International Science Index


Nutrient Modelling to Fabricate Dairy Milk Constituents: Let Milk Serve More Than a Food Item


Dietary macro and micro nutrients in their respective proportion and fractions present a practical potential tool to fabricate milk constituents since cells of lactating mammary glands obtain about 80 % of milk synthesis nutrients from blood, reflecting the existence of an isotonic equilibrium between blood and milk. Diverting milk biosynthetic activities through manipulation of nutrients towards producing milk not only keeping in view its significance as natural food but also as food item which prevents or dilutes the adverse effects of some diseases (like cardiovascular problem by saturated milk fat intake) has been area of interest in the last decade. Nutritional modification / supplementation has been reported to enhance conjugated linoleic acid, fatty acid type and concentration, essential fatty acid concentration, vitamin B12& C, Se, Cu, I and Fe which are involved to counter the health threats to human well being. Synchronizing dietary nutrients aimed to modify rumen dynamics towards synthesis of nutrients or their precursors to make their drive towards formulated milk constituents presents a practical option. Formulating dietary constituents to design milk constituents will let the farmers, consumers and investors know about the real potential and profit margins associated with this enterprise. This article briefly recapitulates the ways and means to modify milk constituents keeping an eye on human health and well being issues, which allows milk to serve more than a food item.

[1] Greppi, G. F., A. Ciceri, M. Pasquini, U. Falasch, G. Enne. 1995: Milk yield in dairy goats and blood metabolites.In: Proceedings of IDFSeminar on Production and Utilization of Ewe and Goat Milk, 19-21 October, Greece. 47 p.
[2] Khaled, N.F., J.S. Illek, E.K.Gajd.1999. Interactions between nutrition, blood metabolic profile and milk composition in dairy goats. Acta Vet. Brno, 68: 253-258
[3] Noakes, M., P.J. Nestel and P.M. Clifton.1996. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 42-46.
[4] Palmquist, D. L., D.A. Beaulieu and D.M. Barbano. 1993. Feed and animal factors in milk fat composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1753-1771.
[5] Lin, T. Y.2000. Conjugated linoleic acid concentration asaffected by lactic culturesand additivies. Food Chemistry, 69, 27-31.
[6] Havel, R.J.1997. Milk fat consumption and human health: recent NIH and other American governmental recommendations. In:Welch, R.A.S., Burns, D.J.W., Davis, S.R., Popay, A.I., Prosser, C.G. (Eds.), Milk Composition, Production And Biotechnology. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 13-22.
[7] Ascherio, A., E.B. Rimm, E.L. Giovannucci, D. Spiegelman, M. Stampfer, W.C.Willett.1996. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. Brit. Med. J. 313, 84-90.
[8] Williams, C. M.2000. Dietary fatty acids and human health. Annales de Zootechnie, 49, 165- 180.
[9] Tamminga, S. 2001. Effects of feeds, feed composition and feed strategy on fat content and fatty acid composition in milk. Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 366, 15-24.
[10] Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, M. Doreau.2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109, 828-855.
[11] Elgersma, A., G. Ellen, H. Van Der, B.G. Muuse, H. Boer, S. Tamminga. 2004. Quick changes in milk fat composition after transition from fresh grass to a silage diet and effects on consumer health benefits. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 117, 13-27.
[12] Elgersma, A., S. Tamminga, G. Ellen.2003. Comparison of the effects of grazing and zero-grazing of grass on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. Grassl. Sci. Eur. 8, 271- 274.
[13] Parodi, P. W. 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid and other anticarcinogenic agentsof bovine milk fat. Journal of Dairy Scienc, 82, 1339-1349.
[14] Kritchevsky, D.2000. Antimutagenic and some other effects of conjugated linoleic acid. British Journal of Nutrition, 83, 459-465.
[15] Britton, J. R and A.B.B.J.Kastin.1991. Biologically Active Polypeptides in Milk. 301:00-00. American J. Med. Sci.
[16] Livney, Y. D. 2010. Milk proteins as vehicles for bioactives. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Sci. 15:73-83
[17] Woods, V. B and A. M. Fearon. 2009. Dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids for animals and their transfer into meat, milk and egg: A review. Live. Sci. 126:1-20.
[18] Ashes, J.A., S.K. Gulati, T.W.Scott. 1997. Potential to alter the content and composition of milk fat through nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 80, 2204- 2212.
[19] Bourlieu, B., S Bpouhallab and C. Lopez .2009. Biocatalyzed modification of milk lipids: applications and potentialities. Trends in food Sci. Tech. 20:458-469.
[20] Jenkins, T. C and M. A. McGuire.2006. Major Advances in Nutrition: Impact on Milk Composition. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1302-1310.
[21] Menotti, A. 1999. Diet cholesterol and coronary heart disease: A perspective. Acta Cardiol. 54:169-172.
[22] Cíntia, R.P., I.C. Azara1, C.N. Maia1, M.A.C. Rangel1, F.B. Renata, F.O.Serpa, G. Maria.2008. Ethanol Intake during Lactation Alters Milk Nutrient Composition and Growth and Mineral Status of Rat Pups. Biol Res 41: 317-330
[23] DePeters, E. J., and J. P. Cant. 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: A review. J. Dairy Sci.75:2043- 2070.
[24] Casper, D. P., and D. J. Schingoethe. 1989. Model to describe and alleviate milk protein depression in early lactation cows fed a high fat diet. J. Dairy Sci. 72:3327-3335.
[25] Berner, L. A. 1993. Roundtable discussion on milkfat, dairy foods, and coronary heart disease risk. J. Nutr. 123:1175 -1184.
[26] Weaver, L.T.1997.Significance of bioactive substances in milk to the human neonate. Live. Prod. Sci. 50:139-146
[27] Bargo, F., L.D. Muller, E.S. Kolver, J.E. Delahoy.2003. Production and digestion of supplemented dairy cows on pasture. J. Dairy Sci. 86, 1- 42.
[28] Dewhurst, R.L., W.J. Fisher, J.K.S. Tweed, M.O. Humphreys.2003. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate. J. Dairy Sci. 86, 2598-2611.
[29] Dewhurst, R.L., K.J. Shinfield, M.R.F.Lee, N.D.Scollan. 2006. Increasing the concentrations of beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk produced by dairy cows in high-forage systems.Anim. Feed Sci. Technol.131,168-206.
[30] Fearon, A.M., C.S. Mayne, J.A.M.Beattie, D.W.Bruce. 2004. Effect of level of oil inclusion in the diet of dairy cows at pasture on animal performance and milk composition properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 497-504.
[31] Murphy, J.J., J.F. Connolly, G.P. McNeil. 1995. Effects on cow performance and milk fat composition of feeding full fat soyabeans and rapeseed to dairy cows at pasture. Livest.Prod. Sci. 44, 13-25.