amenable to scaling up for industrial applications. The extraction and recovery for (Amoxicillin) through the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) using aliquat336 as a carrier were explored with the experimental data. The important variables affecting on transport of amoxicillin viz. extractant concentration and operating time were investigated. The highest AMOX- extraction percentages of 85.35 and Amoxicillin stripping of 80.04 were achieved with the best condition at 6 mmol/L [aliquat336] and operating time 100 min. The extraction reaction order (n) and the extraction reaction rate constant (kf) were found to be 1.00 and 0.0344 min-1, respectively.
Paper Detail
1383
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22
10001163
Heavy Metals and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Green Turtles are Indicators of Environmental Pollution
Abstract:

Freshly laid eggs from green turtles, Chelonia mydas, were randomly collected from Ras Al-Hadd Reserve, Oman. Eggshells taken from eggs and sand collected from the body chamber were analyzed for eight heavy metals (Al, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, S, and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP). Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly (P<0.05) between nest sand and eggshells. Zn values were significantly higher than the other heavy metals. A total of 60 heterotrophic bacteria belong to eight genera were isolated from fresh egg contents (albumen and yolk). Resistance of the isolates to Ak = amikacin, Ak = amikacin, Amp= ampicillin, Gm= gentamycin, Cn = chloramphenicol, Min = minocycline, N = Neomycin, S= streptomycin, Smx = sulphamethoxazole, Tmp = trimethoprim, Tob = tobramycin was tested. More than 40% of the isolates were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. Most of the resistant strains were also resistant to Zn. The value of these findings may indicate that the origin of pollution is of human contaminated effluents.

Paper Detail
2123
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21
10001112
Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota
Abstract:

Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC / MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-Pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Paper Detail
2045
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20
9999441
Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic
Abstract:

Information regarding early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male was possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance.

Paper Detail
2730
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19
10001521
Antibacterial Activity of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts
Abstract:
Medicinal plants are now gaining attractiveness in treatment of bacterial infections and food preservation. The objective of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants on pathogenic bacteria. Screening of antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of some plants: Jojoba, Ginger, Sage, Thyme and Clove against Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were investigated. Antibacterial activity was performed by agar diffusion and disc diffusion method. Jatropha, Jojoba, Clove and Ginger extracts showed notable bacterial activity in the first screening step then selected to be tested against Bacillus cereus (Gram+), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) and Salmonella typhimurium (Gram−) and their effect was compared using antibiotics as control. Screening results showed potential antibacterial activity of the tested plant extracts against the screened bacterial strains. It was found that methanol extracts exhibited higher antibacterial activity than aqueous extracts. Methanol extract of Jatropha showed the highest inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) with 24.00 mm diameter, compared to the other plant extracts followed by clove. Meanwhile, the inhibition zones of methanol extracts of Jojoba and Ginger were the same (12mm).The Gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to aqueous and methanol extracts than Gram-negative bacteria.
Paper Detail
4914
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18
9998974
Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate
Abstract:

The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Paper Detail
2778
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17
9997493
Effects of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin Administration on Some Oxidative Stress Markers in the Rat
Abstract:

Fluoroquinolones are a group of antibiotics widely used because of their broad spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were administered to rats at therapeutic doses to evaluate their effects on plasma arylesterase activity, as well as, on hepatic advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as measures of oxidative stress. Ciprofloxacin (80 mg/kg body weight) and levofloxacin (40 mg/kg body weight) were administered to male albino rats for 7 and 14 days. The data obtained demonstrated that plasma arylesterase activity was significantly decreased by both drugs with ciprofloxacin administration inhibiting the activity by 29% and 30% while Levofloxacin treatment resulted in 35% and 30% inhibition, after 7 and 14 days treatment respectively. Hepatic AOPP and MDA levels were both elevated by these antibiotics. This study supplies further evidence that fluoroquinolones at therapeutic doses promote oxidative stress.

Paper Detail
2927
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16
9996734
Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Aminoreductone against Pathogenic Bacteria in Comparison with Other Antibiotics
Abstract:

Antimicrobial activities of aminoreductone (AR), a product formed in the initial stage of Maillard reaction, were screened against pathogenic bacteria. A significant growth inhibition of AR against all 7 isolates (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC® 14028™, Bacillus cereus ATCC® 13061™, Bacillus subtilis ATCC® 11774™, Escherichia coli ATCC® 25922™, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™, Listeria innocua ATCC® 33090™) were observed by the standard disc diffusion methods. The inhibition zone for each isolate by AR (2.5 mg) ranged from 15±0mm to 28.3±0.4mm in diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AR ranging from 20mM to 26mM was proven in the 7 isolates tested. AR also showed the similar effect of growth inhibition in comparison with antibiotics frequently used for the treatment of infections bacteria, such as amikacin, ciprofloxacin, meropennem and levofloxacin. The results indicated that foods containing AR are valuable sources of bioactive compounds towards pathogenic bacteria.

Paper Detail
1930
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15
16642
Effect of Euphorbia Pulcherrima Leaf and Inflorescence Extract on Various Cytomorphological Parameters of Aspergillus fumigatus
Abstract:

Microorganisms can be removed, inhibited or killed by physical agents, physical processes or chemical agents but they have their inherent disadvantages such as increased resistance against antibiotics etc. Since, plants have endless ability to synthesize aromatic substances which act as the master agents for plant defense mechanisms against microorganisms, insects and herbivores. Thus, secondary metabolites or phytochemicals obtained from plants can be used as agents of disease control nowadays. In the present study effect of different concentrations of acetone fraction of leaves and alcohol fraction of inflorescence of Euphorbia pulcherrima on various cytomorphological parameters i.e. cell number, mycelium width, conidial size, conidiophore size etc. of Aspergillus fumigatus has been studied. Change in mycelium/ hyphal cell width, conidium size, conidiophore size etc. was measured with the help of a previously calibrated oculometer. To study effect on morphology, fungal mycelium along with conidiophore and conidia were stained with cotton blue and mounted in lactophenol and observed microscopically. Inhibitory action of the acetone extract of Euphorbia pulcherrima leaf on growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was investigated. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but significant inhibition of growth was started at7.81μg/ml concentration of the extract. Complete inhibition was observed at 15.62μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that at 3.95, 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml extract concentration hyphal cell width was found to be increased from 1.44μm in control to 3.86, 5.24 and 8.98 μm respectively giving a beaded appearance to the mycelium. Vesicle size was reduced from 24.78x20.08μm (control) to 11.34x10.06μm at 3.95μg/ml concentration. At 7.81 and 15.62μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata were observed. Inhibitory action of the alcohol extract of inflorescence on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus was also studied. Control containing extract free medium supported profuse growth of the fungus. Although decrease in growth was observed even at 3.95μg/ml but complete inhibition was observed at 62.5μg/ml and above. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal cell width of Aspergillus fumigatus was found to be increased from 1.67μm in control to 5.84μm at MIC i.e. at 62.5μg/ml. Vesicle size was reduced from 44.76x 24.22μm (control) to 11.36x 6.80μm at 15.62μg/ml concentrations. At 31.25 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml concentration no phialides and sterigmata was found. Spore germination was completely found to be inhibited at 3.95μg/ml concentration. Similarly 92.87% reduction in vesicle size was observed at 15.62μg/ml concentration. It is evident from the results that plant extracts inhibit fungal growth and this inhibition is concentration dependent. 

Paper Detail
1790
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14
14312
Microorganisms Isolated from Surgical Wounds Infection and Treatment with Different Natural Products and Medications
Abstract:
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common nosocomial infection in surgical patients resulting in significant increases in postoperative morbidity and mortality. The commonly causative bacteria developed resistance to virtually all antibiotics available. The aim of this study was to isolation and identification the most common bacteria that cause SSIs in Medical Research Institute, and to compare their sensitivity to selected group of antibiotics and natural products (garlic, oregano, olive, and Nigella sativa oils). The isolated pathogens collected from infected surgical wounds were identified, and their sensitivities to the antibiotics commonly available for clinical use, and also to the different concentrations of the used natural products were investigated. The results indicate to the potential therapeutic effect of the tested natural products in treatment of surgical wound infections.
Paper Detail
1654
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13
3133
Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve 76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested bacteria than the employed antibiotics.
Paper Detail
1411
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12
15910
Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
Abstract:
The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.
Paper Detail
9123
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11
1684
Food Safety Management: Concerns from EU Tourists in Thailand
Abstract:
Culinary culture differences can cause health problems for international tourists in Thailand. This paper drew upon data collected from an international tourist survey conducted in Bangkok, Thailand during summer of 2012. Summer is the period that a variety food safety issues and incidents are often publicized in Thailand. The survey targeted European Union tourists- concerns toward a variety of food safety issues that they encountered during their trip in Thailand. A total of 400 respondents were elicited as data input for t-test, and one way ANOVA test. The findings revealed an astonishing result that up to 46.5 percent of respondents were sick at least one time or more in Thailand. However, the majority of respondents trusted that the Thai hotel and Thai restaurants would ensure food safety, but they did not trust street vendors to ensure food safety. The level of food safety concern can be ranked from most concern to least concern by using the value of mean scores as follows: 1) artificial coloring, 2) use of preservatives, 3) antibiotics, 4) growth hormones, 5) chemical residues, and 6) bacterial contamination. The overall mean score for level of concerns was 3.493 with standard deviation of 1.677 which did not indicate a very high level of concern. In addition, the result for t-test and one way ANOVA test revealed that there was not much effect from the demographic differences to level of food safety concerns.
Paper Detail
2472
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10
1055
Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Multi Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Abstract:
Multidrug resistant organisms have been taunting the medical world for the last few decades. Even with new antibiotics developed, resistant strains have emerged soon after. With the advancement of nanotechnology, we investigated colloidal silver nanoparticles for its antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This organism is a multidrug resistant which contributes to the high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Five multidrug resistant strains were used in this study. The antimicrobial effect was studied using the disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques. An inhibition zone of 11 mm was observed with 10 μg dose of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited MIC of 50 μg/ml when added at the lag phase and the subinhibitory concentration was measured as 100 μg/ml. The MIC50 value showed to be 15 μg/ml. This study suggests that silver nanoparticles can be further developed as an antimicrobial agent, hence decreasing the burden of the multidrug resistance phenomena.
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4729
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3944
Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Animal Farming Aquatic Environments and Meats in a Peri-Urban Community in South Korea
Abstract:
The increasing usage of antibiotics in the animal farming industry is an emerging worldwide problem contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates collected from aquatic environments and meats in a peri-urban community in Daejeon, Korea. In an antibacterial susceptibility test, the bacterial isolates showed a high incidence of resistance (~ 26.04 %) to cefazolin, tetracycline, gentamycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and vancomycin. The results from a test for multiple antibiotic resistance indicated that the isolates were displaying an approximately 5-fold increase in the incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance to combinations of two different antibiotics compared to combinations of three or more antibiotics. Most of the isolates showed multi-antibiotic resistance, and the resistance patterns were similar among the sampling groups. Sequencing data analysis of 16S rRNA showed that most of the resistant isolates appeared to be dominated by the classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria.
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1829
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4433
Pollution Induced Community Tolerance(PICT) of Microorganisms in Soil Incubated with Different Levels of PB
Abstract:

Soil microbial activity is adversely affected by pollutants such as heavy metals, antibiotics and pesticides. Organic amendments including sewage sludge, municipal compost and vermicompost are recently used to improve soil structure and fertility. But, these materials contain heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu that are toxic to soil microorganisms and may lead to occurrence of more tolerant microbes. Among these, Pb is the most abundant and has more negative effect on soil microbial ecology. In this study, Pb levels of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg Pb [as Pb(NO3)2] per kg soil were added to the pots containing 2 kg of a loamy soil and incubated for 6 months at 25°C with soil moisture of - 0.3 MPa. Dehydrogenase activity of soil as a measure of microbial activity was determined on 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after incubation. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was used as an electron acceptor in this assay. PICTs (€IC50 values) were calculated for each Pb level and incubation time. Soil microbial activity was decreased by increasing Pb level during 30 days of incubation but the induced tolerance appeared on day 90 and thereafter. During 90 to 180 days of incubation, the PICT was gradually developed by increasing Pb level up to 200 mg kg-1, but the rate of enhancement was steeper at higher concentrations.

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2084
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4609
Protein Production by Bacillus Subtilis Atcc 21332 in the Presence of Cymbopogon Essential Oils
Abstract:
Proteins levels produced by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antimicrobial agents or antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics or natural compounds in nature as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was focusing on the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon flexuosus and C. nardus in regulating proteins production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. The Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (MICs) of both essential oils on B. subtilis were determined by using microdilution assay, resulting 0.2% and 1.56% for each C. flexuosus and C. nardus subsequently. The bacteria were further exposed to each essential oils at concentration of 0.01XMIC for 2 days. The proteins were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein profile showed that a band with approximate size of 250 kD was appeared for the treated bacteria with essential oils. Thus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332 in stressful condition with the presence of essential oils at low concentration could induce the protein production.
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1793
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6
14385
A New blaVIM Gene in a Pseudomonas putida Isolated from ENT Units in Sulaimani Hospitals
Abstract:
A total of twenty tensile biopsies were collected from children undergoing tonsillectomy from teaching hospital ENT department and Kurdistan private hospital in sulaimani city. All biopsies were homogenized and cultured; the obtained bacterial isolates were purified and identified by biochemical tests and VITEK 2 compact system. Among the twenty studied samples, only one Pseudomonas putida with probability of 99% was isolated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was carried out by disk diffusion method, Pseudomonas putida showed resistance to all antibiotics used except vancomycin. The isolate further subjected to PCR and DNA sequence analysis of blaVIM gene using different set of primers for different regions of VIM gene. The results were found to be PCR positive for the blaVIM gene. To determine the sequence of blaVIM gene, DNA sequencing performed. Sequence alignment of blaVIM gene with previously recorded blaVIM gene in NCBI- database showed that P. putida isolate have different blaVIM gene.
Paper Detail
1294
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5
13545
Increase of Peroxidase Activity of Haptoglobin (2-2)-Hemoglobin at Pathologic Temperature and Presence of Antibiotics
Abstract:
Free Hemoglobin promotes the accumulation of hydroxyl radicals by the heme iron, which can react with endogenous hydrogen peroxide to produce free radicals which may cause severe oxidative cell damage. Haptoglobin binds to Hemoglobin strongly and Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin binding is irreversible. Peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex was assayed by following increase of absorption of produced tetraguaiacol as the second substrate of Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin complex at 470 nm and 42°C by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results have shown that peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex is modulated via homotropic effect of hydrogen peroxide as allostric substrate. On the other hand antioxidant property of Haptoglobin(2- 2)-Hemoglobin was increased via heterotropic effect of the two drugs (especially ampicillin) on peroxidase activity of the complex. Both drugs also have mild effect on quality of homotropic property of peroxidase activity of Haptoglobin(2-2)-Hemoglobin complex. Therefore, in vitro studies show that the two drugs may help Hp-Hb complex to remove hydrogen peroxide from serum at pathologic temperature ature (42 C).
Paper Detail
1897
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4
14144
Technique for Processing and Preservation of Human Amniotic Membrane for Ocular Surface Reconstruction
Abstract:
Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is a useful biological material for the reconstruction of damaged ocular surface. The processing and preservation of HAM is critical to prevent the patients undergoing amniotic membrane transplant (AMT) from cross infections. For HAM preparation human placenta is obtained after an elective cesarean delivery. Before collection, the donor is screened for seronegativity of HCV, Hbs Ag, HIV and Syphilis. After collection, placenta is washed in balanced salt solution (BSS) in sterile environment. Amniotic membrane is then separated from the placenta as well as chorion while keeping the preparation in BSS. Scrapping of HAM is then carried out manually until all the debris is removed and clear transparent membrane is acquired. Nitrocellulose membrane filters are then placed on the stromal side of HAM, cut around the edges with little membrane folded towards other side making it easy to separate during surgery. HAM is finally stored in solution of glycerine and Dulbecco-s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) in 1:1 ratio containing antibiotics. The capped borosil vials containing HAM are kept at -80°C until use. This vial is thawed to room temperature and opened under sterile operation theatre conditions at the time of surgery.
Paper Detail
3130
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6160
Antibacterial Capacity of Plumeria alba Petals
Abstract:
Antibacterial activity of Plumeria alba (Frangipani) petals methanolic extracts were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens by using disk diffusion method. Concentration extracts (80 %) showed the highest inhibition zone towards Escherichia coli (14.3 mm). Frangipani extract also showed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus vulgaris and Serratia marcescens, but not more than the zones of the positive control used. Comparison between two broad specrum antibiotics to frangipani extracts showed that the 80 % concentration extracts produce the same zone of inhibition as Streptomycin. Frangipani extracts showed no bacterial activity towards Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. There are differences in the sensitivity of different bacteria to frangipani extracts, suggesting that frangipani-s potency varies between these bacteria. The present results indicate that frangipani showed significant antibacterial activity especially to Escherichia coli.
Paper Detail
2061
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