Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials
Abstract:Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among
magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of
their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various
fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of
these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic
bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for
the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the
isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and
sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of
synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus
Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method
 T. Matsunaga, T. Suzuki, M. Tanaka, and A. Arakaki, "Molecular analysis of magnetotactic bacteria and development of functional
bacterial magnetic particles for nano-biotechnology," Trends. Biotechnol., vol. 25, pp. 182-188, 2007.
 L. Xiang, J. Wei, S. Jianbo, W. Guili, G. Feng, and L. Ying, "Purified
and sterilized magnetosomes from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense
MSR-1 were not toxic to mouse fibroblasts in vitro," Lett. Appl.
Microbiol., vol. 45, pp. 75-81, 2007.
 D. Sch├╝ler, and R. B. Frankel, "Bacterial magnetosomes:
microbiology, biomineralization and biotechnological applications,"
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol, 52, pp. 464- 473, 1999.
 D. A. Bazylinski, and R. B. Frankel, "Magnetosome Formation in
Prokaryotes," Nat. Rev. Microbiol., vol. 2, pp. 217-230, 2004.
 T. Matsunaga, Y. Okamura, and T. Tanaka, "Biotechnological
application of nano-scale engineered bacterial magnetic particles," J.
Mater. Chem., vol. 14, pp. 2099-2105, 2004.
 C. Lang, and D. Sch├╝ler. "Biogenic nanoparticles: production,
characterization, and application of bacterial magnetosomes," J. Phys.:
Condens. Matter., vol. 18, pp. 2815-2828, 2006.
 H. Lei, S.Y. Li, Y. Yang, F-M. Zhao, J. Huang, and J. Chang, "Research
on the structure and performance of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles," J.
Biomater. Appl., vol. 22, pp. 433-448, 2008.
 M. Timko, A. Dzarova, J. Kovac, A. Skumiel, A. Jozefczak, T.
Hornowski, H. Gojzewski, V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, A. Sprincova,
O. Strbak, P. Kopcansky, and N. Tomasovicova, "Magnetic properties
and heating effect in bacterial magnetic nanoparticles," J. Magn. Magn.
Mater., vol. 321, pp. 1521-1524, 2009.
 T. Matsunaga, and S. Kamiya, "Use of magnetic particles isolated from
magnetotactic bacteria for enzyme immobilization," Appl. Microbiol.
Biotechnol., vol. 26, pp. 328-332, 1987.
 T. Matsunaga, M. Kawasaki, X. Yu, N. Tsujimura, and N. Nakamura,
"Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using bacterial magnetic
particles," Anal. Chem., vol. 68, pp. 3551-3554, 1996.
 T. Matsunaga, R. Sato, S. Kamiya, T. Tanaka, and H. Takeyama,
"Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using protein A-bacterial
magnetite complex," J. Magnet. Magnet. Mater., vol. 194, pp. 126-134,
 J. Wei, Z. Dehua, L. Ying, T. Jiesheng, W. Zhenfang, and L. Jilun,
"Submerged culture of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense under N2-
fixing condition and regulation of activity of nitrogenase fixation," Chin.
Sci. Bull., vol. 47, pp. 2095-2099, 2002.
 P. Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, R. Kasra-Kermanshahi, A. Nozad-
Golikand, and M. Sadeghizadeh, "A green chemical technique for the
synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles by magnetotactic bacteria," in press.
 C. Yang, H. Takeyama, T. Tanaka, and T. Matsunaga " Effects of
growth medium composition, iron sources and atmospheric oxygen
concentrations on production of luciferase-bacterial magnetic particle
complex by a recombinant Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1,"
Enzyme. Microb. Technol., vol. 29, pp. 13-19, 2001.
 E. Alphandéry, S. Faure, O. Seksek, F. Guyot, and I. Chebbi "Chains of
magnetosomes extracted from AMB-1 magnetotactic bacteria for
application in alternative magnetic field cancer therapy," ACS Nano.,
vol. 5, pp. 6279-6296, 2011.
 X. Zhijie, L. Bin, C. Jun, and H. H. Teng, "Design and application of the
method for isolating magnetotactic bacteria," Chin. J. Geochem., vol. 26,
pp. 252-258, 2007.
 Charles R. M. Glaus, "Development and analysis of radiolabeled
magnetic nanoparticles for positron emission tomography and magnetic
resonance imaging", Georgia Institute of Technology, Dissertation,
 Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limulus_amebocyte_ lysate.