Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process
Abstract:The use of hard and brittle material has become
increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of
these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging
problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle
materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses
abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as
well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining
process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and
brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining
process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research
work has developed models using finite element approach to predict
the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during
ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive
slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using
ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes
have been used for the experimentation work.
 G. J.P. Choi, B.H. Jeon, B.H. Kim, "Chemical-assisted ultrasonic
machining of glass," International journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture, 44,703-723, 2002.
 M. Xiao a,, K. Sato a, S. Karube a, T. Soutome, "The effect of tool nose
radius in ultrasonic vibration cutting of hard metal" International journal
of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43, 1375-1382,2003
 Gilmore, R., ÔÇÿÔÇÿUltrasonic Machining and Polishing,-- Proc. Int.
Symposium for Electro machining, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 941-95,
 Ya G, Qin HW, Yang SG, Xu YW, "Analysis of the rotary machining
mechanism", J Mater Process Technology 129:182-185,2002.
 Thoe TB, Aspinwall DK, Wise MLH, "Review of ultrasonic
machining", Int J Mach Tool Manufacturing 38(4):239-255, 1998.
 Gilmore R, "Ultrasonic machining: a case study," J Mater Process
Technology 28:139-148, 1991.
 Z. Y. Yu, K. P. Rajurkar, A. Tandon, "Study of 3D Micro-Ultrasonic
Machining," Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering Vol.
 Yu, Z. Y., Masuzawa, T., and Fujino, M., ÔÇÿÔÇÿ3D Micro-EDM With
Simple Shaped", 1998.
 Yu, Z. Y., Masuzawa, T., and Fujino, M., ÔÇÿÔÇÿMicro-EDM for Three
Dimensional Cavities,ÔÇöDevelopment of Uniform Wear Method,-- CIRP
Ann, 47:1, pp. 169-172, 1998..
 Rajurkar, K. P., and Yu, Z. Y., ÔÇÿÔÇÿ3D Micro-EDM Using CAD/CAM,--
CIRP Ann., 49, pp. 127-130, 2000.
 D.Prabhakar, "Machining advanced ceramic materials using rotary
ultrasonic machining process," M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign,. Pp.167-172, 1992.
 Z.J. Pei, N. Khanna, P.M. Ferreira, "An investigation into rotary
ultrasonic machining of structural ceramics: a review," Ceramic
Engineering and Science Proceedings 16 (1) 259-278, 1995.
 Z.C. Li, Liang-wu Cai, Z.J. Pei, C. Treadwell, "Finite element
simulation of rotary ultrasonic machining for advanced ceramics,"
Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress
and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, USA, November13-19,2004.
 Hara, K., Kyusojin, A., Isobe, H., Yanagi, K. and Yoshihara, H. "Study
on mirror surface grinding of die steel by using ultrasonically assisted
diamond tool," Trans. of Int. Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in
the 21st Century, pp. 631-634,2005.
 Y.Q. Cao, "Failure analysis of exit edges in ceramic machining using
finite element analysis", Engineering Failure Analysis 8 (4) 325-338,
 W.C. Chiu, M.D. Thouless, W.J. Endres , "An analysis of chipping in
brittle materials," International Journal of Fracture 90 (4) 287-298,
 Q.H. Zhang, J.H. Zhang, Z.X. Jia, X. Ai, "Fracture at the exit of the
hole during the ultrasonic drilling of engineering ceramics," Journal of
Material Processing Technology 84 20-24,1998.
 ANSYS Advanced analysis procedure manual, ANSYS 5.4, ANSYS
Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania c SAS IP, Inc.
 Shuvra Das, Mathias Klotz, F. Klocke, "EDM simulation: Finite
element-based calculation of deformation," microstructure and residual
stresses, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 142 434-451,
 V. Yadav, V.K. Jain, P.M. Dixit, "Thermal stresses due to electrical
discharge machining," International Journal of Machine Tools and
Manufacturing 42 877-88,2002.