Factory Virtual Environment Development for Augmented and Virtual Reality
Machine visualization is an area of interest with fast
and progressive development. We present a method of machine
visualization which will be applicable in real industrial conditions
according to current needs and demands. Real factory data were
obtained in a newly built research plant. Methods described in this
paper were validated on a case study. Input data were processed and
the virtual environment was created. The environment contains
information about dimensions, structure, disposition, and function.
Hardware was enhanced by modular machines, prototypes, and
accessories. We added functionalities and machines into the virtual
environment. The user is able to interact with objects such as testing
and cutting machines, he/she can operate and move them. Proposed
design consists of an environment with two degrees of freedom of
movement. Users are in touch with items in the virtual world which
are embedded into the real surroundings. This paper describes development of the virtual environment. We
compared and tested various options of factory layout virtualization
and visualization. We analyzed possibilities of using a 3D scanner in
the layout obtaining process and we also analyzed various virtual
reality hardware visualization methods such as: Stereoscopic (CAVE)
projection, Head Mounted Display (HMD) and augmented reality
(AR) projection provided by see-through glasses.
 E. Hoffman, Laser-scanning technology improves plant quality, safety
and training. Hydrocarbon Processing, 2008, vol. 87, issue 12, pp. 43-
 S. Wan, J. Lu, H. Zhang, The Application of Augmented Reality
Technologies for Factor Layout, International Conference on Audio,
Language and Image Processing ICALIP, 2010, pp. 873-876.
 B.K. Min, Z. Huang, Z. J. Pasek, D. Yip-hoi, F. Husted, S. Marker,
Integration of real-time control simulation to a virtual manufacturing
environment, Journal of advanced manufacturing systems, Vol. 1, No. 1,
2002, pp. 67-87.
 S. Borsci, G. Lawson, S. Broome, Empirical evidence, evaluation
criteria and challenges for the effectiveness of virtual and mixed reality
tools for training operators of car service maintenance, Computers in
Industry, 67, 2015, pp. 17-26.
 O. Bimper, R. Ramesh, Spatial Augmented Reality, A K Peters ltd.,
2005, pp. 151.
 H. Hua, L.D. Brown, R. Zhang, Head-Mounted Projection Display
Technology and Applications, Handbook of Augmented Reality,
Springer, 2011, pp. 147-148.
 Z. Tuma, J. Tuma, R. Knoflicek, P. Blecha, F. Bradac, The process
simulation using by virtual reality, Procedia Engineering, 69, 2014, pp.
 Y. Nam, Designing interactive narratives for mobile augmented reality,
Cluster Computing, 18 (1), 2015, pp. 309-320.
 A. Cirulis, K. B. Brigmanis, 3D outdoor augmented reality for
architecture and urban planning, Procedia Computer Science, 25, 2013,
 A. L. Gorbulov, Stereoscopic augmented reality in visual interface for
flight control, Aerospace Science and Technology, 38, 2014, pp. 116-
 M. J. Chae, J. R. Kim, J. H. Jang, H. S. Yoo, M. Y. Cho, D. S. Jang, 3D
imaging system for the intelligent excavation system (IES, ISARC 2008
- Proceedings from the 25th International Symposium on Automation
and Robotics in Construction,2008, pp. 286-291.
 Ch. Koch, M. Neges, M. König, M. Abramovici, Natural markers for
augmented reality-based indoor navigation and facility maintenance,
Automation in Construction, Volume 48, 2014, pp. 18-30.
 N. Steyn, Y. Hamam, E. Monacelli, K. Djouani, Modelling and design
of an augmented reality differential drive mobility aid in an enabled environment, Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, 51, 2014, pp.