A Game-Based Product Modelling Environment for Non-Engineer
In the last 20 years, Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) has shown its advantages in product development in different engineering areas such as automation, mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering in terms of digital design automation and cost reduction by automating repetitive design tasks through capturing, integrating, utilising and reusing the existing knowledge required in various aspects of the product design. However, in primary design stages, the descriptive information of a product is discrete and unorganized while knowledge is in various forms instead of pure data. Thus, it is crucial to have an integrated product model which can represent the entire product information and its associated knowledge at the beginning of the product design. One of the shortcomings of the existing product models is a lack of required knowledge representation in various aspects of product design and its mapping to an interoperable schema. To overcome the limitation of the existing product model and methodologies, two key factors are considered. First, the product model must have well-defined classes that can represent the entire product information and its associated knowledge. Second, the product model needs to be represented in an interoperable schema to ensure a steady data exchange between different product modelling platforms and CAD software. This paper introduced a method to provide a general product model as a generative representation of a product, which consists of the geometry information and non-geometry information, through a product modelling framework. The proposed method for capturing the knowledge from the designers through a knowledge file provides a simple and efficient way of collecting and transferring knowledge. Further, the knowledge schema provides a clear view and format on the data that needed to be gathered in order to achieve a unified knowledge exchange between different platforms. This study used a game-based platform to make product modelling environment accessible for non-engineers. Further the paper goes on to test use case based on the proposed game-based product modelling environment to validate the effectiveness among non-engineers.
 Y. Haik and T. Shahin, Engineering Design Process - second edition, no. December. 2011.
 C. X. Feng, C. C. Huang, A. Kusiak, and P. G. Li, “Representation of functions and features in detail design,” CAD Computer Aided Design, vol. 28, no. 12. pp. 961–971, 1996, doi: 10.1016/0010-4485(96)00027-9.
 F. P. Tolman, “Product modeling standards for the building and construction industry: past, present and future,” Autom. Constr., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 227–235, 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0926-5805(98)00073-9.
 W. Z. Yang, S. Q. Xie, Q. S. Ai, and Z. D. Zhou, “Recent development on product modelling: a review,” Int. J. Prod. Res., vol. 46, no. 21, pp. 6055–6085, 2008, doi: 10.1080/00207540701343895.
 V. Shapiro, “Solid Modeling,” Handb. Comput. aided Geom. Des., vol. 20, pp. 473–518, 2002, doi: DOI: 10.1016/B978-044451104-1/50021-6.
 I. Stroud, Boundary Representation Modelling Techniques, 1st ed. Springer-Verlag London, 2006.
 Y.-M. Chen and C.-L. Wei, “Computer-aided feature-based design for net shape manufacturing,” Comput. Integr. Manuf. Syst., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 147–164, 1997, doi: 10.1016/S0951-5240(97)00006-2.
 O. W. Salomons, F. J. A. M. van Houten, and H. J. J. Kals, “Review of research in feature-based design,” J. Manuf. Syst., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 113–132, 1993, doi: 10.1016/0278-6125(93)90012-I.
 Michael J. Pratt, “Synthesis of an optimal approach to form feature modelling,” in Proceedings of the 1988 ASME International Computers in Engineering Conference and Exhibition, 1988, vol. 1, pp. 263–274.
 L. Wingård, “Introducing form features in product models: a step towards CADCAM with engineering terminology,” PhD Dissertation, Computer System for Design and Development, 1991.
 W. Van Holland and W. F. Bronsvoort, “Assembly features in modeling and planning,” Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 277–294, 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0736-5845(00)00014-4.
 W. Lawrence, “Using Knowledge-Based Engineering,” Production, p. 74, 1989.
 A. Jurit H., Saia, A. and De Pennington, “Reasoning about machining operations using feature-based models,” Int. J. Prod. Res., vol. 28, pp. 153–171, 1990.
 L. W. Rosenfeld, “Solid modeling and knowledge-based engineering,” in Handbook of solid modeling, McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, USA, 1995, pp. 91–911.
 E. J. Reddy, C. N. V. Sridhar, and V. P. Rangadu, “Knowledge Based Engineering: Notion, Approaches and Future Trends,” Am. J. Intell. Syst., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2015, doi: 10.5923/j.ajis.20150501.01.
 I. O. Sanya and E. M. Shehab, “An ontology framework for developing platform- independent knowledge-based engineering systems in the aerospace industry,” Int. J. Prod. Res., vol. 53, pp. 1–27, 2014, doi: 10.1080/00207543.2014.965352.
 E. M. Shehab and H. S. Abdalla, “Manufacturing cost modelling for concurrent product development,” Robot. Comput. Integr. Manuf., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 341–353, 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0736-5845(01)00009-6.
 I.-S. Fan and P. Bermell-Garcia, “International Standard Development for Knowledge Based Engineering Services for Product Lifecycle Management,” Concurr. Eng., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 271–277, 2008, doi: 10.1177/1063293X08100027.
 M. Cederfeldt, F. Elgh, and I. Rask, “A Transparent Design System for Iterative Product Development,” J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., vol. 6, pp. 300–307, 2006.
 A. B. F. Kc Morris, STEP, the grand experience. Gaithersburg: National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1999.
 S. Suresh, C. Egbu, and B. Kumar, “Key issues for implementing knowledge capture initiatives in small and medium enterprises in the UK construction industry,” no. January, 2006.
 F. A. Salustri, “A formal theory for knowledge-based product model representation,” Manuf. Syst., no. 519, pp. 1–19, 1996.
 S. J. Fenves, “A core product model for representing design information,” Tech. Rep. No. NISTIR 6736, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 2001,
[Online]. Available: http://www.mel.nist.gov/msidlibrary/doc/ir6736.pdf.
 F. Wang et al., “Towards modeling the evolution of product families,” ASME Comput. Inf. Eng. Conf., 2003.
 K. W. L. Mehmet Murat Baysal, Utpal Roy, Rachuri Sudarasan, Ram D. Sriram, “Product information exchange using Open assembly model: issues related to representation of geometric information,” 2005.
 Z. Lou, H. Jiang, and X. Ruan, “Development of an integrated knowledge-based system for mold-base design,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., vol. 150, no. 1–2, pp. 194–199, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.01.037.
 G. La Rocca, L. Krakers, and M. J. L. van Tooren, “Development of an ICAD Generative Model for Blended Wing Body Aircraft Design,” in 9th AIAA/ISSMO Symposium on Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization, 4-6 September 2002, Atlanta, Georgia, 2002, no. September, pp. 1–10, doi: 10.2514/6.2002-5447.
 J. Groß and S. Rudolph, “Generating simulation models from UML - A FireSat example,” in Proceedings of the 2012 Symposium on Theory of Modeling and Simulation - DEVS Integrative M&S Symposium, 2012, pp. 1–8.
 J. Gross, A. Reichwein, S. Rudolph, D. Bock, and R. Laufer, “An Executable Unified Product Model Based on UML to Support Satellite Design,” in Proceedings of the AIAA SPACE Conference, 2009, no. September, doi: 10.2514/6.2009-6642.
 Unity Technologies, “Unity User Manual,” Unity Documentation, 2020. https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/index.html (accessed Jun. 18, 2020).