Groundwater Quality Improvement by Using Aeration and Filtration Methods
Abstract:An experiment was conducted using two aeration
methods (water-into-air and air-into-water) and followed by filtration
processes using manganese greensand material. The properties of
groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and heavy metal
concentration (iron and manganese) will be assessed. The objectives
of this study are i) to determine the effective aeration method and ii)
to assess the effectiveness of manganese greensand as filter media in
removing iron and manganese concentration in groundwater. Results
showed that final pH for all samples after treatment are in range from
7.40 and 8.40. Both aeration methods increased the dissolved oxygen
content. Final turbidity for groundwater samples are between 3 NTU
to 29 NTU. Only three out of eight samples achieved iron
concentration of 0.3mg/L and less and all samples reach manganese
concentration of 0.1mg/L and less. Air-into-water aeration method
gives higher percentage of iron and manganese removal compare to
 F. Edson, David, "In-Ground removal of iron and manganese from well
water" in Annual Meeting - International Water Conference Official
Proceedings - The International Water Conference 46th Annual
Meeting. 1985. Pages 518-524; Pittsburgh, PA.
 Y. H. Zhao, Y. F. Li, W. B. Zhang, C. N. Zhang, J. X. Fu , and Y. N.
Gao, "Influence of ammonia nitrogen on treatment of groundwater
containing iron and manganese in aeration-contact oxidation filtration
process" in Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2012. Volumes 170 -
173, page 2414-2418.
 F. Piao, Y. Li and W. Zhang, "Influence on removal iron and manganese
from groundwater with micropollutants in International Conference
Multimedia Technology (ICMT), 2011.
 J. Kaleta, A. Puszkarewicz, and D. Papciak, "Removal of iron,
manganese and nitrogen compounds from underground waters with
diverse physical and chemical characteristics" in Environment
Protection Engineering. 2007. Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 5-13.
 N. Aral, "Aeration and slow sand filtration in small systems" in Journal
of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Environmental Science
and Engineering. 1993. Volume 28, Issue 6, Pages 1249-1260.
 J. Cheng, R. Liu, Y. Li and L. Chen " MF for treatment of iron
contaminated underground water and fouling countermeasures" in
Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, (iCBBE) 2011 5th
International Conference on 2011 Page(s): 1 - 4.
 L. V. Serikov, E. A. Tropina, L. N. Shiyan, F. H. Frimmel, G. Metreveli
and M. Delay, "Iron oxidation in different types of groundwater of
Western Siberia" in Journal of Soils and Sediments 2009. Volume 9,
Issue 2, Pages 103-110.
 R. Munter, P. Overbeck and J. Sutt, "Which is the best oxidant for
complexed iron removal from groundwater: The Kogalym case"
in Ozone: Science and Engineering. 2008. Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages
 S. J. Sim, C. D. Kang, J. W. Lee, and W. S. Kim, "Treatment of highly
polluted groundwater by novel iron removal process" in Journal of
Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances
and Environmental Engineering. 2001. Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 25-38.
 J. K. Piispanen and J. T. Sallanko, "Mn(II) removal from groundwater
with manganese oxide-coated filter media" in Journal of Environmental
Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and
Environmental Engineering. 2010. Volume 45, Issue 13, Pages 1732-
 J. He, K. Yang, M. Dougherty, C. Li, and Y. Wan, "Removal of
manganese from surface water with oxidants in supplement to natural
manganese Sand in Sinopec Shanghai Ltd." in Desalination and Water
Treatment. 2009. Volume 11, Issue 1-3, Pages 245-257.
 S. J. Duranceau, and V. M. Trupiano, "Evaluation of oxidized media
filtration for removing sulfides from groundwater" in Desalination and
Water Treatment. 2011. Volume 28, Issue 1-3, Pages 366-377.
 Y. Tang, J. He, X. Ma, K. You, R. Zhang, W. Wu, J. Fu, and H. Zhao,
"Simultaneous biological removal of iron, manganese and ammonium
nitrogen in simulated groundwater using biological aerated filter" in 4th
International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical
Engineering, iCBBE 2010, Chengdu.
 G. Xue, P. Gao, and Q.-J. Gong, "Removing iron and manganese
simultaneously from groundwater using one-stage biological filter" in
Journal of Donghua University (English Edition). 2009. Volume 26,
Issue 3, Pages 247-251.
 W.W.J.M. De Vet, L. C. Rietveld, S.G.J. Heijman, M.R. De Rooij, and
M.C.M. Van Loosdrecht, "Interaction of iron, manganese and
ammonium removal in biofilters for drinking water production" in
American Water Works Association - AWWA Inorganic Contaminants
Workshop 2008, Albuquerque, Pages 661-673.
 D. Li, J. hang, H. Wang, L. Chen, and H. Wang, "Application of
biological process to treat the groundwater with high concentration of
iron and manganese" in Journal of Water Supply: Research and
Technology - AQUA. 2006. Volume 55, Issue 5, Pages 313-320.
 S.K. Sharma, B. Petrusevski, and J.C. Schippers, "Biological iron
removal from groundwater: A review" in Journal of Water Supply:
Research and Technology - AQUA. 2005. Volume 54, Issue 4, Pages
 K. Olańczuk-Neyman, and R. Bray, "The role of physico-chemical and
biological processes in manganese and ammonia nitrogen removal from
groundwater" in Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2000.
Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 91-96.
 A. Fadel, and H.A. Fadel, "Slow sand filtration: A simple technology for
iron and manganese removal" in American Water Works Association
Annual Conference and Exposition 2010.
 Jr. Robinson and R. Lloyd "How silica affects iron removal from
groundwater" in Water Sewage Works. 1975. Volume 122, Issue 3,
 C. Wen-Hsiang, H. Yung-Hsu, W. Chih-Chao, W. Meng-Wei, M. F.
Cybelle and K. Chi-Chuan, "The on-site feasibility study of iron and
manganese removal from groundwater by hollow-fiber microfiltration"
in Journal of Water Supply: Research and TechnologyÔÇöAQUA. 2011.
Vol 60 No 6 pp 391-401.
 Department of Environmental, Malaysia Interim National Water Quality
Standards for Malaysia. 2008. Malaysia.
 Ministry of Health Malaysia National Standard for Drinking Water
Quality. Second version. 2004. Engineering Services Division, Ministry
of Health, Malaysia.