Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method
In this study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50 and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at 400 °C, resulting in three different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10% and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 400 °C temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.
 The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Reports. “Petroleum Prices”, http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet. Date of last access: 02.01.2015.
 B. B. Uzun, N. Sarıoğlu, “Rapid and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Corn Stalks”, Fuel Processing Technology, 2009, 90 (5), 705-716.
 M.R. Ünal, “Kayısı Araştırma Raporu”, Fırat Development Agency, 2010, 63 s.
 Türkiye Ziraat Odaları Birliği. “Recent News”, http://www.tzob.org.tr/Bas%C4%B1n-Odas%C4%B1/Ha berler/ArticleID/958/ArtMID/470. Date of last access: 10.01.2015.
 Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. “Bitkisel Üretim İstatistikleri”, http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1001. Date of last access: 16.07.2017.
 Orman Genel Müdürlüğü. “Orman biyokütlesinden yakıt ve enerji üretimi”, http://uludaglarenerji.com.tr/img/PeletveElektrikUretimi.pdf. Date of last access: 20.07.2017.
 N. Saraçoğlu, “Orman Hasılat Bilgisi”, Bartın: Bartın Orman Fakültesi Yayınları. 2002.
 D. Chen, L. Yin, H. Wang, P. He, "Reprint of: Pyrolysis Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste: A Review." Waste Management, 2015, 34 (12), 2466-2486.
 Avello Bioenergy. “Bioenergy Products”, http://www.avellobioenergy.com/en/products/. Date of last access: 08.06.2017.
 G.D. Airey, H. M. Musarrat “Rheological Properties of Polyacrylates Used as Synthetic Road Binders”, Rheological Acta, 2008, 47, 751-763.
 E.H. Fini, I. L. Al-Qadi, Z. You, B. Zada, J.M. Beale, ‘’Partial Replacement of Asphalt Binder with Bio-Binder: Characterisation and Modification’’, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 2012, 13(6), 515-522.
 C.P. Tan, C.Y.B. Man, “Comparative Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis of Vegetable Oils: I. Effects of Heating Rate Variation”, Phytochemical Analysis, 2002, 13 (3), 129–141.
 D.L. Kaplan, “Biopolymers from Renewable Resources”, Springer, Berlin, 1998, pp. 1-3.
 R.C. Walters, E.H. Fini, T. Abu-Lebdeh, “Enhancing Asphalt Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Bio-Char and Nano-Clay”, American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2014, 7 (1), 66-76.
 S.W. Bishara, R.E, Robertson, , D. Mohoney, “Lignin as an Antioxidant: A Limited Study on Asphalts Frequency Used on Kansas Roads”, 2005, 42nd Annual Peterson Asphalt Research Conference.
 T. Dizhbite, G. Telysheva, V. Jurkjane, U. Viesturs, “Characterization of the Radical Scavenging Activity of Lignins-Natural Antioxidants”, Bioresource Technology, 2004, 95, 309–317.
 C. Ouyang, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, “Improving the Aging Resistance of Asphalt by Addition of Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate”, Fuel, 85, 2006, 1060–1066.
 S. Zhao, B. Huang, X.P. Ye, S. Xiang, X. Jia, “Utilizing Bio-Char as a Bio-Modifier for Asphalt Cement: A Sustainable Application of Bio-Fuel by-Product’’, Fuel, 2014, 133, 52-62.
 S. Zhao, B. Huang, Y. Philip, “Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Cement and Mixture Modified by Bio-Char Produced Through Fast Pyrolysis”, Pavement Materials, Structures, and Performance, 2014, 140-149.
 M. Bostancıoğlu, “Bitkisel Atıklardan Elde Elde Edilen Kimyasal Ürünler İle Bitümlü Sıcak Karışımların Mekanik Özelliklerinin Geliştirilmesi”, Doktora Tezi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2012, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi, Trabzon.
 J. Read and D. Whiteoak, The Shell Bitumen Handbook, Thomas Telford Ltd, Londan, 2003.
 J.P. Zaniewski, M.E. Pumphrey, “Evaluation of Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Equipment and Testing Protocol”, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 2004, 109p.