Computational Approaches for Ballistic Impact Response of Stainless Steel 304
This paper presents a numerical study on determination of ballistic limit velocity (V50) of stainless steel 304 (SS 304) used in manufacturing security screens. The simulated ballistic impact tests were conducted on clamped sheets with different thicknesses using ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear finite element (FE) package. The ballistic limit velocity was determined using three approaches, namely: numerical tests based on material properties, FE calculated residual velocities and FE calculated residual energies. Johnson-Cook plasticity and failure criterion were utilized to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the SS 304 under various strain rates, while the well-known Lambert-Jonas equation was used for the data regression for the residual velocity and energy model. Good agreement between the investigated numerical methods was achieved. Additionally, the dependence of the ballistic limit velocity on the sheet thickness was observed. The proposed approaches present viable and cost-effective assessment methods of the ballistic performance of SS 304, which will support the development of robust security screen systems.
 Silva,C. et al., Austenitic and ferritic stainless steel dissimilar weld metal evaluation for the applications as-coating in the petroleum processing equipment. Materials & Design,2013.47:p.1-8.
 Grujicic, M., et al., Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process for Maximum Ballistic Limit in MIL A46100 Steel Welded All-Metal Armor. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 2015. 24(1): p. 229-244.
 Leigh Phoenix, A new membrane model for the ballistic impact response and V50 performance of multi-ply fibrous systems. International Journal of Solids and Structures,2003.40(24):p. 6723-6765.
 G. Ben-Dor, A. Dubinsky, and T. Elperin, On the Lambert–Jonas approximation for ballistic impact. Mechanics Research Communications, 2002. 29: p. 137-139.
 Recht, R.F, Ballistic Perforation Dynamics. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1963. 30(3): p. 384-390.
 Lambert JP and J. GH., Towards standardization of in-terminal ballistic testing velocity representation, in Report No. BRL-R-1852. Aberdeen, , M.B.R. Laboratory, Editor. 1976.
 Johnson, G.R. and W.H. Cook, Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to various strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 1985. 21(1): p. 31-48.
 Frontán, J., et al., Ballistic performance of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned ultrafine crystal steel. Acta Materialia, 2012. 60(3): p. 1353-1367.
 Systèmes, D., ABAQUS. 2016.