International Science Index


Use of NMMO Pretreatment for Biogas Production from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch


Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance biogas production was investigated. The pretreatments were performed at 90 and 120ºC for 1, 3, and 5 h using three different concentrations of NMMO of 73%, 79%, and 85%. The pretreated OPEFB was subsequently anaerobically digested to produce biogas. After pretreatment, there were no significant changes of the main composition of OPEFB and the maximum total solid recovery was 92%. The amorphous phase was increased up to 78% at pretreatment condition using 85% NMMO solution for 3 h at 120oC. In general, higher concentration of NMMO and higher temperature resulted in increased amorphous form and higher biogas production. The best results of biogas production reached enhancement of methane yield of 148% compared to the untreated OPEFB and increased in digestion of 94% compared to starch as reference.

[1] USDA, GAIN report: Indonesia oilseeds and products update, USDA FAS, 2011.
[2] DOA, Report: Pedoman pengelolaan limbah industri kelapa sawit, Jakarta: Department of Algiculture, 2006.
[3] R. Sims, "Biomass and resources bioenergy options for a cleaner environment in develoed and devoloping countries", London: Elsevier Science, 2003.
[4] M. J. Taherzadeh and K. Karimi, "Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Wastes to Improve Ethanol and Biogas Production: A review" Int. J. Mol. Sci. vol. 9, p.1621-1651, 2008.
[5] K. Mirahmadi, M. M Kabir, A. Jeihanipour, K. Karimi and M. J. Taherzadeh, "Alkaline pretreatment of spruce and birch to improve bioethanol and biogas production," BioResorces, vol. 5, p. 928-938, 2010.
[6] S. Abedinifar, K. Karimi, M. Knahmadi and M. J. Taherzadeh, "Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, p. 828-833, 2009.
[7] M. E. Hall, A. R. Horrocks and H. Seddon "The flammability of lyocell, "Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 64, p. 505-510, 1999.
[8] A. Jeihanipour, K. Karimi and M. J. Taherzadeh "Enhancement of ethanol and biogas production from high-crystalline cellulose by different models of NMO pretreatment " Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 105, p.469-476, 2010.
[9] A. Teghammar, K. Karimi, I. Sarvari Horvath and M. J. Taherzadeh, "Enhanced biogas production from rice straw, triticale straw and softwood spruce by NMMO pretreatment," Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 36, p. 116-120, 2012.
[10] C.W. Kim, D. S. Kim, S. Y Kang, M. Marquez and Y. L. Joo, "Structurel studies of electrospun cellulose nanofibers, " Polymer, vol. 47, p. 5097-5107, 2006.
[11] T. Ehrman, Standard method for determination of total solids in biomass, NREL, Midwest Res. Institute, pp.7, 1994.
[12] R. Ruiz, T. Ehrman, Determination of carbonhydrate in biomass by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, NREL Midwest Res. Institute, 1996.
[13] D. Templeton and T. Ehrman, Determination of acid-insoluble lignin in biomass, NREL Midwest Res. Institute, pp13, 1995.
[14]T. Ehrman, Determination of acid-soluble lignin in biomass, NREL Midwest Res. Institute, pp7, 1996.
[15] A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter and D. Templeton Determination of ash in biomass, NREL Midwest Res. Institute, 2005.
[16] C. Cuissinat and P. Navard, "Swelling and dissolution of cellulose. Part 1: Free folating cotton and wood fibers in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide-water mixtures," Macromol. Symp., vol.244, p. 1-18, 2006.
[17] K. N. Law, W. R. W. Daud, and A. Ghazali, "Morphology and chemical nature of fiber strands of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBR), " Bioresources, vol. 2, 351-362, 2007.
[18] F. Wendler, A. Konkin and T. Heinze, " Studies on the stabiliation of modified lyocell solutions," Macromol. Symp, vol. 262, p. 72-84, 2008.
[19] Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhu, A. Ragauskas and Y. Deng, "Enhanced enzymatic hyrolysis of spruce by alkaline pretreatment at low temperature, "Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 99, p. 1320-1328, 2007.
[20] A. Teghammar, J. Yngvesson, M. Lundin, M. J. Taherzadeh, I. S. Horvath, "Pretreatment of paper tube residuals for improved biogas production," Bioresorce Technology, vol. 101, p. 1206-1212, 2010.
[21] R. Kumar, S. Sinh and O. V. Sing, "Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: Biotechnol., vol. 35, p. 377-391, 2008.