A Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Methods for Determining the Required Amount of Spinning Reserve
Abstract:In an electric power system, spinning reserve
requirements can be determined by using deterministic and/or
probabilistic measures. Although deterministic methods are usual in
many systems, application of probabilistic methods becomes
increasingly important in the new environment of the electric power
utility industry. This is because of the increased uncertainty
associated with competition. In this paper 1) a new probabilistic
method is presented which considers the reliability of transmission
system in a simplified manner and 2) deterministic and probabilistic
methods are compared. The studied methods are applied to the Roy
Billinton Test System (RBTS).
 A. J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation, and
Control, 2nd Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
 R. Billinton and R.N. Allan, Reliability Evaluation of Engineering
Systems - Concepts and Techniques, 2nd Ed. New York: Plenum Press,
 R. Billinton and R.N. Allan, Reliability Evaluation of Power Systems, 2nd
Ed. New York: Plenum Press, 1996.
 R. Billinton and M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, "A reliability framework for
generating unit commitment," Electr. Power Syst. Research, vol. 56, pp.
 M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, R. Billinton and M. E. Khan, "Extending unit
commitment health analysis to include transmission considerations,"
Electr. Power Syst. Research, vol. 50, pp. 35-42, 1999.
 M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad and R. Billinton, "A mathematical framework for
unit commitment and operating reserve assessment in electric power
systems," in Proc. of the 14th Power System Computation Conference on
Power Engineering., Jun. 2002.
 R. Billinton, S. Kumar, N. Chowdhury, K. Chu, K. Debnath, L. Goel, E.
Khan, P. Kos, G. Nourbakhsh and J. Oteng-Adjei, "A Reliability Test
System for Educational Purposes - Basic Data," IEEE Trans. Power
Systems, vol. 4, pp. 1238-1244, Aug. 1989.
 H. Saadat, Power System Analysis, 1st Ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill,